nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2018‒04‒02
twenty-two papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  2. Family Background, School Choice, and Students’ Academic Performance: Evidence from Sri Lanka By Harsha Aturupane; Tomokazu Nomura; Mari Shojo
  3. Does increasing compulsory education decrease or displace adolescent crime? New evidence from administrative and victimization datail By Ylenia Brilli; Marco Tonello
  4. Emotional Intelligence and Job Performance of Accounting Students Undertaking Internships By Arif Lukman Santoso
  5. Early smoking, education, and labor market performance By Palali, Ali
  6. Promoting Educational Opportunities: Long-run Implications of Affirmative Action in College Admissions By Joao Ramos; Bernard Herskovic
  7. Integrating Community, Creativity, and Literacy to Support Refugees Transitioning to Our Schools and Community By Kara Kavanagh; Holly McCartney
  8. Increasing Student Improvement: Giving autonomy to students of International College at Rajamangala University of Technology Krungthep in Thailand the complete Peer Teaching Method to their peers in c By Komm Pechinthorn
  9. Inter-Ethnic Friendship and Hostility between Roma and Non-Roma Students in Hungary - The Role of Exposure and Academic Achievement By Tamas Hajdu; Gabor Kertesi; Gabor Kezdi
  10. Exploring the Role of Customer Relations Management in enhancing service delivery between Support Staff and Students in a selected Higher Education Institution By Sharon Mashau; Nico Schutte
  11. L'università conviene? Un'analisi dei costi, dei rendimenti e dei rischi dell'investimento in istruzione universitaria nel sistema del 3+2 By Giovanni Abbiati; Giulia Assirelli; Davide Azzolini; Carlo Barone
  12. Perceived Wages and the Gender Gap in STEM Fields By Osikominu, Aderonke; Pfeifer, Gregor
  13. The Effects of Computers and Acquired Skills on Earnings, Employment and College Enrollment: Evidence from a Fields Experiment and California UI Earnings Records By Robert W. Fairlie; Peter Riley Bahr
  14. Specializing in growing sectors: Wage returns and gender differences By Graves, Jennifer.; Kuehn, Zoë.
  16. The Impact of Healthy Harlem on Student Fitness Outcomes after Two and Three Years By Martha Bleeker; James Mabli; Mary Kay Fox; Betina Jean-Louis; Marlene Fox
  17. The Impact of Healthy Harlem on the Body Mass Index and Weight Status of Adolescents after Two and Three Years By Martha Bleeker; James Mabli; Mary Kay Fox; Betina Jean-Louis; Marlene Fox
  18. Accounting for Tuition Increases at U.S. Colleges By Aaron Hedlund; Grey Gordon
  19. Early Childcare and Child Non-Cognitive Outcomes By Daniela Del Boca; Enrica Maria Martino; Chiara Pronzato
  20. From numbers to practice - identification and analysis of the indicators related to the quality of the didactic process in the primary education in Macedonia By Ana Mickovska-Raleva; Ana Tomovska-Misoska; Olimpija Hristovska-Zaeva; Suzana Cerepnalkovska; Vesna Kostik Ivanovik
  21. The Influence of Good University Governance on Human Capital By Noorina Hartati
  22. Upward Income Mobility and Legislator Support for Education Policies By Bellani, Luna; Fabella, Vigile Marie

    Abstract: Authentic pedagogy is a broad term that describes an active learning perspective with a focus on the construction of meaning and intellectual quality in the learning process. Although most of the work associated with authentic pedagogical approaches have been done in conjunction with elementary and secondary school reform, there is little research on the use of authentic pedagogical models of instruction in higher education, and even less research on models of authentic assessment. This presentation will report on a study which examined the effect of authentic assessment on measures of academic performance, higher order thinking, and perceptions of authenticity in online undergraduate psychology courses. The presentation will discuss issues related to implementation of authentic assessment approaches in online course delivery and impact of this pedagogical model on learning outcomes in higher education.
    Keywords: Authentic Assessment, Higher Education, Online
    JEL: I20 I29
    Date: 2017–10
  2. By: Harsha Aturupane (The World Bank); Tomokazu Nomura (Aichi Gakuin University and Kobe University); Mari Shojo (The World Bank)
    Abstract: Sri Lanka has made great strides in increasing access to schooling. The country stands out as the only country in South Asia that has attained universal primary completion. Despite this past progress, Sri Lankan students still display weak performance. The key challenge now is to enhance the quality of education and improve student academic performance. This paper investigates how the student- and school-level factors are related to the academic performance of Sri Lankan grade 8 students in public schools. It also analyzes the factors related to school choice and how the school choice affects the students’ performance. The results of the study suggest that there are large dispersion of average test score among the schools. Looking at the school type, Type 1AB schools outperforms the other types of schools. Students who come from a family with high socioeconomic status are more likely to attend Type 1AB school, and treatment effect of attending Type 1AB school on academic performance is considerably large. Socioeconomic status also explains a significant part of dispersion of academic performance within a school. However, the result does not clearly show the relation between the observable characteristics of the teachers and academic performance of the students.
    Keywords: education, academic performance, school choice, socioeconomic status
    JEL: I25 O15
    Date: 2018–03
  3. By: Ylenia Brilli; Marco Tonello
    Abstract: This paper estimates the contemporaneous effect of education on adolescent crime by exploiting the implementation a reform that increases the school leaving age in Italy by one year. We find that the Reform increases the enrollment rate of all ages, but decreases the offending rate of 14-year-olds only, who are the age group explicitly targeted by the Reform. The effect mainly comes from natives males, while females and immigrants are not affected. The Reform does not induce crime displacement in times of the year or of the day when the school is not in session, but it increases violent crimes at school. By using measures of enrollment and crime, as well as data at the aggregate and individual level, this paper shows that compulsory education reforms have a crime reducing effect induced by incapacitation, but may also lead to an increase of crimes in school facilities plausibly due to a higher concentration of students.
    Keywords: adolescent crime; school enrollment; crime displacement; incapacitation
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Arif Lukman Santoso (Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective – This paper investigates the influence of emotional intelligence on job performance among accounting students undertaking Student Internships. Methodology/Technique – This study adopts a quantitative research approach, using questionnaires to collect data. The study examines accounting students at Sebelas Maret University. The sample consists of 201 participants who were selected using a purposive method, from the final year students studying Accounting (Undergraduate and Diploma Programs) at Sebelas Maret University. Regression analysis is used to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance in accounting students. Findings – The results show that emotional intelligence has a positive influence on job performance among students undertaking internships. Further analysis suggests that the ability to motivate oneself and build meaningful relationships are the most important variables in explaining the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance of students undertaking internships. Novelty – This research contributes to emotional intelligence literature by providing meaningful management implications to the university administrators in the Indonesian higher education system.
    Keywords: Emotional Intelligence; Job Performance; Internship Activity; Accounting Students; Management.
    JEL: M10 M12 M41
    Date: 2018–02–27
  5. By: Palali, Ali (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Abstract: This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance by using mixed ordered and mixed proportional hazard models. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The probability to finish a scientific degree is 4%-point lower for an early smoker. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market performance is indirect through educational attainment. Once the indirect effect is controlled for there is no direct effect. Moreover, for males only, early smoking has a negative effect on current labor market performance even after conditioning on educational attainment. The probability to have an academic job is 4%-point lower for an early smoker. For females neither education nor labor market performance is affected by early smoking.
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Joao Ramos (University of Southern California); Bernard Herskovic (UCLA Anderson School of Management)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the implications of affirmative action in college admissions for welfare, aggregate output, educational investment decisions and intergenerational persistence of earnings. We construct an overlapping-generations model in which parents choose how much to invest in their child's education, thereby increasing both human capital and likelihood of college admission. Affirmative action improves the pool of admitted students, although it changes incentives towards educational investments. We calibrate the model to quantify affirmative action long-run effects. We find that affirmative action targeting the bottom quintile of the income distribution is a powerful policy to reduce intergenerational persistence of earnings and improve welfare and aggregate output.
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Kara Kavanagh (James Madison University); Holly McCartney (James Madison University)
    Abstract: In summer of 2016, members of the Harrisonburg,VA (USA) refugee community, Harrisonburg City Schools, James Madison University?s Department of Early, Elementary, and Reading Education, and Church World Service Refugee Resettlement Agency, implemented a three week summer program for refugee children and parents that integrated literacy, creativity, and community-based field trips. College pre-service teachers earned 6 graduate credits for organizing, implementing, and facilitating integrated lessons, morning meetings, rituals, and routines to help ease the transition of newly arrived children ages 4-9 into our community and schools. This presentation will provide an overview of how this program started and illuminate the challenges and opportunities of sustaining a partnership between universities, local schools, community agencies, and leaders in the refugee community who wish to support and advocate for refugees in their community. Findings from our empirical investigation into the pilot CARE (Creativity and Reading Education) program will be discussed. Initial findings from the second implementation of this program (Summer 2017) will also be shared.
    Keywords: refugee education, integrated teaching, parental engagement, community-based teaching, literacy, creativity
    Date: 2017–10
  8. By: Komm Pechinthorn (Rajamangala University of Technology Krungthep)
    Abstract: This research assessed the students? improvement of their learning outcomes toward business subjects, specifically in the class of Production & Operation Management, after having peer teaching method by group with complete autonomy. The before and After period of study was implemented in order to compare the expected improvement between the selected groups of students who are assigned to participate in complete peer teaching activity as a group in front of class. To challenge all levels of students in this project, six to seven students are randomly selected into groups in their 3rd year with different rank of GPAs from highest to lowest at International College of Rajamangala University of Technology Krungthep (ICUTK) in Thailand. They are assigned to read the chapter and prepared the presentation to educate their classes in each chapters by using the peer teaching method. Questionnaires were given to 46 students in order to collect useful data. The results indicated the positiveness toward the introduction and implementation of the peer teaching method and showed many improvements in different areas within the semester.
    Keywords: Peer teaching; Students' improvement; Thailand
    JEL: A22
    Date: 2017–10
  9. By: Tamas Hajdu (Institute of Economics, Center for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences); Gabor Kertesi (Institute of Economics, Center for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences); Gabor Kezdi (Survey Research Center, University of Michigan and senior research fellow Institute of Economics, Center for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences)
    Abstract: This study examines friendship and hostility relations between Roma students and the ethnically homogeneous non-Roma majority in Hungarian schools. Using data on friendship and hostility relations of 15-year-old students from 82 schools the study focuses on the interaction between exposure to the other ethnic group and academic achievement of Roma students. High-achieving Roma students are shown to have significantly more friends and fewer adversaries than low-achieving ones, due to better inter-ethnic relations while having similar within-ethnic group relations. As a result, higher exposure to Roma students translates to more friendship and less hostility from non-Roma students in environments where more of the Roma students have higher achievement. Therefore, policies helping the achievement of Roma students can have immediate as well as long-term positive effects. Simulations suggest that a mixed policy of desegregation and closing the achievement gap may best foster positive interethnic relations. The results also support that exposure is more likely to improve intergroup contact if status is more equal.
    Keywords: Social interactions, Minority students, Achievement gap
    JEL: J15 I24
    Date: 2017–11
  10. By: Sharon Mashau (Southern Business School); Nico Schutte (GIFT Talent Research Niche Area North-West University)
    Abstract: The main objective of this research was to determine the role of customer relationship management in enhancing the service delivery between support staff and students in a selected higher education institution. A qualitative research approach was followed with semi-structured interviews done with students and support staff from a selected South African higher education institution (N=8). The participants in the study felt that the current level of service delivery by the institution does not necessarily exceed their expectations. The findings further showed that higher education institutions should determine the needs of students and provide the best service possible to keep them satisfied. Recommendations are made.
    Keywords: Academics, Customer Relationship Management, Higher Education, Service Delivery, Students
    JEL: J24
    Date: 2017–10
  11. By: Giovanni Abbiati; Giulia Assirelli; Davide Azzolini; Carlo Barone
    Abstract: Literature on the profitability of tertiary studies usually agrees that university graduates enjoy better occupational premia when compared to secondary school graduates. Yet, these studies often base their claims on simple mean comparisons of wages and employment opportunities between tertiary and secondary graduates, disregarding important factors, such as dropout risks, opportunity costs and field-of-study heterogeneity. This study tackles these issues by estimating short and long-term returns of the university investment in Italy. Our proposed approach to compute returns to tertiary education emphasizes three key aspects that are often neglected in previous studies: i) drop-out and delayed-graduation, ii) age-earnings profiles, iii) gender, social-origin and residential heterogeneity in returns. Relying on several nationally representative data sources, we show that in Italy the profitability of university studies is low on average, mainly because of the modest wave gaps between young secondary and tertiary graduates. According to our simulations, the economic convenience of university studies arises only in the long run, when the entry opportunity costs are counterbalanced by the higher wages. For the Humanities this does not happen even in late career stages.
    Keywords: Returns to education, University drop-out, Graduation delay, Age-earning profiles
    Date: 2018–03
  12. By: Osikominu, Aderonke (University of Hohenheim); Pfeifer, Gregor (University of Hohenheim)
    Abstract: We estimate gender differences in elicited wage expectations among German University students applying for STEM and non-STEM fields. Descriptively, women expect to earn less than men and also have lower expectations about wages of average graduates across different fields. Using a two-step estimation procedure accounting for self-selection, we find that the gender gap in own expected wages can be explained to the extent of 54-69% by wage expectations for average graduates across different fields. However, gender differences in the wage expectations for average graduates across different fields do not contribute to explaining the gender gap in the choice of STEM majors.
    Keywords: gender gap, wage expectations, college major choice, STEM
    JEL: I21 J16 J31
    Date: 2018–02
  13. By: Robert W. Fairlie; Peter Riley Bahr
    Abstract: This paper provides the first evidence on the earnings, employment and college enrollment effects of computers and acquired skills from a randomized controlled trial providing computers to entering college students. We matched confidential administrative data from California Employment Development Department (EDD)/Unemployment Insurance (UI) system earnings records, the California Community College system, and the National Student Clearinghouse to all study participants for seven years after the random provision of computers. The experiment does not provide evidence that computer skills have short- or medium-run effects on earnings. These null effects are found along both the extensive and intensive margins of earnings (although the estimates are not precise). We also do not find evidence of positive or negative effects on college enrollment. A non-experimental analysis of CPS data reveals large, positive and statistically significant relationships between home computers, and earnings, employment and college enrollment, raising concerns about selection bias in non-experimental studies.
    Keywords: computer skills, earnings, employment, college enrollment, experiment
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2018
  14. By: Graves, Jennifer. (Departamento de Economía y Hacienda Pública. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.); Kuehn, Zoë. (Departamento de Análisis Económico (Teoría e Historia Económica). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.)
    Abstract: We test whether specializing in a field of study when related sectors are growing matters for future labor market outcomes. For eight high-income OECD countries we match data on individuals' specialization decisions in higher education from PIAAC (Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies) with national statistics on value added of related economic sectors. We find that individuals who chose fields of studies when related sectors were growing earn higher wages later in life. We also find that men are less likely to specialize in growing sectors. However, this is entirely driven by the fact that men avoid specializing in traditionally female fields, whose related sectors have grown more over recent decades (e.g. health, education). Only for men who obtained at least a Bachelor's degree can this avoidance be explained by lower wages. Men who obtained a vocational degree in growing female fields earn similar wages later in life as those specializing in shrinking male fields. We present suggestive evidence that gendered specialization decisions, paired with growth in traditionally female sectors could have contributed to narrowing gender wage gaps in recent decades
    Keywords: higher education, specialization, sectors, labor market, gender, PIAAC
    JEL: I21 I23 J16 J24 O57
    Date: 2018–01
  15. By: Diogo Lourenço (Faculty of Economics, University of Porto); Carla Sá (School of Economics and Management, University of Minho); Orlanda Tavares (Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education)
    Abstract: We examine the impact of spatial mobility on enrolments in higher education. Candidates are grouped per their willingness to move and the district of placement. Findings point to a sizeable group who are voluntarily mobile or immobile. About 20% of students, however, were not placed in their first choice of destination. Using a logit model, estimation shows that candidates pushed away face a probability of enrolment about 17 percentage points lower than that of those who voluntarily stay in their home district. The availability of private sector alternatives in the home district has a role in the enrolment likelihood.
    Keywords: Student Mobility; Enrolments; Involuntary Mobility
    JEL: I23 R23
    Date: 2017–09
  16. By: Martha Bleeker; James Mabli; Mary Kay Fox; Betina Jean-Louis; Marlene Fox
    Abstract: This issue brief focuses on fitness outcomes of overweight and obese middle and high school students who received both the Prevention and Get Fit components of Healthy Harlem, after two and three years.
    Keywords: Healthy Harlem, physical fitness, childhood obesity, nutrition, afterschool program, Harlem Children's Zone, student health
    JEL: I0 I1 I
  17. By: Martha Bleeker; James Mabli; Mary Kay Fox; Betina Jean-Louis; Marlene Fox
    Abstract: This issue brief focuses on body mass index (BMI)-based outcomes of overweight and obese middle and high school students who received both the Prevention and Get Fit components of Healthy Harlem, after two and three years.
    Keywords: Healthy Harlem, BMI, body mass index, childhood obesity, nutrition, obese, overweight, afterschool program, Harlem Children’s zone, student health
    JEL: I0 I1 I
  18. By: Aaron Hedlund (University of Missouri); Grey Gordon (Indiana University)
    Abstract: We develop a quantitative model of higher education to test explanations for the steep rise in college tuition between 1987 and 2010. The framework extends the paradigm in Epple, Romano, Sarpca, and Sieg (2013) of imperfectly competitive, quality-maximizing colleges and embeds it in an incomplete markets, life-cycle environment. We measure how much changes in college costs, reforms to the Federal Student Loan Program (FSLP), and the returns to college have contributed to tuition inflation. Taken together, the changes can fully explain the tuition increases seen at U.S. colleges. Our findings suggest that the FSLP and college costs are the main drivers of college tuition.
    Date: 2017
  19. By: Daniela Del Boca; Enrica Maria Martino; Chiara Pronzato
    Abstract: In this study, we analyze the impact of attendance of formal early childcare on a number of non- cognitive child outcomes, conditional on several socio-demographic characteristics of the household and the child. While several studies have explored the determinants of cognitive outcomes, in our analysis we focus on non-cognitive skills that were found to be important determinants of cognitive skills and of later life outcomes. Using a newly available data-set for Northern Italy on child care and child outcomes1, we consider the impact of attendance of formal childcare on non-cognitive outcomes, such as attitudes to schooling and social behavior, identified among children born in 2006 at the end of the first year of primary school. Using innovative empirical strategies to deal with endogeneity and imperfect measurement of non-cognitive outcomes, we show that attending an infant toddler center significantly improves school readiness and social interactions a few years later. Coherently with previous literature, these results are more significant for boys and for children of lower educated mothers.
    Keywords: non-cognitive ability, child development, childcare.
    Date: 2017
  20. By: Ana Mickovska-Raleva; Ana Tomovska-Misoska; Olimpija Hristovska-Zaeva; Suzana Cerepnalkovska; Vesna Kostik Ivanovik
    Date: 2017–09
  21. By: Noorina Hartati (Universitas Terbuka, Cabe Raya Street, Pondok Cabe, Pamulang, 15418, South Tangerang, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Rini Dwiyani Hadiwidjaja Author-2-Workplace-Name: Universitas Terbuka, Cabe Raya Street, Pondok Cabe, Pamulang, 15418, South Tangerang, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Ali Muktiyanto Author-3-Workplace-Name: Universitas Terbuka, Cabe Raya Street, Pondok Cabe, Pamulang, 15418, South Tangerang, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective – This paper examines the influence of Good University Governance ('GUG') on Human Capital ('HC') and Quality, as well as the influence of CUG on HC through the use of Quality . Methodology/Technique – This research uses an explanatory survey design. The data was collected by visiting state and private universities in Indonesia that offer an S1 Accounting Study Program. Twenty cities were covered and responses to 70 questionnaires were processed. The influence of GUG on HC was analysed using a Structural Equation Model (SEM). Findings – The study found that GUG has a significant positive effect on Quality and GUG has a significant positive effect on HC. However, the influence of Quality on HC and the indirect influence of GUG on HC through Quality were negatively significant. Overall, the total influence of GUG on HC was positively significant. Novelty – This study suggests that GUG improves HC and the Quality of services in Indonesian universities. However, improved quality of HC seems to lead to a deterioration in the quality of university services. Further, quality of services fails to mediate the influence of GUG on HC.
    Keywords: Good University Governance; Human Capital; Quality; S1 Accounting Study Program; Universities; Indonesia.
    JEL: O15 I23 J24
    Date: 2018–03–05
  22. By: Bellani, Luna (University of Konstanz); Fabella, Vigile Marie (University of Konstanz)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how upward mobility affects legislator voting behavior towards education policies. We develop an electoral competition model where voters are altruistic parents and politicians are office seeking. In this setting the future economic status of the children is affected both by current public education spending and by the level of upward mobility. Using a newly compiled dataset of roll call voting on California education legislation matched with electoral district-level upward mobility we find that the likelihood of a legislator voting "no" on redistributive education bills decreases by 10 percentage points when upward mobility in his electoral district decreases by a standard deviation.
    Keywords: upward income mobility, education policies, legislator voting behavior, roll call votes, California
    JEL: I24 D72 H4
    Date: 2018–02

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