nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2018‒03‒12
37 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Heterogeneous Effects of Mass Academisation in England By Lorenzo Neri; Elisabetta Pasini
  2. Student aid, academic achievement, and labor market behavior By Schrøter Joensen, Juanna; Mattana, Elena
  3. Is the education of local children influenced by living nearby a refugee camp? Evidence from host communities in Rwanda By Özge Bilgili; Sonja Fransen; Craig Loschmann; Melissa Siegel
  4. The Native-Migrant Gap in the Progression into and through Upper-Secondary Education By Stefan C. Wolter; Maria Zumbuehl
  5. Beyond Tracking and Detracking The Dimensions of Organizational Differentiation in Schools By Thurston Domina; Andrew McEachin; Paul Hanselman; Priyanka Agarwal; NaYoung Hwang; Ryan Lewis
  6. The Smoking Epidemic across Generations, Gender and Educational Groups: A Matter of Diffusion of Innovations By Cinzia Di Novi; Anna Marenzi
  7. The Long-run Effects of Teacher Strikes: Evidence from Argentina By David Jaume; Alexander Willén
  8. The Effect of School Starting Age on Special Needs Incidence and Child Development into Adolescence By Simone Balestra; Beatrix Eugster; Helge Liebert
  9. What are Teacher Residency Programs? By Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory
  10. Optimal Education Policy and Human Capital Accumulation in the Context of Brain Drain By Slobodan Djajić; Frédéric Docquier; Michael S. Michael
  11. School Performance, Score Inflation and Economic Geography By Erich Battistin; Lorenzo Neri
  12. Publication Performance vs. Influence: On the Questionable Value of Quality Weighted Publication Rankings By Justus Haucap; Tobias Thomas; Klaus Wohlrabe
  13. Differences in Wealth, Education, and History By Curtis Jr, James E
  14. Research Review: Impacts and Implementation of Blended Learning By Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory
  15. Marital Age Gaps and Educational Homogamy - Evidence from a Compulsory Schooling Reform in the UK By Timo Hener; Tanya Wilson
  16. Do Natives' Beliefs About Refugees' Education Level Affect Attitudes Toward Refugees? Evidence from Randomized Survey Experiments By Philipp Lergetporer; Marc Piopiunik; Lisa Simon
  17. Education and Societal Change in Germany, 1925–2008 By Rolf Becker; Karl Ulrich Mayer
  18. Minimum Wages and Occupational Skills Acquired During High School By Meier, Benjamin; Shadle, Kyrstin; Kreider, Brent E.; Orazem, Peter F
  19. Early Exclusionary School Discipline and Adolescent Wellbeing By Nayan Ramirez; Garrett Pace; Gerardo Cuevas; Wade Jacobsen
  20. A School-to-Prison Pipeline? Locating the Link Between Exclusionary School Discipline and Juvenile Justice Contact By Joel Mittleman
  21. Family Planning and Women’s Economic Empowerment: Incentive Effects and Direct Effects among Malaysian Women By Kimberly Singer Babiarz; Jiwon Lee; Grant Miller; Tey Nai Peng; Christine Valente
  22. Distributional Effects of Corruption When Enforcement is Biased: Theory and Evidence from Bribery in Schools in Bangladesh By M. Shahe, Emran; Asadul, Islam; Forhad, Shilpi
  23. Perceived Wages and the Gender Gap in STEM Fields By Osikominu, Aderonke; Pfeifer, Gregor
  24. The Origins of the Racial Gap in School Suspension and Expulsion By Jayanti Owens; Sara McLanahan
  25. Evaluation of the Cost and Effectiveness of Direct Nutrition Education to Low-Income Audiences in Iowa: EFNEP and SNAP-Ed graduates practicing Optimal Nutritional Behaviors (ONB) By Christine Hradek; Helen H. Jensen; Nicole Schimerowski Miller; Miyoung Oh
  26. Leveled Literacy Intervention for Secondary Students: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial in Oakland Schools By Naihobe Gonzalez; Sophie MacIntyre; Pilar Beccar-Varela
  27. A preliminary assessment of the indicators for Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 14 “Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resou By Laura Recuero Virto
  28. University invention and the abolishment of the professor’s privilege in Finland By Ejermo, Olof; Toivanen, Hannes
  29. Socio-economic Disparities in U.S. Healthcare Spending: The Role of Public vs. Private Insurance By Elena Capatina; Michael P. Keane; Shiko Maruyama
  30. You're Hired! The Skills Employers Seek in New Hires By Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory
  31. Passive Learning and Incentivized Communication: A Randomized Controlled Trial in India By Alem, Yonas; Dugoua, Eugenie
  32. Improving the employment prospects of graduates: What can universities do? By McGuinness, Seamus; Whelan, Adele; Bergin, Adele
  33. The Effect of a Sibling's Gender on Earnings, Education and Family Formation By Peter, Noemi; Lundborg, Petter; Mikkelsen, Sara; Webbink, Dinand
  34. Women’s education, employment status and the choice of birth control method: An investigation for the case of Turkey By Deniz Karaoğlan; Dürdane Sirin Saracoglu
  35. Value of commuting time saving in Beijing: a stated preference study By Yin, Hang
  36. A Bibliometric Analysis of the Knowledge Exchange Patterns between Major Technology and Innovation Management Journals (1999-2013) By Shikhar Sarin; Christophe Haon; Mustapha Belkhouja
  37. The Geography of Talent: Development Implications and Long-Run Prospects By Michal burzynski; Christoph Deuster; Frédéric Docquier

  1. By: Lorenzo Neri (Queen Mary University of London); Elisabetta Pasini (Queen Mary University of London)
    Abstract: The 2010 primary school reform in the UK aimed at giving schools more autonomy and freedom from local council’s control, by giving them the option to become academies. Once converted, schools need to choose between remaining a standalone academy or joining an academy chain. However, the majority of studies have focused solely on the impact of school conversion on children outcomes, disregarding the heterogeneity in the conversion models. In this paper we therefore evaluate the impact of the two different models of school governance on students’ achievement. We exploit an instrumental variable strategy that compares the educational attainment of students before school conversion with that of students after conversion that were already enrolled when the conversion took place. We then allow for heterogeneous effects stemming from different governance models. We find that students enrolled in chains have higher test scores at the end of their primary school education. Survey data on academies suggest that schools belonging to chains are more likely to change leadership and entrust the governing body with purely managerial functions, while educational functions are carried out by the schools themselves.
    Keywords: Academies, School governance, School performance
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2018–01–10
  2. By: Schrøter Joensen, Juanna (University of Chicago); Mattana, Elena (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: How does the financial aid allocation mechanism affect student behavior? We provide a framework for quantifying the impact of financial aid on student debt, academic capital, and labor market outcomes. We specify and estimate a dynamic discrete choice model of simultaneous education, work, and student loan take-up decisions. We use administrative panel data and exploit exogenous variation from the 2001 Swedish Study Aid reform to estimate the model. The reform reduced the cost of working while enrolled, resulting in a 14 percentage points increase in students working during the academic year. The reform also increased (decreased) the cost of borrowing for low (high) earners. This decreased the share of low expected earners not taking up student loans by 2 percentage points, and increased the share of high expected earners taking up the full loan by 2 percentage points. The estimated model enables ex-ante evaluation of various changes to financial aid packages. We find that front-loading debt repayment – by increasing income-contingency or shortening the loan repayment period – reduces debt and lowers academic capital accumulation as students finance more of the college cost by working and less by taking-up loans. Income-contingency of repayments exhibits and elasticity of -0.72 for debt and -0.14 for income at exit, but is marginally decreasing. Changing the grant/loan composition of aid has little impact on human capital accumulation, but large impacts on student debt. This means that the government largely can decide who bears the college cost without affecting human capital accumulation.
    Keywords: student aid; education and labor market outcomes; dynamic discrete choice
    JEL: D90 H52 I21 I22 I28 J22 J24 J31
    Date: 2017–12–13
  3. By: Özge Bilgili; Sonja Fransen; Craig Loschmann; Melissa Siegel
    Abstract: This paper studies to what extent and in what ways access to educational services and schooling outcomes of local children are influenced by the presence of a refugee camp in or around their community. Taking the case of Congolese refugees in Rwanda and relying on household survey data collected in 2016, we investigate the availability of schools, schooling rates and access to school-based feeding programs in communities closer to and further away from three refugee camps: Gihembe, Kiziba and Kigeme. Furthermore, we conduct a cohort analysis to compare the years of schooling and primary school completion of Rwandans residing at different distances from each of these camps. Finally, on the basis of focus group discussions conducted among locals, we provide further insights into the ways in which locals perceive the effects of the refugee camp’s presence on their children’s access to schooling and educational outcomes. Our results highlight that living nearby a refugee camp does not have a negative influence on the education of local children. On the contrary, children residing closer to the camps have better schooling outcomes, and locals residing closer to the camps have a wide array of mostly positive views regarding the effects of refugees on local education. These results contribute to the body of literature on the effects of refugees on host communities and inform policies on how refugees need not be a ‘burden’ if long-term investments are made and the voice of the locals are heard to address their needs.
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Stefan C. Wolter; Maria Zumbuehl
    Abstract: In this paper we follow the students that took the PISA 2012 test in Switzerland and analyze their transition into and progress in upper-secondary education. We observe a substantive difference in the rate of progress between natives and students with a migration background. One year after leaving compulsory school, the gap between the natives and migrants that are on-track - entering the second year of upper-secondary education - is 15 percentage points. Observable differences in cognitive and non-cognitive skills can explain the gap in the success rate within upper-secondary education, but cannot fully explain the difference in the transition rate into upper-secondary education. More refined analyses present results that are consistent with the hypotheses of differences in tastes, aspirations and incomplete or inaccurate information about the education system explaining the gap in the transition into post-compulsory education.
    Keywords: education, migration, occupational choice
    JEL: I24 J15 J24 J62 J71
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Thurston Domina; Andrew McEachin; Paul Hanselman; Priyanka Agarwal; NaYoung Hwang; Ryan Lewis
    Abstract: Schools utilize an array of strategies to match curricula and instruction to students' heterogeneous skills. While generations of scholars have debated "tracking" and its consequences, the literature fails to account for diversity of school-level sorting practices. In this paper we draw upon the work of Sorenson (1970) to articulate and develop empirical measures of five distinct dimensions of school cross-classroom tracking systems: (1) the degree of course differentiation, (2) the extent to which sorting practices generate skills-homogeneous classrooms, (3) the rate at which students enroll in advanced courses, (4) the extent to which students move between tracks over time, and (5) the relation between track assignments across subject areas. Analyses of longitudinal administrative data following 24,000 8th graders enrolled in 23 middle schools through the 10th grade indicate that these dimensions of tracking are empirically separable and have divergent effects on student achievement and the production of inequality.
    Date: 2016–07
  6. By: Cinzia Di Novi (Department of Economics and Management, University of Pavia); Anna Marenzi (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari)
    Abstract: This study examines whether the temporal variations in smoking habits across generations and gender and among groups with differing levels of education fit the pattern proposed by the theory of the diffusion of innovations (TDI) (Rogers, 2003). We focus on the Italian case and employ a pseudo-panel derived from repeated cross-sections of the annual household survey, “Aspects of Daily Life,” that is part of the Multipurpose Survey carried out by the Italian National Statistical Office (ISTAT) for the period 1997 to 2012. The results confirm Rogers’ TDI and show that smoking prevalence has declined over time and across age cohorts: younger men of all educational levels and women with higher education are less likely to smoke than are those in other cohorts. On the other side, less-educated women, who entered the smoking-diffusion process later that others are more likely to smoke. Hence, socio-economic differences in smoking continue to persist, especially for women. According to Rogers’ TDI, smoking prevalence is expected to decline further, particularly among little-educated women.
    Keywords: Smoking habit, theory of diffusion, generations
    JEL: J1 I1
    Date: 2018
  7. By: David Jaume (Department of Economics, Cornell University); Alexander Willén (Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Cornell University)
    Abstract: This is the first paper to estimate the effect of teacher strikes on student long-run educational attainment and labor market outcomes. We exploit cross-cohort variation in the prevalence of teacher strikes within and across provinces in Argentina in a difference-in-difference framework to examine how exposure to teacher strikes during primary school affects long-run outcomes. We find robust evidence that teacher strikes worsen the labor market outcomes of these individuals when they are between the ages of 30 and 40: being exposed to the average incidence of teacher strikes during primary school (88 days) reduces annual labor market earnings by 2.99 percent. A back-of-the-envelope calculation suggests that this amounts to an aggregate earnings loss of $712 million in Argentina annually. This is equivalent to the cost of raising the average annual employment income of all primary school teachers in Argentina by 19 percent. We also find evidence of a decline in hourly wage, an increase in unemployment, an increase in the probability of not working or studying and a decline in the skill levels of the occupations into which students sort. Examining short- and long-run educational outcomes suggests that the labor market effects are driven, at least in part, by a reduction in educational attainment. Our analysis further identifies significant intergenerational treatment effects. Children of adults who were exposed to teacher strikes during primary school also experience adverse educational attainment effects.
    JEL: I20 J24 J45 J52
    Date: 2017–10
  8. By: Simone Balestra; Beatrix Eugster; Helge Liebert
    Abstract: Children starting school at older ages consistently exhibit better educational outcomes. In this paper, we underscore child development as a mechanism driving this effect. We study the causal effect of school starting age on a child’s probability of developing special educational needs in early grades. We find that starting school at a relatively older age decreases the probability of developing special needs by approximately 6 percentage points. This decrease is due to a lower incidence of various behavioral and learning impairments. Importantly, the effect is not driven by non-expert over-referrals of relatively younger children to special needs services. The effect is persistent throughout compulsory schooling, resulting in higher test scores in grade eight. Although these performance differentials are significant, they do not affect labor market entry.
    Keywords: school starting age, special needs, child development
    JEL: I14 I21 J13
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory
    Abstract: The School District of Philadelphia began its teacher residency program in the 2016–2017 school year to attract teaching candidates of diverse backgrounds, improve teacher retention, and ultimately produce improved outcomes for students. This fact sheet summarizes characteristics of existing teacher residency programs and related research.
    Keywords: TRPs, teacher recruitment, teacher retention
    JEL: I
  10. By: Slobodan Djajić (Graduate Institute (Geneva, Switerland)); Frédéric Docquier (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES), FNRS, National Fund for Scientific Research, Belgium and FERDI, Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Developpement International, France); Michael S. Michael (Departement of Economics, University of Cyprus (Nicosia, Cyprus))
    Abstract: This paper revisits the question of how brain drain affects the optimal education policy of a developing economy. Our framework of analysis highlights the complementarity between public spending on education and students' efforts to acquire human capital in response to career opportunities at home and abroad. Given this complementarity, we find that brain drain has conflicting effects on the optimal provision of public education. A positive response is called for when the international earning differential with destination countries is large, and when the emigration rate is relatively low. In contrast with the findings in the existing literature, our numerical experiments show that these required conditions are in fact present in a large number of developing countries; they are equivalent to those under which an increase in emigration induces a net brain gain. As a further contribution, we study the interaction between the optimal immigration policy of the host country and education policy of the source country in a game-theoretic framework.
    Keywords: migration of skilled workers, immigration policy, education policy
    JEL: F22 J24 O15
    Date: 2018–02–20
  11. By: Erich Battistin (Queen Mary University of London); Lorenzo Neri (Queen Mary University of London)
    Abstract: We show that grading standards for primary school exams in England have triggered an inflation of quality indicators in the national performance tables for almost two decades. The cumulative effects have resulted in significant differences in the quality signaled to parents for otherwise identical schools. These differences are as good as random, with score manipulation resulting from discretion in the grading of randonly assigned external markers. We find large housing price gains from the school quality improvements artificially signaled by manipulation as well as lower deprivation and more businesses catering to families in local neighbourhoods. The design ensures improved external validity for the valuation of school quality with respect to boundary discontinuities and has the potential for replication outside of our specific case study.
    Keywords: House prices; School quality; Score manipulation
    JEL: C26 C31 I2
    Date: 2017–10–24
  12. By: Justus Haucap; Tobias Thomas; Klaus Wohlrabe
    Abstract: In broad parts of the scientific community the position in publication performance rankings, based on journal quality ratings is seen as highly reputational for the scientist. This contribution provides evidence that, at least in economics, such publication performance measures can not always be reconciled with measures for academic influence such as citation-based measures. We analyze data from the Scopus database as well as from the prestigious German-based Handelsblatt ranking for 100 renowned economists (lifetime achievement). Scholarly influence is proxied by various bibliometric indicators such as the number of citations, the h-index, the citations of the most cited paper as well as the hardly honorable Pi-Beta-score (“Publications Ignored, By Even The Author(s)”). We argue that publication performance measures based on journal ratings, such as the Handelsblatt rankings, are not good proxies for an economist’s impact within the scientific community. From this perspective the value of publication performance rankings based on journal quality ratings is questionable.
    Keywords: economics, academic reputation, academic rankings, influence, citations, Scopus, Handelsblatt ranking, academic journals
    JEL: A12 A14
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Curtis Jr, James E
    Abstract: ABSTRACT An understanding of the freedoms (or the lack of freedoms) and their economic consequences on early black Americans provides an informative understanding to the freedoms (or the lack of freedoms), and their economic consequences on other, modern ethnic groups. James Curtis Jr (2017) investigates the link between the social asymmetry and economic asymmetry among early blacks and whites in the United States of America. For the empirical study, James Curtis Jr (2017) uses cross-sectional variables from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Sample (IPUMS), developed informative conditional ratios, and employed least squares statistical analyses. FINDINGS This study finds that economic differences among ethnic groups, as measured by differences between early blacks and whites, are intertwined with asymmetrical freedoms, leading to statistically insignificant returns to education, as measured by literacy. One might conclude that the individual’s basic protection of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness must proceed any expectations of measured returns to schooling, particularly among individuals in disenfranchised groups. Furthermore, one might propose education policy such that modern higher education investment programs prioritize education entrepreneurs and/or state/social planners with academic research familiarity of differences in wealth. This research is a revision of November 2002, November 2010 and January 2012 working papers. Copyright 2017. James Edward Curtis, Jr. is the President & Research Economist of The James Edward Curtis Jr Education Foundation, Correspond with James Edward Curtis, Jr. at PO Box 3126, Washington, District of Columbia 20010, or phone (202) 739-1962, email Learn more at
    Keywords: Education, History, Wealth
    JEL: C81 E21 I24 N00
    Date: 2017–09–22
  14. By: Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory
    Abstract: Many school districts are interested in implementing blended learning but do not have evidence on its effects or information on how to implement it to reflect best practices. This infographic provides an overview of blended learning, its impact on student achievement, and best practices for successful implementation.
    Keywords: personalized learning, blended learning
    JEL: I
  15. By: Timo Hener; Tanya Wilson
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of a compulsory schooling reform on marriage market matching using a regression discontinuity design. Our results imply that the formally gender-neutral educational reform has asymmetric impacts for men and women, owing to the pervasive marital age gap and the birthdate discontinuity. We show that treated women decrease the marital age gap to avoid marrying less qualified men. Treated men in contrast are able to marry similarly educated women without substantially changing the age gap. Our estimates indicate that the disruptions for cohorts around the introduction of the reform are economically significant.
    Keywords: Marital sorting, spousal age gap, compulsory schooling.
    JEL: I28 J12
    Date: 2018
  16. By: Philipp Lergetporer; Marc Piopiunik; Lisa Simon
    Abstract: In recent years, Europe has experienced an unprecedented influx of refugees. While natives’ attitudes toward refugees are decisive for the political feasibility of asylum policies, little is known about how these attitudes are shaped by refugees’ characteristics. We conducted survey experiments with more than 5,000 university students in Germany in which we exogenously shifted participants’ beliefs about refugees’ education level through information provision. Consistent with economic theory, we find that beliefs about refugees’ education significantly affect concerns about labor market competition. These concerns, however, do not translate into general attitudes because economic aspects are rather unimportant for forming attitudes toward refugees.
    Keywords: refugees, information provision, education, survey experiment, labor market
    JEL: H12 H53 I38 D83 D72 P16
    Date: 2017
  17. By: Rolf Becker; Karl Ulrich Mayer (Division of Social Science)
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to unravel the impact of societal change in terms of modernization, labor market fluctuation and historical conditions in Germany on educational trajectories and attainment as well as the on the degree of inequality of educational opportunity for cohorts born between 1919 and 1986. We want to analyze whether and how long term societal trends have modified educational trajectories of consecutive birth cohorts. This perspective provides an understanding of historical variations in educational attainment associated with societal processes such as modernization in social, political, economic, and cultural spheres on the one hand and by macroeconomic cycles on the other hand. The empirical basis of our investigation are clusters of time series for macro changes and retrospective data from 11 birth cohort studies from the German Life History Study and the National Educational Panel Study for educational outcomes. We apply piecewise exponential event history models to analyze the impact of societal change on educational trajectories.
    Date: 2017–10
  18. By: Meier, Benjamin; Shadle, Kyrstin; Kreider, Brent E.; Orazem, Peter F
    Abstract: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Geocode sample and the O*NET Occupational Database are used to generate estimates of skills acquired on jobs held by youth during high school. The types of jobs firms offer high school students change with the minimum wage. Jobs offered in high minimum wage states involve less skill acquisition. These same skills are shown to be important for income, employment and occupational skills later in life. Additional schooling substitutes for job skills acquired in high school, implying lost on-the-job training in high school is most costly for youth who do not go to college.
    Date: 2018–02–26
  19. By: Nayan Ramirez (Pennsylvania State University); Garrett Pace (University of Michigan); Gerardo Cuevas (Pennsylvania State University); Wade Jacobsen (Pennsylvania State University)
    Abstract: Exclusionary school discipline is a common experience among US children. In an earlier paper, we find high suspension or expulsion rates even in elementary school, particularly among racial minorities and the poor. Moreover, such discipline is associated with increased physical aggression by age nine. In the current analysis, we extend this work in two ways. First, we examine the association between early suspension or expulsion on externalizing behavior problems six years later, when children are in high school. Second, given that mental health problems are more common in adolescence than at younger ages, we examine the association between early school discipline and adolescent internalizing behavior problems. Because school discipline is most concentrated among racial minorities and the poor, our findings have important implications for the role of school discipline policy in educational inequality. Early suspension or expulsion may have unintended negative consequences for child wellbeing that persist into middle adolescence.
    JEL: I21 I31
    Date: 2017
  20. By: Joel Mittleman (Princeton University)
    Abstract: There is growing concern that exclusionary school discipline promotes a "school-to-prison pipeline," disrupting children’s lives in ways that increase their risk of coming into contact with the justice system. Empirical validations of this argument, however, face a fundamental challenge: both school sanctions and legal sanctions respond to the same behavioral risk factors and concentrate in the same disadvantaged contexts. To address this challenge, the current study combines survey data from the Fragile Families and Childhood Wellbeing Study with administrative data on children’s schools and neighborhoods. Following children from birth through adolescence, I demonstrate that children removed from school at a young age face substantially higher risks of later legal entanglement than their peers. Moreover, the consequences of discipline vary by children’s preexisting propensity for sanction. For every outcome considered, exclusionary discipline is most consequential for those children who were otherwise least likely to come into contact with the justice system.
    Keywords: incarceration; incarcerated
    JEL: I21 I28 K42
    Date: 2017
  21. By: Kimberly Singer Babiarz (Stanford University); Jiwon Lee (Pomona College); Grant Miller (Stanford University; NBER); Tey Nai Peng (University of Malaysia); Christine Valente (University of Bristol)
    Abstract: Although family planning programs can improve women’s welfare directly through changes in realized fertility, they may also have important incentive effects by increasing parents’ investments in girls not yet fertile. Exploiting the staggered implementation of family planning programs in Malaysia during the 1960s and 1970s among girls of varying ages, we study these potential incentive effects, finding that family planning may have raised raise girls’ educational attainment substantially. We also find that these early investments are linked to gains in women’s paid labor at prime working ages and to greater support for women’s elderly parents (a marker for women’s bargaining power within the household). Notably, these incentive effects may be larger than the direct effects of family planning alone.
    JEL: J13 J16
    Date: 2017–12–07
  22. By: M. Shahe, Emran; Asadul, Islam; Forhad, Shilpi
    Abstract: In many models of corruption where enforcement is unbiased and the official maximizes her income, the rich are more likely to pay bribes for their children's education, implying that corruption reduces educational inequality. We develop models of bribery that reflect the fact that, in developing countries, anti-corruption enforcement is not unbiased, and higher income of a household is associated with higher bargaining power and better quality of institutions. In models of biased enforcement, the rich are less likely to pay bribes, making bribery regressive. The OLS estimates of the effects of household income are likely to find spurious progressivity in the incidence of bribery in schools. We exploit temporary rainfall shocks to identify the ability to pay effect, while long-term rainfall differences identify the combined `poor people' and `poor area' effects. The IV estimates show that the poor are more likely to pay bribes, and the amount paid does not depend on household income. The evidence rejects the ability to pay and related models based on unbiased enforcement, and is consistent with the ``refusal to pay model'' of bargaining power where the rich decline to pay bribes. ``Free schooling'' is free only for the rich, and corruption makes the playing field skewed against the poor.
    Keywords: Corruption, Bribes, Schools, Biased Enforcement, Refusal to pay model, deterrence to bribe demand model, Inequality, Income Effect, Bargaining Power, Regressive Effects, Educational Mobility
    JEL: H1 I3 O1
    Date: 2018–02–17
  23. By: Osikominu, Aderonke; Pfeifer, Gregor
    Abstract: We estimate gender differences in elicited wage expectations among German University students applying for STEM and non-STEM fields. Descriptively, women expect to earn less than men and also have lower expectations about wages of average graduates across different fields. Using a two-step estimation procedure accounting for self-selection, we find that the gender gap in own expected wages can be explained to the extent of 54-69% by wage expectations for average graduates across different fields. However, gender differences in the wage expectations for average graduates across different fields do not contribute to explaining the gender gap in the choice of STEM majors.
    Keywords: college major choice; Gender Gap; STEM; wage expectations
    JEL: I21 J16 J31
    Date: 2018–02
  24. By: Jayanti Owens (Brown University); Sara McLanahan (Princeton University)
    Abstract: In spite of widespread recognition that racial disparities in suspension and expulsion perpetuate racial inequality, why racial disparities exist remains an open empirical question. Using a dataset of 5,000 children in 2,560 schools across 20 cities, we provide the first analysis to jointly parse the relative contributions of four of the most prominent structural and social-psychological explanations. Highlighting the contextually-dependent nature of these disparities, we find that the concentration of Black youth in majority-minority schools and the harsher sanctioning of Black boys from father-absent families account for the majority of the race gap. Contrary to popular belief, racial differences school-entry behavioral development, family social class, and harsher punishment for the same misbehaviors are secondary contributors. Consequently, we argue that while open displays of racism have become less common, racism has morphed, presenting through punitive discipline in many minority-serving schools, and, interpersonally, through negative stereotyping of Black boys from father-absent families.
    JEL: I21 J15
    Date: 2017
  25. By: Christine Hradek; Helen H. Jensen (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD)); Nicole Schimerowski Miller; Miyoung Oh
    Abstract: The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and the Family Nutrition Program (FNP) (the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education, or SNAP-Ed in Iowa) are community outreach programs in Iowa designed to help teens and adults who have limited income and are parenting acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and practices to improve total family diet and nutritional well-being. This study uses current information on Iowa's EFNEP and FNP today to evaluate the costs and benefits of the two related programs and provides updated information to a study conducted in Iowa from 1998 to 2000.
    Date: 2017–11
  26. By: Naihobe Gonzalez; Sophie MacIntyre; Pilar Beccar-Varela
    Abstract: This brief summarizes findings on the implementation and impacts of Leveled Literacy Intervention in Oakland, where the district conducted the nation’s first randomized controlled trial of this intensive reading program in secondary grades.
    Keywords: adolescent literacy, Leveled Literacy Intervention, secondary education, educational interventions
    JEL: I
  27. By: Laura Recuero Virto (CESCO (MHNH) et ARAFER)
    Abstract: The SDGs are intended to address sustainable development processes in both developed and developing countries, and to facilitate action at all levels and with all actors, including government, civil society, the private sector and the science community to strengthen the capacity of the State to achieve the desired outcomes. The SDG 14 “Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development” covers, among other features, economic pressures on the marine environment, as well as the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and coastal communities since they are particularly impacted by the economic pressures and dependent on the oceans in socio-economic terms. This paper reviews the rational for the SDG 14, as well as the framework for the SDG 14 indicators including (i) the basic concepts, i.e. the role of uncertainty, irreversibility and thresholds in the marine context, the multidimensionality of the SDG 14 indicators, and how to ensure effective SDG 14 monitoring and implementation through SMART SDG 14 targets; (ii) synergies and trade-offs among the SDG 14 targets and between SDG 14 and other SDGs targets, and how to track progress on policy coherence at the national level; (iii) synergies between SDG 14 indicators, and ocean-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 7 and Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) targets and indicators; and (iv) the role of non-traditional sources of data such as big data. In addition, some preliminary indicators for the SDG 14 at the global and national scales (France) are also explored. As a result of this analysis, some areas for future research in the framework of SDG 14 indicators are proposed, i.e. building on the frontiers of ocean science, the development of innovative approaches for data collection, the development of common approaches in valuing marine ecosystem services and national accounting, the provision of incentives for best practice and peer-learning, the harmonisation of measurement methodologies and the selection of SDG 14 indicators according to the geographical level of intervention.
    Keywords: Oceans, sustainable development goals, indicators
    JEL: Q01 Q20 Q30
    Date: 2018–02
  28. By: Ejermo, Olof (Department of Economic History, Lund University); Toivanen, Hannes (Teqmine)
    Abstract: In 2007 Finland changed ownership rights to inventions from its employees – "the professor’s privilege" – to universities. We investigate how this change affected academic patenting using new data on inventors and patenting in Finland for the period 1995- 2010. Matched sample panel data regressions using difference-in-differences show that patenting by individuals dropped by at least 29 percent after 2007. Unlike other countries studied, in Finland the reform was known before implementation. Adding the period after announcement to the reform period increases the drop in academic patenting to 46 percent. Our and others’ results call into question whether the European reform of the professor’s privilege were good innovation policy.
    Keywords: academic patenting; Finland; professor’s privilege; university ownership
    JEL: I23 I28 O31 O32 O34 O38
    Date: 2018–03–02
  29. By: Elena Capatina (UNSW Sydney); Michael P. Keane (UNSW Sydney); Shiko Maruyama (University of Technology Sydney)
    Abstract: In the US healthcare system, patients of different socio-economic status (SES) often receive disparate treatment for similar conditions. Prior work documents this phenomenon for particular treatments/conditions, but we take a system-wide view and examine socioeconomic disparities in spending for all medical conditions at the 3-digit ICD-9 level. We also compare SES spending gradients for those covered by private vs. public insurance (Medicare). Using data on adult respondents from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2000-14, we estimate multivariate regressions for individual medical spending (total and out-of-pocket) controlling for medical conditions, demographics, health, and insurance, separately by sex, education, and age. Within age-sex categories, we assess how spending on each condition varies with education (a proxy for SES). In the predominantly privately insured population aged 24-64, system spending for several of the most socially costly conditions is strongly increasing in education (e.g., breast cancer for women and chest symptoms for men). These disparities are not explained by differences in health, insurance status, or ability-to-pay, suggesting they arise due to discrimination. However, we find no positive SES gradients for individuals over 64 covered by the public Medicare program, suggesting that Medicare plays an important role in improving equity.
    Keywords: Education gradient, Health insurance systems, Healthcare equity, Private and Public health insurance, Socio-economic disparities
    JEL: I13 I14 I18
    Date: 2018–02
  30. By: Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory
    Abstract: Summarizes peer-reviewed research, research conducted by regional and national industry representatives, and a convening of regional employers in western Pennsylvania to describe soft skills that employers look for in new hires.
    Keywords: career readiness, soft skills
    JEL: I
  31. By: Alem, Yonas (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Dugoua, Eugenie (Columbia University)
    Abstract: In order to understand the extent of the information barrier to adoption of a household technology, we designed a randomized controlled trial on willingness to pay (WTP) for solar lanterns in India. We gave high quality solar lanterns to randomly selected `seed' households in a non-electrified region of the state of Uttar Pradesh. Three friends of the seed household were randomly assigned to one of the following three groups: control, passive learning and incentivized communication. We elicit WTP from the control group when the seed receives the solar lantern. We elicit WTP from the friends in the passive learning and incentivized communication groups thirty days after the seed receives the solar lantern. We show that passive learning increases WTP by 90% and incentivized communication by 145% relative to the control group. We also show that learning from others is the mechanism that drives the observed WTP by peers.
    Keywords: Social Networks; Passive Learning; Active Communication; Solar Lantern
    JEL: D83 O33 Q21 Q42
    Date: 2018–03
  32. By: McGuinness, Seamus; Whelan, Adele; Bergin, Adele
    Date: 2017
  33. By: Peter, Noemi (Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Groningen); Lundborg, Petter (Department of Economics, Lund University); Mikkelsen, Sara (Department of Economics, Lund University); Webbink, Dinand (Erasmus School of Economics, Rotterdam)
    Abstract: We examine how the gender of a sibling affects earnings, education and family formation. Identification is complicated by parental preferences: if parents prefer certain sex compositions over others, children's gender affects not only the outcomes of other children but also the existence of potential additional children. We employ two empirical strategies that both address this problem. First, we look at a sample of dizygotic (i.e. non-identical) twins. Second, we use a large sample of singletons to estimate whether first-borns are affected by the gender of their second-born sibling. We find that a same-sex sibling increases men's earnings and family formation outcomes (marriage and number of children), as compared to an opposite-sex sibling. Women with a same-sex sibling also earn more and are somewhat more likely to form a family in the singleton sample. A large part of the positive effect on men's income can be explained by competition among brothers. Women on the other hand seem to benefit from sisters because of shared labor market networks. The effects on family formation might stem from differential parental treatment for men, and from competition between sisters for women.
    Keywords: sibling gender; sex composition; twins; income; schooling; fertility
    JEL: J00 J13 J16 J24
    Date: 2018–02–26
  34. By: Deniz Karaoğlan (Department of Economics, Bahçeşehir University, Istanbul, Turkey); Dürdane Sirin Saracoglu (Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey)
    Abstract: In this study we investigate whether women’s education, labor market status and their status within the household have any impact on their choice of a birth control method in Turkey. We use the 2013 round of Demographic Health Survey (DHS) dataset which includes information about women’s education levels and occupation types as well as other socioeconomic status indicators. The DHS also reports whether women use relatively more effective modern (i.e. IUD, pill, etc.) or traditional (i.e. withdrawal) methods. In the empirical analysis, we apply multivariate logistic estimation techniques and control for women’s other indicators of socioeconomic status such as age, ethnicity, and wealth. We find that woman’s education level and urban residence are the leading determinants that explain the choice of modern contraceptive methods. We also observe that women who are unemployed, inactive or unpaid family workers are less likely to use modern contraceptive methods compared to wage-earner women.
    Keywords: Human capital theory; fertility; contraceptive choice; women’s socioeconomic status; logit estimation; Turkey
    JEL: J13 J21 J24
    Date: 2018–02
  35. By: Yin, Hang (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: We estimate the value of travel time savings with a discrete choice model using data from choice experiments on both car drivers and public transport users in Beijing. We find that, compared with public transport users, car drivers would be willing to pay more to save one hour during their commute; crowding inside the bus and subway carriage is very important for public transport users; the value of time saving is higher in the morning than in the evening; and the marginal willingness to pay for commuting time savings varies according to gender, income, education, and time flexibility. Moreover, we compare results from a model addressing attribute non-attendance and a standard model. The results from the model addressing non-attendance are more plausible, with higher consistency in estimated parameters and lower standard deviations.
    Keywords: Value of commuting time; attribute non-attendance; preference heterogeneity
    JEL: C25 R41
    Date: 2018–03
  36. By: Shikhar Sarin (Boise State University); Christophe Haon (GEM - Grenoble Ecole de Management - Grenoble École de Management (GEM), IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Mustapha Belkhouja (MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM))
    Abstract: This essay takes a longitudinal look at the knowledge flow patterns between major technology and innovation man- agement (TIM) journals and the effect on their impact factors. We analyze the flow of 29,776 citations from 4171 articles published in the top six dedicated TIM journals between 1999 and 2013. Findings indicate one subset of journals becoming more firmly rooted in the TIM domain, while the others becoming increasingly insulated from it. JPIM displays peculiar knowledge flow patterns, suggesting a broadening of its knowledge base and impact. Our bibliometric analysis provides one of the most comprehensive and detailed year-by-year looks at the intradomain knowledge exchange patterns over a 15-year period.
    Date: 2018
  37. By: Michal burzynski (University of Luxembourg, CREA); Christoph Deuster (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES) and Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal); Frédéric Docquier (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES), National Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS), Belgium and Université d'Auvergne, FERDI, France)
    Abstract: This paper characterizes the recent evolution of the geographic distribution of talent, and studies its implications for development inequality. Assuming the continuation of recent educational and immigration policies, it produces integrated projections of income, population, urbanization and human capital for the 21st century. To do so, we develop and parameterize a two-sector, two-class, world economy model that endogenizes education decisions, population growth, labor mobility, and income disparities across countries and across regions/sectors (agriculture vs. nonagriculture). We find that the geography of talent matters for global inequality, whatever the size of technological externalities. Low access to education and the sectoral allocation of talent have substantial impacts on inequality, while the effect of international migration is small. We conclude that policies targeting access to all levels of education and sustainable urban development are vital to reduce demographic pressures and global inequality in the long term.
    Keywords: human capital, migration, urbanization, growth, inequality
    JEL: E24 J24 O15
    Date: 2018–02–20

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