nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2018‒02‒12
24 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Parental income and application decisions in post-secondary education By Laukkonen, Marja-Lisa
  2. Higher Education Funding Reforms: A Comprehensive Analysis of Educational and Labour Market Outcomes in England By Ghazala Azmat; Stefania Simion
  3. Parental Job Loss and Application Decisions in Finnish Post-Secondary Education By Laukkonen, Marja-Lisa
  4. The impact of progressive tuition fees on dropping out of higher education: a regression discontinuity design By José Garcia Montalvo
  5. It’s time to learn: understanding the differences in returns to instruction time By Barrios Fernandez, Andrés; Bovini, Giulia
  6. Formal education, malaria preventive behaviour, and children’s malarial status in Tanzania By Ninja Ritter Klejnstrup; Joel Silas Lincoln
  7. The Impact of NCAA Men’s Basketball Probations on the Quantity and Quality of Student Applications and Enrollment By Peter A. Groothuis; Austin F. Eggers; Parker T. Redding
  8. Going Open: Policy Recommendations on Open Education in Europe (OpenEdu Policies) By Andreia Inamorato dos Santos
  9. Higher Education for Smart Specialisation: The case of North East Romania By Elisabetta Marinelli; John Edwards; Cosmina Mironov
  10. Educational inequality in Mozambique By Servaas van der Berg; Carlos da Maia; Cobus Burger
  11. Poor Little Children: The Socioeconomic Gap in Parental Responses to School Disadvantage By Berniell, Inés; Estrada, Ricardo
  12. Science teachers’ satisfaction: Evidence from the PISA 2015 teacher survey By Tarek Mostafa; Judit Pál
  13. Enhancing Teaching Through Innovation in the University: What Teachers should Know and Do. By Bukari, Chei; Owusu, Anthony Akwesi
  14. Healthy business? Managerial education and management in healthcare By Bloom, Nicholas; Lemos, Renata; Sadun, Raffaella; Reenen, John Van
  15. Multigrading and Child Achievement. By Gian Paolo Barbetta; Giuseppe Sorrenti; Gilberto Turati
  16. Policy Approaches to Open Education – Case Studies from 28 EU Member States (OpenEdu Policies) By Andreia Inamorato dos Santos; Fabio Nascimbeni; Paul Bacsich; Javiera Atenas; Stefania Aceto; Daniel Burgos; Yves Punie
  17. Birthplace diversity, income inequality and education gradients in generalised trust: variations in the relevance of cognitive skills across 29 countries By Francesca Borgonovi; Artur Pokropek
  18. Digital Education Policies in Europe and Beyond: Key Design Principles for More Effective Policies By Johannes Conrads; Morten Rasmussen; Niall Winters; Anne Geniet; Laurentz Langer
  19. Quality of Schooling: Child Quantity-Quality Tradeoff, Technological Progress and Economic Growth By Saini, Swati; Keswani Mehra, Meeta
  20. The end of free college in England: implications for quality, enrolments and equity By Murphy, Richard; Scott-Clayton, Judith; Wyness, Gill
  21. For better or worse? – The Effects of Physical Education on Child Development By Knaus, Michael C.; Lechner, Michael; Reimers, Anne K.
  22. Investigating growing inequality in Mozambique By Carlos Gradín; Finn Tarp
  23. Financial Literacy and Intra-Household Decision Making: Evidence from Rwanda By Antonia Grohmann; Annekathrin Schoofs
  24. What do science teachers find most satisfying about their work? By Tarek Mostafa

  1. By: Laukkonen, Marja-Lisa
    Abstract: In 2018, the higher education institutions should no longer use entrance examinations that require extensive preparation and, instead, evaluate prospective students by their general upper secondary school (i.e. high school) matriculation examination grades. While the aim of the reform is to speed up the transition of students from secondary to post-secondary education, there are concerns that the reform increases inequalities between girls and boys and between students from different high schools. On the other hand, the current student admission processes may also generate inequalities between high school students from high- and low-income families. Not all students have resources to take preparation courses or cover the costs of spending gap years to prepare for the exam. Consequently, students from low-income families may either choose not to apply to higher education or end up choosing less selective programs. These application decisions may later affect career opportunities and earnings prospects. However, this aspect of student selections processes has gained less attention in the public debate. In this brief, I document differences in the application behaviors between newly graduated high school students from different family income groups. The findings show that students who have performed equally well on the Finnish language test in the national matriculation examination, but come from low-income families are less likely to apply to universities and choose less selective programs than their peers from high-income families.
    Date: 2018–02–01
  2. By: Ghazala Azmat; Stefania Simion
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of changes in the funding of higher education in England on students' choices and outcomes. Over the last two decades - through three major reforms in 1998, 2006 and 2012 - undergraduate university education in public universities moved from being free to students and state funded to charging substantial tuition fees to all students. This was done in conjunction with the government offering generous means-tested maintenance grants and loans. Using detailed longitudinal micro-data that follows all students attending state schools in England (more than 90 percent of all school-aged children) from lower education to higher education, we document the socio-economic distributional effects of the 2006 and 2012 policy reforms on a comprehensive set of outcomes, including enrolment, relocation decisions, selection of institution, program of study, and performance within university. For a subset of students, we track them after completing higher education, allowing us to study the labour market effects of the policy reforms. Despite the substantial higher education funding reforms, we do not find large aggregate effect on student enrolment or on other margins. Moreover, the small negative impacts found on enrolment were largely borne on those in higher parts of the wealth distribution - reducing the enrolment gap across socioeconomic groups.
    Keywords: higher education, tuition fees, means-tested support, career choices, career outcomes
    JEL: I22 I23 I29 J30
    Date: 2018–02
  3. By: Laukkonen, Marja-Lisa
    Abstract: In Finland, there are no tuition or application fees for post-secondary education. However, the application and admission processes by which the educational institutions select new students may still generate inequalities between prospective applicants from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Institutions select their students based on school and program-specific entrance examinations that measure how well the applicants have mastered predetermined exam materials. Typically, preparing for the exams is time consuming and applicants focus on one entrance exam at a time. Selectivity varies between the schools and programs, depending on the exam performance of the competing applicants. As a result, it can be difficult for students to evaluate their chances of being selected. This uncertainty together with the limited number of applications introduces a strategic component to the application decisions. Furthermore, students from low-income families may not have the resources to take preparation courses or to cover the costs of spending gap years to prepare for the exam. To study the socioeconomic aspect of application decisions, I use information on the newly graduated Finnish general upper secondary school students between the years 2004 and 2013. First, I document differences in application behaviors between students from different family income groups. Students who have performed equally well on the Finnish language test in the national matriculation examination but come from different family income groups exhibit different application behaviors. Compared to their peers from high-income families, students from low-income families are less likely to apply to universities and more likely to apply to polytechnics, send fewer applications overall, and apply to less selective programs. Second, by exploiting information on parental job losses due to plant closures, I investigate the causal impact of family income on the application decisions. I find that parental job losses have no impact on the likelihoods of high school graduates applying to any post-secondary institution, to at least one university or to at least one polytechnic. Instead, the affected students change their application strategies by sending fewer applications and by choosing less selective programs.
    Keywords: Economics, post-secondary education, application strategies, parental job loss
    JEL: I23 I24
    Date: 2018–02–01
  4. By: José Garcia Montalvo
    Abstract: In recent years, and under the pressure of increasing public deficits, a number of countries have decided to increase university fees to compensate for reductions in teaching subsidies financed by taxpayers. Perhaps the best known case is that of the UK. In this paper we analyze a similar policy adopted in Catalonia, Spain. Tuition fees increased 66 percent in the 2012-2013 academic year to compensate for the reduction in public subsidies used to finance Catalan university teaching activities. Interestingly, the increase in fees was progressive, meaning that there was a fee waiver in function of family income. We analyze the distributional impact of this policy change, showing that this progressive tuition fee does not have a differential impact on the dropout rate of students of di erent socioeconomic status. Since eligibility for the full tuition waiver is determined by a sharp cut-off on household income, we use a regression discontinuity design to analyze the effect of the new tuition fees around the full tuition waiver. We nd no evidence of any adverse impact of the new fees on the drop out rates.
    Keywords: Enrollment rate, dropout behavior, tuition fees, scholarships, regression discontinuity design
    JEL: I22 I23 I24
    Date: 2018–01
  5. By: Barrios Fernandez, Andrés; Bovini, Giulia
    Abstract: As hours per day are inherently a limited resource, increasing daily instruction time reduces the amount of time pupils can dedicate to other activities outside school. We study how the effect of longer school days on achievement varies across students and schools. We exploit a large-scale reform of school schedules that substantially increased daily instruction time in Chilean primary schools. We show that the average effect of one additional year of exposure to the longer school day on reading and on mathematics test scores at the end of grade 4 masks substantial heterogeneity. Students from disadvantaged backgrounds benefit more from longer schedules, indicating that returns to time spent at school are larger the scarcer the learning opportunities available at home. Added instruction time yields higher gains in charter than in public schools, suggesting that more autonomy on administrative and pedagogical decisions may increase the effectiveness of other school inputs
    Keywords: instruction time; education reform; heterogeneous effects; charter schools
    JEL: I20 I28
    Date: 2017–12–01
  6. By: Ninja Ritter Klejnstrup; Joel Silas Lincoln
    Abstract: In this study, we assess formal education as a causal determinant of women’s malaria preventive behaviour, as well as children’s risk of malaria infection. For identification, we rely on exogenous variation in educational attainment generated by educational reforms during the 1970s. We use data from a total of four rounds of either Demographic and Health Surveys or Malaria Indicator Surveys, which allows us to explore variation in relationships over time. In the earliest survey rounds (2004–05 and 2007–08), our results indicate that each additional year of schooling increased women’s probability of using malaria prophylaxis during pregnancy by between 3.7 and 14.5 percentage points, and their children’s probability of sleeping under an insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) by between 1.8 and 3.0 percentage points. Results for both women’s use of ITN and children’s malaria status are inconclusive across all survey rounds. We argue that differences in magnitude and strength of evidence of causality between effect estimates for women’s use of malaria prophylaxis and women’s and children’s use of ITN is likely due to differences in the mechanisms linking these outcomes to education, with the latter being mediated by income to a higher degree than the former.
    Date: 2018
  7. By: Peter A. Groothuis; Austin F. Eggers; Parker T. Redding
    Abstract: Collegiate sports programs have been characterized as the front porch of a university, serving to publicize the institution and draw students to the door. Previous research in this area has indicated a positive correlation between athletic success and the quantity and quality of students attending the university. Conversely, we seek to analyze if athletic malfeasance, as measured by NCAA probations of men’s basketball programs, negatively affects either the quantity or quality of students at a university. Our findings suggest that while basketball probations do not change the overall quantity of applications nor enrollment at a university, there is a significant adverse impact on the quality of freshman enrolling at the university as measured by Scholastic Aptitude Test scores. Our finding suggest that athletics do indeed serve as a front porch to a university and that athletic sanctions in men’s basketball have a detrimental effect on the average quality of students attending a university. Key Words: Education, NCAA Probations, SAT Test Scores
    JEL: I23 J24
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Andreia Inamorato dos Santos (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: Open education is an increasingly important part of how educational institutions deliver their public mission and commit to increased quality and more effective education, and it is also a potential means of achieving social inclusion and equal opportunities. Open educational practices provide paths for educational institutions to be more accountable to society, they modernise education by embracing the use of digital technologies, and they also promote transparent strategies. Going open is a process for all involved: institutions, learners and society. It depends on creating both digital and non-digital opportunities to make education more collaborative, more transparent and more inclusive. Open education needs support from policies, via a multi-stakeholder approach, that can act systemically to further advance open education in Member States and create an “open education ecosystem”.
    Keywords: open education policies, open education, OER, open educational resources, education strategy, ministries, open education practices, distance education
    Date: 2017–12
  9. By: Elisabetta Marinelli (European Commission - JRC); John Edwards (European Commission - JRC); Cosmina Mironov (Bucharest University)
    Abstract: This report synthesises the findings of the project Higher Education and Smart Specialisation (HESS) in North East Romania, a region that has been examined as one of the case studies. The project analyses the links between the higher education (HE) system and the development and implementation of Smart Specialisation Strategies (S3). On the one hand, the report identifies the challenges that S3 and the shift towards place-based innovation raise for Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the region; on the other, it explores how HEIs' activities can best support S3 in a region with an early-stage regional innovation system. The case of North East Romania is particularly interesting, as the region hosts well-established universities , that are anchored to their traditional missions of teaching and research, while facing critical questions posed by S3. In particular the report explores how HEIs can contribute to knowledge-based regional development, not only through locally-relevant teaching programmes, but also through territorially grounded research, technology transfer and societal engagement. The case study has employed participatory and qualitative research methods, which have been complemented by desk based research on the policy and socio-economic context.
    Keywords: Smart specialisation, higher education
    Date: 2017–12
  10. By: Servaas van der Berg; Carlos da Maia; Cobus Burger
    Abstract: In very poor countries, inequality often means that a small part of the population maintains living standards far above the rest. This is also true for educational inequality in Mozambique: only a small segment of the population has access to higher levels of education (there are 30 times as many schools offering grade 1 than grade 12) and receives education of a good quality. This study investigates inequality in past attainment, in current school access, and learning or educational quality, by gender, geography and parental socio-economic status. Survey and census data measure attainment and access, while a grade-3 Portuguese test and 2007 SACMEQ tests measure quality. While the gender gap in access has been closed, large geographical and wealth inequalities remain. The South—particularly Maputo City—is far better served than other regions or provinces, while richer children remain in school longer. The overall weakness of the school system limits its ability to overcome these inequalities. In developing countries, women’s decisions concerning their children’s health depend on ‘empowerment’ concerning decision-making, husband/partner’s use of violence, woman’s attitude towards this violence, available information, and resources. We derive an empowerment indicator using the ‘fuzzy sets’ and Alkire and Foster approaches to multidimensional poverty measurement. The health of children is a latent variable; their height and weight are observed health indicators. We apply the ‘MIMIC’ approach to the 2009 Mozambique Demographic and Health Survey. Children’s health is better when the woman opposes her partner’s violence, the higher her education and body mass index, among female children, and in urban areas.
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Berniell, Inés; Estrada, Ricardo
    Abstract: In this paper, we study how parents react to a widely-used school policy that puts some children at a learning disadvantage. Specifically, we first document that, in line with findings in other countries, younger children in Spain perform significantly worse at school than their older peers and – key to causal interpretation – that for children born in winter this effect is not due to birth seasonality. Furthermore, the age of school entry effect is significantly greater among children from disadvantaged families. To understand why, we analyze detailed data on parental investment and find that college-educated parents increase their time investment and choose schools with better inputs when their children are the youngest at school entry, while non-college-educated parents do not.
    Keywords: Educación, Economía, Equidad e inclusión social, Investigación socioeconómica, Pobreza, Políticas públicas, Familia,
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Tarek Mostafa (OECD); Judit Pál (OECD)
    Abstract: In 2015, for the first time in its history, PISA (the Programme for International Student Assessment) asked teachers to describe the various aspects of their working environment and teaching practices. This paper examines how teacher, student and school characteristics are related to science teachers’ satisfaction in 19 PISA-participating countries and economies. The findings show that the most satisfied science teachers tend to be those who are initially motivated to become teachers. The results also highlight the positive relationship between science teachers’ satisfaction and teacher collaboration, good disciplinary climate in science classes, availability of school resources, and the opportunity to participate in professional-development activities.
    Date: 2018–02–07
  13. By: Bukari, Chei; Owusu, Anthony Akwesi
    Abstract: Burgeoning literature in education have shown an affirmed resolve of educators to adopt modern productive teaching approaches to ensure maximum learning outcomes. There is indubitably a serious need for teachers in higher educational institutions to focus on ways of enhancing teaching and learning. However, few researchers appear to have focused on the subject. This working paper, by employing the narrative design, examined the teaching enterprise with emphasis on moving from pedagogy to andragogy as a harbinger for the creation of autonomous self-directed adults. The paper advocates for pragmatic teaching strategies for teachers at this level. It concludes that university teachers must necessarily take advantage of the-now-increasing avenues for knowledge nourishment widely provided by outstanding journals, conference, articles and scholarly books among other knowledge outlets. Teachers are urged to profiteer from the wide range of polished teaching options espoused and circulated via the media. It is the paper‘s view that implementing contemporary teaching methods is the only panacea to tackling the current phenomenon of qualification inflation that has virtually led to the reduction of the academic currency among graduates. The paper‘s firm belief is that with innovative teaching methods, teachers desire for excellence in the classroom is already a forgone conclusion
    Keywords: contemporary approaches; experiential learning, collaborated learning, Problem-based learning, student voice, active students participation
    JEL: A2 B5
    Date: 2017–01–31
  14. By: Bloom, Nicholas; Lemos, Renata; Sadun, Raffaella; Reenen, John Van
    Abstract: We investigate the link between hospital performance and managerial education by collecting a large database of management practices and skills in hospitals across nine countries. We find that hospitals that are closer to universities offering both medical education and business education have higher management quality, more MBA trained managers and lower mortality rates. This is true compared to the distance to universities that offer only business or medical education (or neither). We argue that supplying joint MBA-healthcare courses may be a channel through which universities increase medical business skills and raise clinical performance
    Keywords: management; hospitals; mortality; education
    JEL: I1 M1
    Date: 2017–09–01
  15. By: Gian Paolo Barbetta (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore; Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore); Giuseppe Sorrenti; Gilberto Turati (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore; Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: We exploit Italian law DPR 81/2009, which determines class composition, as an instrument to identify the causal e ect of grouping students of di erent grades into a single class (multigrading) on children cognitive achievement. This article focuses on 7-yearold students|those at the beginning of their formal education. Results suggest that attendance in multigrade classes versus single-grade classes increases students' performance on standardized tests by 15{20 percent of a standard deviation. The positive impact of multigrading only appears for children sharing their class with peers from higher grades and is relatively stronger for students from disadvantaged backgrounds.
    Keywords: Multigrade classes, child development, peer e ects, rural areas .
    JEL: I28 R53
    Date: 2018–01
  16. By: Andreia Inamorato dos Santos (European Commission - JRC); Fabio Nascimbeni (UNIR); Paul Bacsich (UNIR); Javiera Atenas (UNIR); Stefania Aceto (UNIR); Daniel Burgos (UNIR); Yves Punie (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This study provides the first-ever EU-wide overview of the state of play with policies on open education involving all the 28 Member States. For each Member State, a full account of their understanding of open education and strategic policy approach is given.
    Keywords: open education policies, open education, OER, higher education, open access, MOOC, recognition of learning, ICT in education, EU Member States, educational policy
    Date: 2017–12
  17. By: Francesca Borgonovi (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development); Artur Pokropek (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The paper examines between-country differences in the mechanisms through which education could promote generalised trust using data from 29 countries participating in the OECD’s Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). Results indicate that education is strongly associated with generalised trust and that a large part of this association is mediated by individuals’ literacy skills, income and occupational prestige. However, education gradients in levels of generalised trust and in the extent to which they are due to social stratification mechanisms or cognitive skills mechanisms vary across countries. Social diversity, indicated by the presence and diversity of migrant populations and levels of income inequality, explain between country differences in the direct and indirect effects of education on trust. In particular, the relationship between literacy skills and generalised trust is stronger in the presence of more and more diverse migrant populations but is weaker in the presence of greater income inequality.
    Keywords: Trust, Education, PIAAC, Survey of Adult Skills, Resilience, Inequality, Diversity
    Date: 2017–12
  18. By: Johannes Conrads; Morten Rasmussen; Niall Winters; Anne Geniet; Laurentz Langer
    Abstract: This report offers policy-makers in digital education evidence on how, at the national or regional level, policies can be designed and implemented to foster digital-age learning. The presented findings are the result of a mixed methodological design comprising four parts: desk-research on digital education policy, the identification of national and regional policies worldwide, six in-depth case studies, and an expert workshop. The discussion of the cases identified and studied in depth leads to the formulation of eight core-guiding principles, which can serve as a reference point for policy-makers for the design and implementation of digital education policies: 1. Follow a holistic approach targeting systemic change; 2. Establish both a long-term vision and short-term achievable goals; 3. Deploy technology as a means not an end; 4. Embrace experimentation, risk-taking and failure; 5. Consider the importance and the limits of impact assessment; 6. Involve all stakeholders in a structured dialogue; 7. Let schools and teachers have a say; 8. Build up teaching competence.
    Keywords: Education, education policies, ICT, digital
    Date: 2017–12
  19. By: Saini, Swati; Keswani Mehra, Meeta
    Abstract: An overlapping generations version of an R&D-based growth model `a la Diamond (1965) and Jones (1995) is built to examine how improvement in quality of schooling impact technical progress and longrun economic growth of an economy by influencing fertility and education decisions at household level. The results indicate that improvement in schooling quality triggers a child quantity-quality trade-off at household level when quality of schooling exceeds an endogenously determined threshold. At the household level, parents invest more in education of children and have lesser number of children in response to improvement in quality of schooling. This micro-level tradeoff has two opposing effects on aggregate human capital accumulation at macro level. Higher investment in education of a child stimulates the accumulation of human capital which fosters technical progress but the simultaneous decline in fertility rate reduces the total factor productivity growth and economic growth by contracting the pool of available researchers. The first effect prevails over latter only when quality of schooling is higher than the threshold
    Keywords: Human capital;fertility ;quality of schooling; economic growth; innovation ;demographic transition
    JEL: I25 J11 J13 O31
    Date: 2017–12–17
  20. By: Murphy, Richard; Scott-Clayton, Judith; Wyness, Gill
    Abstract: Despite increasing financial pressures on higher education systems throughout the world, many governments remain resolutely opposed to the introduction of tuition fees, and some countries and states where tuition fees have been long established are now reconsidering free higher education. This paper examines the consequences of charging tuition fees on university quality, enrolments, and equity. To do so, we study the English higher education system which has, in just two decades, moved from a free college system to one in which tuition fees are among the highest in the world. Our findings suggest that England’s shift has resulted in increased funding per head, rising enrolments, and a narrowing of the participation gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students. In contrast to other systems with high tuition fees, the English system is distinct in that its income-contingent loan system keeps university free at the point of entry, and provides students with comparatively generous assistance for living expenses. We conclude that tuition fees, at least in the English case supported their goals of increasing quality, quantity, and equity in higher education
    Keywords: higher education; financial aid; tuition fees; inequality
    JEL: I22 I23 I28
    Date: 2017–10–01
  21. By: Knaus, Michael C.; Lechner, Michael; Reimers, Anne K.
    Abstract: This study analyzes the effects of regular physical education at school on cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills, motor skills, physical activity, and health. It is based on a very informative data set, the German Motorik-Modul, and identifies the effect by using variation in the required numbers of physical education lessons across and within German federal states. The results show improvements in cognitive skills. Boys’ non-cognitive skills are adversely affected driven by increased peer relation problems. For girls, the results suggest improvements in motor skills and increased extra-curricular physical activities. Generally, we find no statistically significant effects on health parameters.
    Keywords: Physical education, cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills, motor skills, physical activity, health
    JEL: I12
    Date: 2018–01
  22. By: Carlos Gradín; Finn Tarp
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the long-term trend of consumption inequality in Mozambique. We show that an imbalanced growth path disproportionally benefited the better-off and caused increasing inequality, especially in more recent years, curbing the necessary reduction in poverty. Using a regression decomposition technique, our results suggest that this trend was strongly associated with the higher attained education of household heads and with changes in the structure of the economy (with less workers in the public and subsistence sectors). The trend was, however, mitigated by the tendency for the higher level of attained education and the smaller public sector to become associated with less inequality over time. These results point to the importance of accelerating the expansion of education and improving the productivity of the large subsistencesector to lower inequality in line with the sustainable development goals.
    Date: 2017
  23. By: Antonia Grohmann; Annekathrin Schoofs
    Abstract: Despite considerable policy efforts, women continue to be underrepresented in positions of power and decision making. As an important aspect of women empowerment, we examine women’s participation in intrahousehold financial decision making and how this is affected by financial literacy. Using both OLS and IV regression analysis, we show that women with higher financial literacy are more involved in household financial decisions. In line with the literature, we further find that women are less financially literate than men. Results from decomposition analysis show that education and personality traits (openness, happiness, and depression) drive this financial literacy gender gap.
    Keywords: financial literacy, women empowerment, intra-household decision making
    JEL: D14 J16 G02
    Date: 2018
  24. By: Tarek Mostafa
    Abstract: Teachers play a vital role in the lives of their students. They impart knowledge, provide pastoral care, act as role models and, above all, create an environment that’s conducive to learning. But teaching is fraught with numerous challenges that could lead to dissatisfaction; some teachers might decide to leave the profession entirely. In fact, in many countries around the world, high attrition rates are considered to be the most important factor contributing to the shortage of qualified science teachers. So what is it that science teachers find satisfying about their work – satisfying enough that they want to keep teaching, despite any challenges they might face?
    Date: 2018–02–07

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