nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2018‒03‒26
48 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Flipped Classroom Methodology for Hybrid Learning in the Higher Education Context: Students' Satisfaction and Performance By Sousa Santos, Susana; Peset Gonzalez, Maria Jose; Muñoz Sepúlveda, Jesús A.
  2. Targeted Funding, Immigrant Background, and Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Helsinki's “Positive Discrimination†Policy By Silliman, Mikko
  3. International students? transition from pathway program to mainstream university: Insights and challenges By Louise Kaktins
  4. Frequency of testing. Lessons from a field experiment in higher education. By Cid, Alejandro; Cabrera, José María; Bernatzky, Marianne
  5. Parents’ aspirations and commitment with education. Lessons from a randomized control trial in a shantytown By Cid, Alejandro; Bernatzky, Marianne
  6. Sorting, School Performance and Quality: Evidence from China By Song, Yang
  7. Frequency of testing. Lessons from a field experiment in higher education. By Cid, Alejandro; Cabrera, José María; Bernatzky, Marianne
  8. A Legal Lethal Education By Perry Spann
  9. Increased Compulsory School Leaving Age Affects Secondary School Track Choice and Increases Dropout Rates in Vocational Training Schools By Anna Adamecz-Volgyi
  10. Learning outside the factory: the impact of technological change on the rise of adult education in nineteenth-century France. By Claude Diebolt; Charlotte Le Chapelain; Audrey Rose Menard
  11. EffectEffective use of educational platform ((Edmodo)) for students of mathematics and Computer specialty in t By Yousef Alanezi
  12. Degrees of Poverty: The Relationship between Family Income Background and the Returns to Education By Timothy J. Bartik; Brad J. Hershbein
  13. Is there an immigrant-gender gap in education? An empirical investigation based on PISA data from Italy By Tindara Addabbo; Maddalena Davoli; Marina Murat
  14. Assessing the effect of school days and absences on test score performance By Aucejo, Esteban M.; Romano, Teresa Foy
  15. Educating to Dialogue: connecting an argumentative approach to Mediation and Educational Transactional Analysis. Some tranSkills signposts for promoting inclusive and participative societies. By Federico Reggio; Marina Sartor Hoffer
  16. The evolution of the gender test score gap through seventh grade: New insights from Australia using unconditional quantile regression and decomposition By Le, Huong; Nguyen, Ha
  17. Folk High School as an Educational Alternative for Older Adults By Felska, Angelika
  18. The intergenerational effects of parental higher education: Evidence from changes in university accessibility By Suhonen, Tuomo; Karhunen, Hannu
  19. (Un)Obvious Education, or Complexities of the Polish Education Aimed at Older People By Kamińska, Krystyna
  20. Determinants of students’ loyalty to university: A service-based approach By Ali, Mazhar; Ahmed, Masood
  21. Education is Forbidden: The Effect of the Boko Haram Conflict on Education in North-East Nigeria By Eleonora Bertoni; Michele Di Maio; Vasco Molini; Roberto Nisticò
  23. The Flip Side: A case study examining how the refined flipped classroom enhances BAME student performance By Charles Wild
  24. Higher Education in an Evolving Economy By Harker, Patrick T.
  25. Do Dutch dentists extract monopoly rents? By Ketel, Nadine; Leuven, Edwin; Oosterbeek, Hessel; van der Klaauw, Bas
  26. Perceived wages and the gender gap in STEM fields By Osikominu, Aderonke; Pfeifer, Gregor
  27. Do Preferences and Biases Predict Life Outcomes? Evidence from Education and Labor Market Entry Decisions By Uschi Backes-Gellner; Holger Herz; Michael Kosfeld; Yvonne Oswald
  28. Intergenerational Education for Social Inclusion and Solidarity: The Case Study of the EU Funded Project “Connecting Generations” By Del Gobbo, Giovanna; Galeotti, Glenda; Esposito, Gilda
  29. Un enfoque de modelos mixtos de clases latentes para analizar la trayectoria nutricional y el desempeño escolar de niños y niñas By Alejandra Marroig
  30. Overeducation Wage Penalty among Ph.D. Holders: An Unconditional Quantile Regression Analysis on Italian Data By Gaeta, Giuseppe Lucio; Lubrano Lavadera, Giuseppe; Pastore, Francesco
  31. Student Feedback, Parent-Teacher Communication, and Academic Performance: Experimental Evidence from Rural China By Siebert, W. Stanley; Wei, Xiangdong; Wong, Ho Lun; Zhou, Xiang
  32. Could Easier Access to University Improve Health and Reduce Health Inequalities? By Heckley, Gawain; Nordin, Martin; Gerdtham, Ulf-G.
  33. Organization of International Educational Activities at the Universities of the Third Age By Selecký, Erik
  34. The State of Instructional Management of Teachers in the Social Studies Based on the National Standard-based Curriculum, Thailand By Darunee Jumpatong
  35. Early Gender Gaps Among University Graduates By Francesconi, Marco; Parey, Matthias
  36. How do the performance and well-being of students with an immigrant background compare across countries? By Francesca Borgonovi
  37. The Short- and Long-Term Effects of Graduating During a Recession: Evidence from Finland By Päällysaho, Miika Matias
  38. The Effect of Language Training on Immigrants' Economic Integration: Empirical Evidence from France By Lochmann, Alexia; Rapoport, Hillel; Speciale, Biagio
  39. Will Skill-Based Immigration Policies Lead to Lower Remittances? An Analysis of the Relations between Education, Sponsorship, and Remittances By Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Zou, Miaomiao
  40. A global value chain analysis of offshore medical universities in the Caribbean By McLean, Sheldon; Charles, Don
  41. Whom to Educate? Financial Fraud and Investor Awareness By Zhengqing Gui; Yangguang Huang; Xiaojian Zhao
  42. Bubbles and financial professionals By Utz Weitzel; Christoph Huber; Florian Lindner; Jürgen Huber; Julia Rose; Michael Kirchler
  43. Childless Aristocrats. Inheritance and the extensive margin of fertility By Gobbi, Paula; Goñi, Marc
  44. By ignoring intra-household inequality, do we underestimate the extent of poverty? By Philippe De Vreyer; Sylvie Lambert
  45. Financial literacy gaps across countries: the role of individual characteristics and institutions By Andrej Cupak; Pirmin Fessler; Maria Silgoner; Elisabeth Ulbrich
  46. Higher Education Subsidy Policy and R&D-based Growth By Takaaki Morimoto; Ken Tabata
  47. Are They Coming Back? The Mobility of University Students in Switzerland after Graduation By Oggenfuss, Chantal; Wolter, Stefan C.
  48. Engaging universities in social innovation research for understanding sustainability issues By Karine Oganisjana; Anna Svirina; Svetlana Surikova; Gunta Grīnberga-Zālīte; Konstantins Kozlovskis

  1. By: Sousa Santos, Susana; Peset Gonzalez, Maria Jose; Muñoz Sepúlveda, Jesús A.
    Abstract: The recent emergence of hybrid education, defined as one that combines face-to-face and online classes, has tried to overcome the weaknesses of the teaching exclusively online. The main goal of this paper is to identify the best methodologies and instruments of the hybrid education in order to develop all its educational potential. In this regard, we have addressed the satisfaction of the students with the hybrid teaching format compared to the exclusively online, as well as their perception with the new Flipped Classroom (FC) methodology as opposed to the traditional methodology in which theory is explained in class and practice is implemented at home. In addition, we have also evaluate the learning outcomes and grades of the students enrolled in these hybrids courses as compared to those enrolled in exclusively online courses. The findings of the research show a high degree of students’ satisfaction with the hybrid format and with the application of the FC methodology, as well as higher success rates and lower withdrawal rates in this hybrid courses.
    Keywords: Flipped Classroom, Hybrid Teaching, Higher Education, Student Satisfaction, Student Performance, Educational Innovation.
    JEL: I20 I23
    Date: 2018–03–11
  2. By: Silliman, Mikko
    Abstract: I estimate the impact of a targeted funding policy that provides disadvantaged schools in Helsinki with extra resources for hiring additional staff. Using a differences-in-differences strategy, I identify significant improvement in transitions to secondary education for low-performing native students and students from an immigrant background. As a result of the policy native students are 3 percentage points less likely to drop out of education after middle school, and students from immigrant backgrounds are 6 percentage points less likely to drop out of education after middle school as well as 7 percentage points more likely to attend the academic track of upper-secondary school. The impacts of the policy are particularly large for male native students and female students from an immigrant background. The analysis suggests that these results are driven by improvements in non-academic skills rather than only in academic coursework. The results, robust to various checks, provide evidence that extra resources can be particularly effective when targeted towards students from an immigrant background.
    Keywords: targeted school funding, secondary education, Labour markets and education, I24, I28,
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Louise Kaktins (Macquarie University)
    Abstract: This paper is one facet of a larger research project focusing on a case study of an Australian pathway program and involving both student and teacher respondents. The first exposure to higher education (HE) is a particularly vulnerable time for many international students as they cope with challenges on multiple fronts, including their acculturation into a new academic environment. Despite prolific literature on international postgraduate students, it is this formative undergraduate stage of their academic development that has been least studied, especially within the context of a pathway program. Based on focus groups of international students who have successfully completed such a program and are now undertaking a mainstream university degree program, some comparisons are between these two educational frameworks, especially in relation to how successfully this transition is made. Key concerns raised by the students include the mismatch between the pedagogical approach operating within the pathway program and that at mainstream university, the latter proving much more challenging and demanding, and the perennial difficulties with English language proficiency at an academic level, especially the impact on students? assignments. Implications and recommendations are discussed.
    Keywords: international students, pathway programs, higher education, international education, group work, transition to university, Australia
    JEL: I29
    Date: 2017–10
  4. By: Cid, Alejandro; Cabrera, José María; Bernatzky, Marianne
    Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of frequent testing on the performance of undergraduate freshmen. Methodology The impact evaluation of the intervention is designed as a field experiment -a randomized control trial. First, instructor divided the class in groups of three students in a joint-liability framework, a setting that fosters peer monitoring among students. Then, the groups were randomly assigned to high-frequency testing (tests on a weekly schedule) or a low-frequency testing (tests on a biweekly schedule). Each testing condition lasted for 15 weeks, and data on academic achievement were collected both before and after the intervention. Findings Although high-frequency groups show a higher mean performance on academic results, the findings do not indicate a definitive improvement in performance in weekly versus biweekly testing. We related our findings with recent discoveries on students’ perception of frequent assessments and its relation to motivation. Originality A large body of educational literature investigates the effect of the frequency of testing on learning performance. Less attention has been devoted to explore the mechanisms behind that relationship. We contribute to this emerging literature analyzing the effect of test frequency on a sample of Uruguayan university students, in a novel setting (a joint-liability framework), exploring mechanisms and suggesting lessons for future research.
    Keywords: frequent assessment; intrinsic motivation; grades; perceptions; classroom field experiment; feedback; procrastination
    JEL: I2 I21 I23
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Cid, Alejandro; Bernatzky, Marianne
    Abstract: This paper documents the impact of an after-school program called Apoyo Escolar, sited in one of the most vulnerable neighborhoods of a developing country, Uruguay. The outcomes of interest are academic achievement, behavior at school and grade retention. By a field experiment, we explore the interaction effects of being randomly assigned to an after-school program with an indicator of parent commitment - an unaddressed question in previous literature. We found novel results that should guide policy design. Increasing time spent in safe settings does not guarantee academic success: the after-school program is effective in improving academic performance when children have committed parents. And students’ performance at school is highly correlated with parents’ educational expectations. Thus, the interaction between hope, family and after-school for disadvantaged children deserves more attention in policy design.
    Keywords: after-school program; poverty; education; impact evaluation; family; parenting
    JEL: I2 I24 J13
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Song, Yang (Department of Economics, Colgate University)
    Abstract: School choice reforms give talented students the option to sort out of low-performing schools but often leave disadvantaged students behind. This study shows how a Chinese city was successful in helping its low-performing schools to catch up by encouraging talented students to sort into these schools. The city identified eleven low-performing middle schools and guaranteed elite high school admission to their top ten-percent graduates. This study documents that the policy improved school performance by 0.19-0.26 standard deviations. Using data on lottery middle school assignment, I further test for potential mechanisms, including strategic sorting and improvement in school value-added.
    Keywords: Education Inequality; School Choice; Incentives; Sorting; Peer Effects.
    JEL: I21 I24 I25 I28
    Date: 2017–04–01
  7. By: Cid, Alejandro; Cabrera, José María; Bernatzky, Marianne
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of frequent testing on the performance of undergraduate freshmen. Methodology The impact evaluation of the intervention is designed as a field experiment -a randomized control trial. First, instructor divided the class in groups of three students in a joint-liability framework, a setting that fosters peer monitoring among students. Then, the groups were randomly assigned to high-frequency testing (tests on a weekly schedule) or a low-frequency testing (tests on a biweekly schedule). Each testing condition lasted for 15 weeks, and data on academic achievement were collected both before and after the intervention. Findings Although high-frequency groups show a higher mean performance on academic results, the findings do not indicate a definitive improvement in performance in weekly versus biweekly testing. We related our findings with recent discoveries on students’ perception of frequent assessments and its relation to motivation. Originality A large body of educational literature investigates the effect of the frequency of testing on learning performance. Less attention has been devoted to explore the mechanisms behind that relationship. We contribute to this emerging literature analyzing the effect of test frequency on a sample of Uruguayan university students, in a novel setting (a joint-liability framework), exploring mechanisms and suggesting lessons for future research.
    Keywords: Keywords: frequent assessment; intrinsic motivation; grades; perceptions; classroom field experiment; feedback; procrastination
    JEL: I2
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Perry Spann (The American Literary Society for Higher Education)
    Abstract: In the 1930s, the United States was a global leader in public education by having the largest student populations in the world attend high schools. In the 1980s, school shootings started escalating in the United States, as did profitable investing in the privatization of American prisons, which currently contain half of the world?s total prison population of 233 countries. In the 2000s, adversarial laws related constitutionality and impartiality but not resolve for why the United States is where the majority of the world?s prison population resides and massive school shootings. There has been debate of whether a correlation authentically or paradoxically exists. There has been debate of why random school shootings cannot be predetermined by traditional means of profiling or quasi-experimental research, which are two rudiments viably debated as predispositions contributing to high imprisonment in America. There has been debate that penal populations and school massacres may decrease if judicial practices are less politicized, popularized, and localized. While well intended, the decades of debates distract from definite resolve. The American dream of equal access to education in the pursuit of liberty and happiness is a civil right in a nation of exceptionally high imprisonment and indiscriminate school massacres. Resident and nonresident aliens in the United States are not the primary populations of prisoners because native-born citizens conduct the majority of crimes and school massacres in America. Disadvantaged individuals who are young, poor, minorities, and uneducated immensely compile prison populations in the United States. However, in American school massacres, disadvantaged or advantaged individuals can equally and effortlessly become defenseless instructors or deceased students. The contrast is alarming and a foundation to propose the United States Department of Education, which administrates legal regulations and policies for American schools, permit defensive mandatory practices to help foster educational excellence through safety in schools. The proposal merits substantial review due to administrative laws as a necessity in the governance of society, or due to the likely fact that from the time this content is written to the time this content is published and read, another deadly school shooting will occur in the United States.
    Keywords: Law; Education
    JEL: K39 I28 K23
    Date: 2017–10
  9. By: Anna Adamecz-Volgyi (Budapest Institute)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of increasing the compulsory school leaving (CSL) age from 16 to 18 in Hungary using a regression discontinuity design (RDD) identification strategy. The new CSL age was introduced for those entering their first year of elementary school in 1998. Identification is based on compliance with the age of elementary school start rule. Compliance with the age rule creates a discontinuity in the probability of starting school under the higher CSL age regime around a cutoff date of birth. The treated cohort had known about the change since age 6. This fact allows for testing on how the increase affected forward-looking decision making about secondary school track choice which occurs at age 14. The legislation change resulted in an increased probability that children would choose the academic high school track instead of vocational training schools. At the same time, those choosing vocational training schools are more likely to drop out under the higher CSL age scheme. Potential explanations of increased dropout rates include a decrease in the quality of teaching in vocational training schools due to supply constraints, and a shift in student composition to include more students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds.
    Keywords: education, school choice, compulsory school leaving age, regression discontinuity design
    JEL: J08 C21 I21
    Date: 2018–01
  10. By: Claude Diebolt; Charlotte Le Chapelain; Audrey Rose Menard
    Abstract: The paper provides an empirical examination of the effect of the use of steam engine technology on the development of adult education in nineteenth-century France. In particular, we exploit exogenous regional variations in the distribution of steam engines across France to evidence that technological change significantly contributed to the development of lifelong training during the 1850-1881 period. Our research shows that steam technology adoption in France was not deskilling. We argue that this process raised the demand for new skills adapted to the development of French industries.
    Keywords: Adult Education, Cliometrics, France, Human Capital, Industrialization, Steam Engines, Technological Change.
    JEL: A12 C18 C80 I21 N13 N33
    Date: 2018
  11. By: Yousef Alanezi (Paaet)
    Abstract: Of the highlights of the events witnessed this era is the information revolution, which made a big coup in the nature of receiving the information both on the level of the lesson or lecture, or at the level of general culture and knowledge-current technology, and techniques of social communication "Admodo- Edmodo" educational platforms. A modern technological programs that help deliver information to students, and the benefit of educators, parents, coaches and administrators, and generally in the teaching, learning and administration. -Known as electronic "Aladmodo" educational platforms as an interactive learning environment that employs Web 2.0 technology, combining the advantages of e-content management systems and the networks of social networking Facebook, and enables teachers to disseminate lessons and objectives, and the dissemination of the duties, and the application of educational activities, and contact teachers through techniques multiple, as it enables teachers to conduct electronic tests and the distribution of roles and the division of students into working groups, and help to exchange views and ideas between student teachers. And the participation of the scientific content and allows parents to communicate with teachers and see the results of their children, which helps to achieve high quality educational outcomes.This research aims to:First, identify the educational software platforms "Admodo- Edmodo" and its applications and the most important advantages in education and contemporary learning.
    Keywords: Edmodo; Green learning; Flipped Classroom
    JEL: A20 A20 A20
    Date: 2017–10
  12. By: Timothy J. Bartik (W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research); Brad J. Hershbein (W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research)
    Abstract: Drawing on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we document a startling empirical pattern: the career earnings premium from a four-year college degree (relative to a high school diploma) for persons from low-income backgrounds is considerably less than it is for those from higher-income backgrounds. For individuals whose family income in high school was above 1.85 times the poverty level, we estimate that career earnings for bachelor’s graduates are 136 percent higher than earnings for those whose education stopped at high school. However, for individuals whose family income during high school was below 1.85 times the poverty level, the career earnings of bachelor’s graduates are only 71 percent higher than those of high school graduates. This lower premium amounts to $300,000 less in career earnings in present discounted value. We establish the prevalence and robustness of these differential returns to education across race and gender, finding that they are driven by whites and men and by differential access to the right tail of the earnings distribution.
    Keywords: inequality, return to education, career earnings profile, PSID, low-income
    JEL: I24 J24 J31
    Date: 2018–03
  13. By: Tindara Addabbo; Maddalena Davoli; Marina Murat
    Abstract: Gender and origin background are widely accepted in the economics of education literature as factors that highly correlate with educational outcomes. However, little attention has been devoted so far to the interaction of these two dimensions. We use Italian data from PISA 2015 to investigate potential immigrant-gender gaps in education. We find that, as expected, girls outperform boys in reading and are outperformed by them in math and science. In addition, immigrant students’ scores are persistently below those of natives. However, interestingly, we find that being immigrant and female does not imply a double disadvantage in math and science. On the contrary, immigrant girls slightly compensate for the immigrant gap in all disciplines. Moreover, the wider gap we find is that of immigrant boys in reading: it ranges from to 0.66 to 2 school years with respect to native boys. Language spoken at home is one of the main cofactors affecting immigrant boy’s scores. Targeted policies should therefore be implemented.
    Keywords: immigrant-gender gap, education, OECD-PISA
    JEL: I24 F22 J16
    Date: 2018–02
  14. By: Aucejo, Esteban M.; Romano, Teresa Foy
    Abstract: Abstract While instructional time is viewed as crucial to learning, little is known about the effectiveness of reducing absences relative to increasing the number of school days. Using administrative data from North Carolina public schools, this paper jointly estimates the effect of absences and length of the school calendar on test score performance. We exploit a state policy that provides variation in the number of school days prior to standardized testing and find substantial differences between these two effects. Extending the school calendar by ten days increases math and reading test scores by only 1.7 and 0.8 of a standard deviation, respectively. A similar reduction in absences would lead to gains of 5.5 in math and 2.9 in reading. We perform a number of robustness checks including utilizing flu data to instrument for absences, family-year fixed effects, distinguishing between excused and unexcused absences, and controlling for a contemporaneous measure of student disengagement. Our results are robust to these alternative specifications. In addition, our findings indicate considerable heterogeneity across student ability, suggesting that targeting absenteeism among low performing students could aid in narrowing current gaps in performance.
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2016–12–01
  15. By: Federico Reggio (University of Verona dpt. of Legal Sciences); Marina Sartor Hoffer (Free University of Bozen dpt. Education)
    Abstract: The acquisition of relational skills is one of the main goals of an educational system that aims at promoting non-violent, inclusive and participative societies. Dialogue is the key factor for such purpose, acting both as a means and as a goal that education ought to achieve. According to this perspective, education to dialogue matches ethical-behavioural aspects (dialogue as expression of interconnectedness) and logical-argumentative competences (dialogue as instrument of communication). Such elements trace connected dimensions: (1) the ability of managing a healthy communication, which implies both correct reasoning and effective expression; (2) the ability of creating and managing a situation of communicative reciprocity, which is an instrument for preventing and transforming conflict. The goal of this paper is to outline some conceptual and methodological signposts for the education to dialogue in light of the classical notion of ?maieutic?, by drawing perspectives, concepts and methodologies from both Conflict Mediation and Educational Transactional Analysis. This transkills outline is directed to those who are professionally involved at all levels of education, with the purpose of offering a first conceptual framework for developing programmes and proposals aimed at introducing and empowering communicative attitudes and skills.
    Keywords: Mediation Methodologies; Educational Transactional Analysis Methodologies; Conflict prevention & transformation; Education to Dialogue; Argumentation; Life Planning; Existential Positions.
    JEL: I29 K39 K40
    Date: 2017–10
  16. By: Le, Huong; Nguyen, Ha
    Abstract: This paper documents the patterns and examines the factors contributing to a gender gap in educational achievements in early seventh grade of schooling using a recent and nationally representative panel of Australian children. Regression results indicate that females excel at non-numeracy subjects at later grades whereas males outperform females in numeracy in all grades, whether at the mean or along the distribution of the test score. Our results also reveal a widening gender test score gap in numeracy as students advance their schooling. Regression and decomposition results also highlight the importance of controlling for pre-school cognitive skills in examining the gender test score gap.
    Keywords: Gender, Education, Quantile regression, Decomposition, Australia
    JEL: I20 J16
    Date: 2018–02–21
  17. By: Felska, Angelika
    Abstract: There is just one challenge for a twenty-first century person, and it is an omnipresent change. In order to exist successfully and effectively in such a reality, one should constantly develop and take part in an educational process (formal and informal). A huge number of places directing their educational offer to seniors and use this alternative education, which is, on the other hand, often thought to be directed to children. In the author’s opinion, a form of alternative education for adults and seniors is a folk high school in its contemporary version. That thesis is being discussed in this chapter.
    Keywords: Alternative Education, Folk High Schools, Lifelong Learning
    JEL: H75 I21
    Date: 2017
  18. By: Suhonen, Tuomo; Karhunen, Hannu
    Abstract: We examine the causal effect of parental higher education on their offspring’s education, using quasi-experimental variation from the significant regional convergence in parents’ access to university occurring in Finland between 1955 and 1975, which was advanced by political decisions to expand the university system to all parts of the country. Our differences-in-differences estimates suggest that, for the children of parents affected by the changes in university accessibility, there is a strong positive intergenerational relationship in higher education attainment. We explore the potential mechanisms behind the intergenerational effects and find that, due to assortative mating, the effect of a mother’s higher education may be greatly overstated if estimated separately from that of a father’s higher education.
    Keywords: education and training, education choices, higher education, Labour markets and education, I23, J62,
    Date: 2017
  19. By: Kamińska, Krystyna
    Abstract: The contemporary combination of information infrastructure with the commonly experienced transformation of knowledge created, in relation to education especially for older adults, an entirely new area of activeness. In accordance with the social awareness, education became an accessible good regardless of age. In this context, the maximal extending of the potential group of education receivers means, on the one hand, meeting the real social expectations towards so-called educational services. On the other hand, it is another challenge which the contemporary education faces. Unfortunately, the system of permanent education was not created in Poland since what is missing is both the strategy and some practical resolutions enabling old people the access to education with regards to their educational. Presently, the University of the Third Age is the only solution in the educational offer. In order to change the present status quo, what is needed is the re-definition of education and the modern perception of education and then perhaps, there will appear, the expected, by the senior citizens, module educational solutions providing them not only with the competencies but also the acknowledged certificate confirming their knowledge.
    Keywords: Ageism, Culture, Old Age, Education of Older Adults
    JEL: I24 J14
    Date: 2017
  20. By: Ali, Mazhar; Ahmed, Masood
    Abstract: This study is conducted to find determinants of student loyalty to the university. The determinants of student loyalty have been studied before, but the majority of the studies have covered just main determinants of loyalty such as student satisfaction, service quality and university image, but ignored university switching cost as a factor of student loyalty, interrelationships of all these antecedents and their collective impact on student loyalty. Despite many studies on student loyalty, the literature still lacks the comprehensive definition of student loyalty. This study has been conducted to fill these knowledge gaps and propose a comprehensive model depicting elaborate relationships of all important antecedents of student loyalty. This study has covered perceived academic quality, perceived administrative quality, physical facilities, student satisfaction, university image, and university switching cost as determinants of student loyalty. The data is analyzed through Exploratory Factor Analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) using AMOS. The results reveal the significant impact of student satisfaction and perceived university image on student loyalty. This study has important implications for academics to enhance student loyalty.
    Keywords: student loyalty, university switching cost, perceived service quality, student satisfaction, university image
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2018–02–05
  21. By: Eleonora Bertoni; Michele Di Maio (Università di Napoli Parthenope; Inter American Development Bank.); Vasco Molini (World Bank); Roberto Nisticò (Università di Napoli Federico II and CSEF)
    Abstract: TThis paper quantifies the microeconomic impact of the Boko Haram conflict on various educational outcomes of children living in North-East Nigeria during the period 2009- 2016. Using an individual panel fixed-effects regression and exploiting both over-time and within-district variation in household-level conflict exposure, we show that conflict reduces school enrollment and increases the probability of school dropout. In addition, using a standard difference-in-difference estimation strategy, we show that conflict reduces the years of education completed. As for the mechanisms explaining the decision to abandon school, we document that conflict increases the child's probability of working in the household's non-farm enterprise, a choice likely to be motivated by the conflict -induced worsening in the quality of the school supply. Finally, we find that conflict also worsen the general health conditions of the students.
    Keywords: Boko Haram, conflict , education, Nigeria
    JEL: D22 D24 N45 O12
    Date: 2018–03–17
    Abstract: Online education has become an important part of the landscape of higher education. Indeed, approximately 80% of colleges and universities offer online courses as part of their standard schedule of courses. As online course offerings have become commonplace, accrediting agencies have come to include examination of institutional criteria for setting standards and measuring the quality of those offerings as part of routine site evaluations. Concerns about which standards should be used and how to meet the scrutiny of accreditation agencies have prompted institutions to explore options for pre-formatted checklists of online course quality.Despite a broad range of possible products and services, many institutions are challenged to find instruments that both meet the critical need of establishing guidelines for online course design, and allow sufficient adaptability to meet unique institutional and programmatic needs and characteristics. In addition, rigid, standardized instruments have prompted faculty to question whether the instruments exert too much influence, restrain their academic freedom, and restrict their choices for methods of instruction. This presentation will report on an innovative model utilized at one institution to address the challenges of creating its own standards for online course design quality and the outcomes of that effort.
    Keywords: Innovation, Online, Education
    JEL: I23 I29
    Date: 2017–10
  23. By: Charles Wild (University of Hertfordshire)
    Abstract: Student cohorts within UK Higher Education (HE) institutions have becomes increasingly diverse over the past decade. This has presented the HE sector with a number of challenges, including the need to evaluate whether the delivery of degree programmes, traditionally targeted at a predominantly white student cohort, are fit-for-purpose when programme cohorts are becoming increasingly culturally diverse and white students account for only the second or third largest ethnic group. For example, in this case study, 75.7% of the student cohort is classed as Black, Asian or Minority Ethnic (BAME), with the largest ethnic group being Asian at 32.4%. The National Union of Students (NUS, 2009) observed that ?Black students are less likely to be satisfied with their educational experience and to attain first-class degrees in comparison to their White peers?, going on to note that ?a simple explanation for the attainment and satisfaction gap of Black students does not exist?. Furthermore, Berry & Loke (2011) note that differences between Black and White students centre on the ?rate of retention / withdrawal and achievement?. In addition, the National Union of Students (2009) reported that a significant minority of BME students viewed their teaching and learning environment negatively, often speaking of alienation, exclusion and feeling invisible to lecturers. Whilst Pewewardy (2008) highlights the fact that BAME students differ in the ways they learn and communicate, Morgan (2010) suggests that such students only differ "from what a given culture considers appropriate or normal." Consequently, the author asserts it is time for HE institutions to re-evaluate the concept of ?appropriate or normal? to one based on BAME students rather than that of a predominantly white one. This case study examines the use of a refined flipped-classroom model across an entire undergraduate programme may prove the key to an increase in the rates of retention and progression of BAME students on undergraduate programmes. This paper examines the use of a refined flipped-classroom model across an entire undergraduate programme which has resulted in a significant increase in the retention of BAME students. Pioneered by Bergmann and Sams, the traditional flipped-classroom allows students to review lectures at times and in locations that suit them. It also provides students with a library of information to refer back to, proving invaluable in the lead-up to assessments. In this regard, a significant improvement in the progression of Home/EU BAME students may be noted during the period 2013/14 to 2014/15.
    Keywords: Refined flipped classroom; BAME students; Student retention; Student progression
    JEL: I23 I24
    Date: 2017–10
  24. By: Harker, Patrick T. (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia)
    Abstract: Speaking in New York City, Philadelphia Fed President Patrick Harker talked about the challenges facing the U.S. higher education system in an evolving economy. He also discussed the barriers many underrepresented students encounter.
    Keywords: higher; education
    Date: 2018–02–08
  25. By: Ketel, Nadine; Leuven, Edwin; Oosterbeek, Hessel; van der Klaauw, Bas
    Abstract: We exploit admission lotteries to estimate the payoffs to the dentistry study in the Netherlands. Using data from up to 22 years after the lottery, we find that in most years after graduation dentists earn around 50,000 Euros more than they would earn in their next-best profession. The payoff is larger for men than for women but does not vary with high school GPA. The large payoffs cannot be attributed to longer working hours, larger human capital investments or sacrifices in family outcomes. The natural explanation is that Dutch dentists extract a monopoly rent, which we attribute to the limited supply of dentists in the Netherlands. We discuss policies to curtail this rent.
    Keywords: dentists; monopoly rents; random assignment; Returns to education
    JEL: C36 I18 I23 J44
    Date: 2018–02
  26. By: Osikominu, Aderonke; Pfeifer, Gregor
    Abstract: We estimate gender differences in elicited wage expectations among German University students applying for STEM and non-STEM fields. Descriptively, women expect to earn less than men and also have lower expectations about wages of average graduates across different fields. Using a two-step estimation procedure accounting for self-selection, we find that the gender gap in own expected wages can be explained to the extent of 54-69% by wage expectations for average graduates across different fields. However, gender differences in the wage expectations for average graduates across different fields do not contribute to explaining the gender gap in the choice of STEM majors.
    Keywords: gender gap,wage expectations,college major choice,STEM
    JEL: I21 J16 J31
    Date: 2018
  27. By: Uschi Backes-Gellner; Holger Herz; Michael Kosfeld; Yvonne Oswald
    Abstract: Evidence suggests that acquiring human capital is related to better life outcomes, yet young peoples’ decisions to invest in or stop acquiring human capital are still poorly understood. We investigate the role of time and reference-dependent preferences in such decisions. Using a data set that is unique in its combination of real-world observations on student outcomes and experimental data on economic preferences, we find that a low degree of long-run patience is a key determinant of dropping out of upper-secondary education. Further, for students who finish education we show that one month before termination of their program, present-biased students are less likely to have concrete continuation plans while loss averse students are more likely to have a definite job offer already. Our findings provide fresh evidence on students’ decision-making about human capital acquisition and labor market transition with important implications for education and labor market policy.
    Keywords: economic preferences, education, dropout, human capital, job search
    JEL: D01 D03 D91 I21 J64
    Date: 2018
  28. By: Del Gobbo, Giovanna; Galeotti, Glenda; Esposito, Gilda
    Abstract: This paper reflects on lessons learned from a validated model of international collaboration based on research and practice. During the European Year for Active Ageing (2012), a partnership of seven organizations from the European Union (EU) plus Turkey implemented the Lifelong Learning Programme partnership “Connecting Generations” which involved universities, non-governmental organizations, third age Universities and municipalities in collaboration with local communities. Reckoning that Europe has dramatically changed in its demographic composition and is facing brand new challenges regarding intergenerational and intercultural solidarity, each partner formulated and tested innovative and creative practices that could enhance better collaboration and mutual understanding between youth and senior citizens, toward a more inclusive Europe for all. Several innovative local practices have been experimented, attentively systematized and peer-valuated among the partners. On the basis of a shared theoretical framework coherent with EU and Europe and Training 2020 Strategy, an action-research approach was adopted throughout the project in order to understand common features that have been replicated and scaled up since today.
    Keywords: Intergenerational Relationships Learning, Intergenerational Solidarity, Lifelong Learning
    JEL: H75 I24
    Date: 2017
  29. By: Alejandra Marroig (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía)
    Abstract: The aim is to analyze the nutritional trajectory of a cohort of Uruguayan boys and girls in school age and its association with school performance. With this purpose, Latent Class Mixed Models and Joint Latent Class Mixed Models were fitted. This methodology is framed in the structural models and allows an analysis of nutritional status change with age of the cohort. In addition, the models assume that it is not possible to capture heterogeneity among individuals by any observed variable and, therefore, this is represented by latent groups. The model identified three groups of boys and girls according to its nutritional trajectories during school. A group of girls have normal nutritional trajectory (50%) for age, another exceeds the overweight threshold for certain ages (40%) and last group haver overweight (10%) in school age. Besides, a group of boys have normal nutritional trajectory (70%) for age, another has overweight for certain ages (20%) and, finally, a minority group have obesity (10%). The group of overweight girls is characterized by greater weight and height at birth, however there are no differences in mother’s educational attainment. Among boys the obesity group is heavier at birth but size at birth did not show significant differences. In addition, there is a higher proportion of mothers with superior educational attainment in the obese group of boys. Regarding the relationship between nutritional trajectory and school performance, results indicates that boys drop out at younger ages than girls. However, groups according to its nutritional trajectories do not differ in term of school dropout age. None of the groups exhibited a deficit or decrease in nutritional status during school period, although the group with overweight or obesity could be of concern and the object of future research.
    Keywords: latent class, joint model, nutritional trajectory, school performance, Uruguay
    JEL: C33 I12 J13
    Date: 2018–02
  30. By: Gaeta, Giuseppe Lucio (University of Naples L’Orientale); Lubrano Lavadera, Giuseppe (University of Salerno); Pastore, Francesco (Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli)
    Abstract: The wage effect of job-education vertical mismatch (i.e. overeducation) has only recently been investigated in the case of Ph.D. holders. The existing contributions rely on OLS estimates that allow measuring the average effect of being mismatched at the mean of the conditional wages distribution. This paper, instead, observes the heterogeneity of the overeducation penalty along the wage distribution and according to Ph.D. holders' study field and sector of employment (academic/non-academic). We implement a Recentered Influence Function (RIF) to estimate an hourly wage equation and compare PhD holders who are over-educated with those who are not. The results reveal that overeducation hits the wages of those Ph.D. holders who are employed in the academic sector and in non-R&D jobs outside of the academic sector. Instead, no penalty exists among those who carry out R&D outside the Academia. The size of the penalty is higher among those who are in the mid-top of the wage distribution and hold a Social Science and Humanities specialization.
    Keywords: job-education mismatch, overeducation, wages, Ph.D. holders, unconditional quantile regression, Italy
    JEL: C26 I23 J13 J24 J28
    Date: 2018–02
  31. By: Siebert, W. Stanley (University of Birmingham); Wei, Xiangdong (Lingnan University); Wong, Ho Lun (Lingnan University); Zhou, Xiang (University of Birmingham)
    Abstract: This study reports a randomized controlled trial to improve teacher-student-parent feedback, conducted in a rural county in China with many left-behind children. Data are collected from over 4,000 primary schoolchildren (8 to 10 years old) over two school terms. We find that bi-weekly student feedbacks using our special scorecard of schoolwork and behavior improve mathematics results by 0.16 to 0.20 standard deviations, with 0.09 for language. Communicating these assessments also to parents produces further large mathematics benefits for young left-behind children, about 0.30 standard deviations. A low-cost investment in better feedback thus brings significant achievement gains especially for disadvantaged children.
    Keywords: student assessment, parent-teacher communication, academic performance, randomized controlled trial, rural China
    JEL: C93 I21 J24
    Date: 2018–02
  32. By: Heckley, Gawain (Health Economics Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University); Nordin, Martin (Department of Economics, Lund University); Gerdtham, Ulf-G. (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the impact of university education on medical care use and its income related inequality. We do this by exploiting an arbitrary university eligibility rule in Sweden combined with regression discontinuity design for the years 2003-2013 for students who graduated 2003-2005. We find a clear jump in university attendance due to university eligibility. This jump coincides with a positive jump in prescriptions for contraceptives for females but also a positive jump in mental health related hospital admissions for males. Analysis of the inequality impact of tertiary eligibility finds no clear impact on medical care use by socioeconomic status of the parents. The results imply that easing access to university for the lower ability student will lead to an increase in contraceptive use without increasing its socioeconomic related inequality. At the same time, the results highlight that universities may need to do more to take care of the mental health of their least able students.
    Keywords: Health returns to education; demand for medical care; causes of health inequality; Regression Discontinuity Design; Concentration Index
    JEL: I12 I14
    Date: 2018–03–13
  33. By: Selecký, Erik
    Abstract: The organization of an international education activity has its specifics compared to a national one. It is very important to know the differences in the very organization as well as the opinions of the individual participants. We can find differences not only in the management of education but also in the leisure activities, the nourishment, and the accommodation. Based on experiences with the organization of international events and taking part in international projects in the field of educating older adults, we put together a questionnaire to investigate some important questions related to the organization of an international event. We distributed this questionnaire at two international educational activities. We compiled the questions and answer clearly, which is going to be an asset particularly for the professional community.
    Keywords: International Cooperation, Lifelong Learning, University of the Third Age
    JEL: I21 J14
    Date: 2017
  34. By: Darunee Jumpatong (Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University)
    Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the current state of social studies instructional management of teachers based on the current standard-based National Basic Education Curriculum B.E. 2551 of Thailand, including its obstacles and limitations, and the proposal for further development. It was a mixed-method research: quantitative method consisted of 150 participants obtained by systematic random sampling. They were educational supervisors and teachers teaching in the Social Studies, Religion and Culture Learning Area in public schools. Statistics for data analysis were the percentage, mean, and standard deviation. In the qualitative part, the key informants were 18 social studies teachers and educational supervisors purposively selected for in-depth interviews. The research findings were as follows: (1) the current practice of teachers regarding social studies instructional management was not in accordance with the underlying concepts and expectation as prescribed in the national core curriculum, even though social studies teachers and educational supervisors had high level of comprehension in it. The teachers tended to organize their social studies lesson plans based on guidelines in textbooks published by private publishers rather than compile them based on the curriculum itself; the prevalent method of instruction was the lecturing method while integrated teaching was rarely practiced; also, evaluation of learning outcomes tended to focus on knowledge rather than on thinking skills and performance; (2) the teachers and educational supervisors agreed at the high level with the principles of standard-based curriculum which had been responsive to the present information-based society rather than the former content-based curriculum prescribed by the Ministry of Education as in the past; thus, they were highly satisfied with the national core curriculum in the Social Studies, Religion and Culture Learning Area; (3) the main obstacles and limitations in social studies instructional management were those concerning the curriculum itself, curriculum implementation, roles of educational supervisors and school principals, all of which contributed to the weakening of the school academic system and the relatively poor student achievements; and (4) regarding the guidelines for further development of social studies instruction management, the following points were addressed: (4.1) the schools should seriously and continuously develop the teachers and support them on their teaching performance; and (4.2) the curriculum itself should be reviewed for further development including the continued emphasis on the enhancement of standard-based curriculum, and the reduction of some overlapping contents within and among the learning areas.
    Keywords: Instructional management / Social studies, Religion and Culture / National Basic Basic Education Curriculum, B.E. 2551
    JEL: I29
    Date: 2017–10
  35. By: Francesconi, Marco; Parey, Matthias
    Abstract: We use data from six cohorts of university graduates in Germany to assess the extent of gender gaps in college and labor market performance twelve to eighteen months after graduation. Men and women enter college in roughly equal numbers, but more women than men complete their degrees. Women enter college with slightly better high school grades, but women leave university with slightly lower marks. Immediately following university completion, male and female full-timers work very similar number of hours per week, but men earn more than women across the pay distribution, with an unadjusted gender gap in full-time monthly earnings of about 20 log points on average. Including a large set of controls reduces the gap to 5-10 log points. The single most important proximate factor that explains the gap is field of study at university.
    Keywords: Field of study; gender wage gap; Germany; University graduates
    JEL: J16 J31 J71
    Date: 2018–02
  36. By: Francesca Borgonovi
    Abstract: The ability of societies to preserve social cohesion in the presence of large migration flows depends on their capacity to integrate immigrants. Education can help immigrants acquire skills and contribute to the host-country economy; it can also foster immigrants’ social and emotional well-being and sustain their motivation to participate in the social and civic life of their new communities – and, by doing so, help them integrate more easily. But ensuring that students with an immigrant background have good well-being outcomes represents a significant challenge, because many immigrant or mixed-heritage students must overcome the adversities associated with displacement, socio-economic disadvantage, language barriers and the difficulty of forging a new identity all at the same time.
    Date: 2018–03–19
  37. By: Päällysaho, Miika Matias
    Abstract: This paper uses matched employer-employee panel data on university graduates who obtained a Master’s degree in 1988–2004 to study how facing adverse economic conditions upon graduation affects short- and long-term labor market outcomes in Finland. Among all graduation cohorts, the average graduate faces large and persistent negative effects on real annual earnings that last for at least the first ten years after graduation. There is also a persistently higher probability of being unemployed that lasts for roughly seven years. When only considering the cohorts who graduated after the exceptionally deep Finnish 1990s depression, the effects on earnings only last for the first five years and there appear to be little to no effects on unemployment. Female graduates face smaller earnings losses on average, potentially reflecting gender differences in fields of study, employing sector and labor market attachment. The empirical results appear not to be significantly affected by selective timing or place of graduation.
    Keywords: labor market, unemployment, business cycle fluctuation, higher education, Labour markets and education, E32, I23, J22, J23,
    Date: 2017
  38. By: Lochmann, Alexia (University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, PSE); Rapoport, Hillel (Paris School of Economics); Speciale, Biagio (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: We examine the impact of language training on the economic integration of immigrants in France. The assignment to this training, offered by the French Ministry of the Interior, depends mainly on a precise rule: the training is provided if the test score of an initial language exam is below a certain threshold. This eligibility rule creates a discontinuity in the relation between the test result and the variables of interest, which is used to estimate the causal effect of language training, through the method of Regression Discontinuity Design. We find that the number of assigned hours of training significantly increases labor force participation of the treated individuals. The language classes appear to have a larger effect for labor migrants and refugees relative to family migrants, for men and individuals below the median age, and for individuals with higher levels of education. Our estimated coefficients are remarkably similar when we rely on local linear regressions using the optimal bandwidth with few observations around the threshold and when we control parametrically for a polynomial of the forcing variable and use the whole estimation sample. We discuss extensively why manipulation of the entry test score is theoretically unlikely and show robustness checks that consider the possibility of misclassification. We conclude with a discussion of the candidate mechanisms for the improved labor market participation of immigrants.
    Keywords: immigrants' integration, language training, Regression Discontinuity Design
    JEL: J15 J61 J68
    Date: 2018–02
  39. By: Mukhopadhyay, Sankar (University of Nevada, Reno); Zou, Miaomiao (Nanjing University)
    Abstract: As more and more developed countries adopt policies that favor highly educated immigrants, the impact of such policies on developing countries remains unclear. Some researchers have argued that migrants who are more educated tend to bring their immediate family members to the host country, and thus, send less money to the source country in remittances. While there is numerous papers documenting association between education and remittance, whether that is related to sponsorship decision remains under-explored. Using individual level panel data from the New Immigrant Survey, we show that sponsoring family members leads to lower remittance. Furthermore, we show that college educated immigrants from high-income families are less likely to sponsor relatives, presumably because of relatively higher opportunity cost of migration of their relatives. Together, these two results suggest a positive association between education and remittances, which is indeed, what we find in the data. Our extended analysis shows that alternative explanations (such as higher income of more educated immigrants, or repaying implicit educational loans) cannot completely explain the positive association between education and remittances. Our results suggest that skill-based immigration policies are likely to result in more remittances.
    Keywords: immigration, remittance, sponsorship, education
    JEL: O15 F22 F24 J61
    Date: 2018–02
  40. By: McLean, Sheldon; Charles, Don
    Abstract: This study is intended to be exploratory in nature. It seeks a better understanding of i) how the OMU cluster emerged; ii) the characteristics of the offshore medical universities in the Caribbean cluster; iii) the contribution of the offshore medical universities to the economy of the host Caribbean countries; and iv) the prospects for enhancing the educational quality, and value added captured by the Caribbean in the medical value chain.
    Date: 2018–01–31
  41. By: Zhengqing Gui (Department of Economics , The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology); Yangguang Huang (Department of Economics , The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Institute of Emerging Market Studies, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology); Xiaojian Zhao (Chinese University of Hong Kong (Shenzhen) and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: We study how investors are exploited by fraudulent financial products. These investors purchase financial products that are inconsistent with their risk attitudes, and in turn, their behaviors provide an incentive for firms to commit financial fraud. We then conduct experiments and surveys in Shenzhen, China to measure investors' risk preferences and the effect of an eye-opening financial education program. Participating in our education program significantly reduces investors' tendency to invest in fraudulent products, especially among those who are risk-averse. Therefore, compared to randomly assigning the education program to investors, targeting risk-averse investors will be more effective in fighting financial fraud.
    Date: 2018–01
  42. By: Utz Weitzel; Christoph Huber; Florian Lindner; Jürgen Huber; Julia Rose; Michael Kirchler
    Abstract: The efficiency of financial markets and their potential to produce bubbles are central topics in academic and professional debates. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the contribution of financial professionals to price efficiency. To close this gap, we run 86 experimental markets with 294 professionals and 384 students. We report that professional markets with bubble-drivers-capital inflows or high initial capital supply-are susceptible to bubbles, but they are significantly more efficient than student markets. In a survey with 245 professionals and students we show that cognitive skills and risk attitudes do not explain subject pool differences in bubble formation.
    Keywords: Experimental finance, financial professionals, price efficiency, financial bubbles
    JEL: C92 D84 G02 G14
    Date: 2018–04
  43. By: Gobbi, Paula; Goñi, Marc
    Abstract: We provide new evidence on the two-way link between fertility decisions on the extensive margin and inheritance. We focus on settlements, a popular inheritance scheme among British aristocrats that combined primogeniture and a one-generation entail of the family estates. Using peerage records (1650-1882), we find that settlements affected the extensive margin of fertility: they reduced childlessness rates by 14.7 pp., ensuring the survival of aristocratic dynasties. Since settlements were signed only if the family head survived until his heir's wedding, we establish causality by exploiting variation in the heirs birth order. Next, we show that the extensive margin of fertility can shape inheritance rules. We build a model with inter-generational hyperbolic discounting where inheritance rules affect fertility and, in turn, schemes restricting successors (e.g., settlements or trusts) emerge endogenously in response to concerns over the dynasty's survival. These results highlight the importance of fertility decisions for the analysis of inheritance.
    Keywords: Childlessness; Elites; Fertility; Inheritance; Inter-generational discounting.; Settlement
    JEL: J13 K36 N33
    Date: 2018–02
  44. By: Philippe De Vreyer (LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - Université Paris-Dauphine, DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme); Sylvie Lambert (PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper uses a novel survey to re-examine inequality and poverty levels in Senegal. In order to account for intra-household inequalities, the paper uses consumption data collected at a relatively disaggregated level within households. This data reveal that first, mean consumption is higher than measured by standard consumption surveys; and second, that consumption inequality in this country is also much higher that what is commonly thought, with a Gini index reaching 48. These findings affect global poverty estimates in opposite directions and in this context, nearly compensate for each other. Intra-household consumption inequalities are shown to account for nearly 14% of total inequality in Senegal. These results are robust to the existence of plausible measurement errors. As a result of this intra-household inequality, “invisible poor” exist with 12.6% of the poor individuals living in non-poor households.
    Keywords: Inequality,Poverty,Household surveys,Intra-household allocation,Senegal
    Date: 2018–03
  45. By: Andrej Cupak (National Bank of Slovakia and LIS: Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg); Pirmin Fessler (Oesterreichische Nationalbank); Maria Silgoner (Oesterreichische Nationalbank); Elisabeth Ulbrich (Oesterreichische Nationalbank)
    Abstract: We examine recently compiled microdata from the OECD/INFE survey covering information on the financial literacy of adult individuals from twelve countries around the globe. We find large differences in financial literacy across countries and decompose them into those explainable by differences in individual characteristics and those that cannot be explained by such differences. We show that individual characteristics matter with regard to differences in average financial literacy, but do not fully explain the observed differences. We further relate the unexplained differences in our microeconometric analysis to institutional differences across countries. We find strong relationships between the differences in financial literacy not explained by individual characteristics and life expectancy, social contribution rate, PISA math scores, internet usage, and to a lesser degree by GDP per capita, the gross enrolment ratio and stock market capitalization. Our results suggest that there is room for harmonization of economic environments across countries regarding decreasing inequality in the population’s financial literacy.
    Keywords: financial literacy gaps; inequality; decomposition analysis; counterfactual methods; personal finance; survey data
    JEL: D14 D91 I20
  46. By: Takaaki Morimoto (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University); Ken Tabata (School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin University)
    Abstract: Employing a two-period overlapping generations model of R&D-based growth with both product development and process innovation, this paper examines how a subsidy policy for encouraging more individuals to receive higher education affects the per capita GDP growth rate of the economy. We show that when the market structure adjusts partially in the short run, the effect of an education subsidy on economic growth is ambiguous and depends on the values of the parameters. However, when the market structure adjusts fully in the long run, the education subsidy expands the number of firms but reduces economic growth. These unfavorable predictions for the education subsidy on economic growth are partly consistent with empirical findings that mass higher education does not necessarily lead to higher economic growth. A higher education subsidy policy is perhaps inappropriate for the purpose of stimulating long-run economic growth.
    Keywords: Higher Education, Occupational Choice, R&D, Product Development, Process Innovation
    Date: 2018–02
  47. By: Oggenfuss, Chantal (Swiss Co-ordination Center for Research in Education); Wolter, Stefan C. (University of Bern)
    Abstract: We analyze the internal mobility of university graduates in Switzerland. An empirically interesting question because not all the cantons have a university and therefore in some cantons students have to leave their home for studying but all the cantons have to bear the public costs for studying for their students irrespective of their study place. On average, approximately half of the students who had left their home canton in order to study, return to their home canton, and about half of those who do not return move onward from the canton where they studied to a third canton. Controlling for several factors explaining graduate mobility, we find that top performing students return less often than do low performers. As a consequence the home cantons, which cover the bulk of the costs also for the students that had left for studying in another canton, face a quantitative and qualitative disadvantage when losing mobile graduates.
    Keywords: student mobility, graduate mobility, brain gain, brain drain
    JEL: H52 H75 I23 J61
    Date: 2018–02
  48. By: Karine Oganisjana (Riga Technical University); Anna Svirina (Kazan National Research Technical University); Svetlana Surikova (LU - University of Latvia); Gunta Grīnberga-Zālīte (Latvia University of Agriculture); Konstantins Kozlovskis (Riga Technical University)
    Abstract: The paper presents the analysis of a three-stage research conducted by the authors within a social innovation project in collaboration with international master students of Riga Technical University for determining the factors, which motivate people to be involved in the solution of social problems. The authors not only analyse and use the outcomes of the students' research but also provide feasibility study of using the potential of study research at the university, for implementing serious research projects. Data collection from Africa, Asia, America and Europe was organised jointly by all the students via web-based survey for creating an original data base for the collaborative use. The qualitative and quantitative content analysis of the respondents' texts revealed three groups of factors: intrapersonal, interpersonal and external factors which motivate people to be involved in the solution of social problems. Having conducted content analysis of the same texts and comparing the outcomes of the students' and their own research, the authors concluded that study research is worth being used for research projects. Keywords: social problems, social innovation, study research, learning research by doing research, qualitative content analysis Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Oganisjana, K.; Svirina, A.; Surikova, S.; Grīnberga-Zālīte, G.; Kozlovskis. K. 2017. Engaging universities in social innovation research for understanding sustainability issues, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues 5(1): 9-22. http://doi.
    Date: 2017–09–29

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