nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2018‒02‒05
25 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Impact of High School Financial Education on Financial Knowledge and Choices: Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Spain By Bover, Olympia; Hospido, Laura; Villanueva, Ernesto
  2. Parents, Siblings and Schoolmates: The Effects of Family-School Interactions on Educational Achievement and Long-Term Labor Market Outcomes By Bertoni, Marco; Brunello, Giorgio; Cappellari, Lorenzo
  3. Goals and Gaps: Educational Careers of Immigrant Children By Carlana, Michela; La Ferrara, Eliana; Pinotti, Paolo
  4. The Native-Migrant Gap in the Progression into and through Upper-Secondary Education By Wolter, Stefan C.; Zumbühl, Maria
  5. Preschool Attendance, School Progression, and Cognitive Skills in East Africa By Bietenbeck, Jan; Ericsson, Sanna; Wamalwa, Fredrick M.
  6. Cost efficiency analysis of public higher education institutions in Uzbekistan By Shukhrat Kholmuminov; Robert E Wright
  7. Academic breeding grounds: Home department conditions and early career performance of academic researchers By Broström, Anders
  8. Resource dependence analysis of public higher education institutions in Uzbekistan By Shukhrat Kholmuminov; Shayzak Kholmuminov; Robert E Wright
  9. The Effects of Supply Shocks in the Market for Apprenticeships: Evidence from a German High School Reform By Mühlemann, Samuel; Pfann, Gerard A.; Pfeifer, Harald; Dietrich, Hans
  10. Socioemotional Skills, Education, and Health-Related Outcomes of High-Ability Individuals By Savelyev, Peter A.; Tan, Kegon T.K.
  11. Maternal employment and child outcomes: evidence from the Irish marriage bar By Irene Mosca; Vincent O'Sullivan; Robert E Wright
  12. Countercyclical school attainment and intergenerational mobility By ARENAS, Andreu,; MALGOUYRES, Clément,
  13. Does Class Size Matter for School Tracking Outcomes after Elementary School? Quasi-Experimental Evidence Using Administrative Panel Data from Germany By Argaw, Bethlehem A.; Puhani, Patrick A.
  14. Ordering History Through the Timeline By Garibaldi, Eugenio; Garibaldi, Pietro
  15. How do primary and secondary teachers compare? By OECD
  16. Do School Spending Cuts Matter? Evidence from the Great Recession By C. Kirabo Jackson; Cora Wigger; Heyu Xiong
  17. Cambodia Macroeconomic Impacts of Public Consumption on Education: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach By Ear Sothy; Sim Sokcheng; Khiev Pirom
  18. Unemployment, neets and the social role of education in Europe By Csintalan, Csaba; Bădulescu, Alina
  19. How Far Can Economic Incentives Explain the French Fertility and Education Transition? By de la Croix, David; Perrin, Faustine
  20. Gender Differences in Competitiveness and Risk-Taking among Children, Teenagers, and College Students: Evidence from Jeopardy! By Jetter, Michael; Walker, Jay K.
  21. A Panel Study of Immigrants' Overeducation and Earnings in Australia By Wen, Le; Maani, Sholeh A.
  22. Higher Education in Poland: Budgetary Constraints and International Aspirations By Dorota Dakowska
  23. Explaining the Gender Test Score Gap in Mathematics: The Role of Gender Inequality By Gevrek, Z. Eylem; Neumeier, Christian; Gevrek, Deniz
  24. Exact Likelihood Estimation and Probabilistic Forecasting in Higher-order INAR(p) Models By Lu, Yang
  25. Why Do French Engineers Find Stable Jobs Faster than PhDs? By Margolis, David N.; Miotti, Luis

  1. By: Bover, Olympia (Bank of Spain); Hospido, Laura (Bank of Spain); Villanueva, Ernesto (Bank of Spain)
    Abstract: We conducted a randomized controlled trial where 3,000 9th grade students coming from 78 high schools received a financial education course at different points of the year. Right after the treatment, test performance increased by 16% of one standard deviation, treated youths were more likely to become involved in financial matters at home and showed more patience in hypothetical saving choices. In an incentivized saving task conducted three months after, treated students made more patient choices than a control group of 10th graders. Within randomization strata, the main impacts are also statistically significant in public schools, which over-represent disadvantaged students.
    Keywords: financial education, impact evaluation
    JEL: D14 D91 I22 J24
    Date: 2018–01
  2. By: Bertoni, Marco (University of Padova); Brunello, Giorgio (University of Padova); Cappellari, Lorenzo (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: We use Danish register data to investigate whether the effects of schoolmates' gender and average parental education on individual educational achievement, employment and earnings vary with individual family characteristics such as the gender of siblings and own parental education. We find that boys with sisters have worse employment prospects than boys with no sisters when exposed to a higher share of girls at school. The opposite is true for girls who have sisters. We also show that the benefits from exposure to "privileged" peers accrue mainly to "disadvantaged" students. These benefits decline when the dispersion of parental education increases. Overall, the size of the estimated effects is small.
    Keywords: education peer effects, gender, parental background, human capital production, long term outcomes
    JEL: I21 J16 J24
    Date: 2017–12
  3. By: Carlana, Michela; La Ferrara, Eliana; Pinotti, Paolo
    Abstract: We study the educational choices of children of immigrants in a tracked school system. We first show that immigrant boys in Italy enroll disproportionately into vocational high schools, as opposed to technical and academically-oriented high schools, compared to natives of similar ability. Immigrant girls, instead, choose similar schools as native ones. We then estimate the impact of a large-scale, randomized intervention providing tutoring and career counseling to high-ability immigrant students. Male treated students increase their probability of enrolling into the high track to the same level of natives, also closing the gap in terms of grade retention. There are no significant effects on immigrant females, who exhibit similar choices and performance as native ones in absence of the intervention. Increases in academic motivation and the resulting changes in teachers' recommendation regarding high school choice explain a sizable portion of the effect, while the effect of increases in cognitive skills is negligible. Finally, we find positive spillovers on immigrant classmates of treated students, while there is no effect on native classmates.
    Keywords: aspirations; career choice; immigrants; mentoring; tracking
    JEL: I24 J15
    Date: 2017–12
  4. By: Wolter, Stefan C. (University of Bern); Zumbühl, Maria (University of Bern)
    Abstract: In this paper we follow the students that took the PISA 2012 test in Switzerland and analyze their transition into and progress in uppersecondary education. We observe a substantive difference in the rate of progress between natives and students with a migration background. One year after leaving compulsory school, the gap between the natives and migrants that are on-track – entering the second year of uppersecondary education – is 15 percentage points. Observable differences in cognitive and non-cognitive skills can explain the gap in the success rate within upper-secondary education, but cannot fully explain the difference in the transition rate into upper-secondary education. More refined analyses present results that are consistent with the hypotheses of differences in tastes, aspirations and incomplete or inaccurate information about the education system explaining the gap in the transition into post-compulsory education.
    Keywords: education, migration, occupational choice
    JEL: I24 J15 J24 J62 J71
    Date: 2017–12
  5. By: Bietenbeck, Jan (Lund University); Ericsson, Sanna (Lund University); Wamalwa, Fredrick M. (University of Cape Town)
    Abstract: We study the effects of preschool attendance on children's school progression and cognitive skills in Kenya and Tanzania. Our analysis uses novel data from large-scale household surveys of children's literacy and numeracy skills, which also collect retrospective information on preschool attendance. Against the backdrop of a large expansion of pre-primary education, our regressions identify the impacts from within-household differences, controlling for a variety of child-specific covariates. In both countries, children who go to preschool tend to enroll in primary school late, and thus fall behind in terms of grades completed at early ages. However, once in school, they progress through grades faster and at ages 13-16 have completed about one and a half more months of schooling than their same-aged peers who did not attend preschool. They also score around 0.10 standard deviations higher on standardized cognitive tests, showing that there are important longer-term benefits from preschool in Kenya and Tanzania.
    Keywords: preschool, education, cognitive skills, Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: I21 J24
    Date: 2017–12
  6. By: Shukhrat Kholmuminov (Banking and Finance Academy of the Republic of Uzbekistan); Robert E Wright (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: Over the last decade, the revenue structure of public higher education institutions (HEIs) in Uzbekistan has changed from full government funding to mostly tuition funding. In this paper, a stochastic cost frontier analysis is used in order to examine whether the institutional financial resources obtained mostly from tuition revenue have been utilised efficiently or inefficiently at 58 public HEIs during the period of 2000 to 2013. The Battese and Coelli (1995) method is applied to measure the influences of institution, staff and student characteristics on cost efficiency of the universities. According to mean efficiency scores, the Uzbek universities are not remarkably cost efficient in producing education and research outputs, although the significant improvements in the efficiency followed throughout the sample period. Findings also reveal that HEIs with a greater share of government allocations are less cost efficient relative to those institutions with a smaller share of government allocations.
    Keywords: stochastic frontier, cost efficiency, higher education, Uzbekistan
    JEL: I21 P20
    Date: 2017–03
  7. By: Broström, Anders (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This study investigates how research group characteristics relate to the early career success of PhD candidates who are trained in the group. In particular, we study how the citation impact of early-career PhDs is related to the staff composition and the funding of the group. Using data on a cohort of Swedish doctoral graduates in science, engineering, mathematics and medicine, two sets of findings are obtained. First, students who were trained in groups with a lower number of PhD students perform better in terms of academic productivity. From the perspective of research policy, this finding suggests a decreasing return to funding additional PhD student positions allocated to professors already maintaining larger research groups. Second, PhD students trained in groups whose funding for PhD research is conditioned by funder influence over the topic of thesis research are more likely to stay in academia. Controlling for career destination, however, PhDs from such groups have lower than average scientific productivity and citation impact. These results suggest that funders of PhD studies face a trade-off between the two different funding objectives of “getting what they want” in terms of research content and fostering successful scholars.
    Keywords: academic careers; PhD studies; research funding; research group; research performance
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2018–01–31
  8. By: Shukhrat Kholmuminov (Banking and Finance Academy of the Republic of Uzbekistan); Shayzak Kholmuminov (Tashkent State University of Economics); Robert E Wright (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: Since the early years of independence in 1991, a central topic of higher education in Uzbekistan has been how to fill the gap left by the reduced government funding at public higher education institutions (HEIs). The majority of the Uzbek universities, as in many other countries, have responded to the decline in public allocations through charging significantly increased tuition fees. Therefore, the revenue structure of public HEIs has changed from full government funding to mostly tuition funding over the last decade. Utilising resource dependence theory (RDT), this study empirically investigates whether or not increased institutional reliance on tuition fees as a main source of revenue has augmented the share of institutional expenditures dedicated to educational activities at public HEIs in Uzbekistan over the period 2000-2013. Drawing on a 14-year panel of university-level data and employing an instrumental variable approach that acknowledges the potential endogeneity of institutional tuition revenue, the analysis suggests that institutional expenditures for educational expenses are considerably increased as institutions became more dependent on tuition revenue for their financially sustainable operation. This finding is consistent with the predictions of RDT. Robustness of the empirical findings is also checked utilising several diagnostic models, and the results revealed that the IVs applied during the TSLS estimations are valid and they simultaneously uncorrelated with the error term.
    Keywords: resource dependence theory, higher education finance, Uzbekistan
    JEL: I21 P20
    Date: 2017–03
  9. By: Mühlemann, Samuel (University of Munich); Pfann, Gerard A. (Maastricht University); Pfeifer, Harald (BIBB); Dietrich, Hans (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of the G8 high school reform in Germany. The reform reduced minimum duration to obtain a high school degree (Abitur) from 9 to 8 years. First, we present a simple model based on a CES technology with heterogeneous inputs to conjecture possible effects of a supply shock of high education apprenticeships. Implementation of the reform across states (Länder) has been realized in different years. A difference-in-differences estimation strategy is used to identify the effects of one-time supply shock in market for high-educated apprentices. Training firms almost fully and immediately absorbed the additional supply of high school graduates in the apprenticeship market. No evidence is found for substitution effects between low and high education apprenticeships. The model explains that these effects may be due to sticky and too low collectively bargained wages for high education apprenticeships relative to their productivity. This renders the market for apprenticeships inefficient.
    Keywords: apprenticeship market, labor supply shock, G8 reform
    JEL: I21 J20
    Date: 2018–01
  10. By: Savelyev, Peter A. (College of William and Mary); Tan, Kegon T.K. (University of Rochester)
    Abstract: We use the high IQ Terman sample to estimate relationships between education, socioemotional skills, and health-related outcomes that include health behaviors, lifestyles, and health measures across the lifecycle. By both focusing on a high IQ sample and controlling for IQ in regression models, we mitigate ability bias due to cognitive skill. In addition, we control for detailed personality measures to account for socioemotional skills. We model skills using factor analysis to address measurement error and adopt a powerful stepdown procedure to account for multiple hypothesis testing. We find that among high IQ subjects, education is linked to better health-related outcomes, in contrast to previous evidence. Conscientiousness, Openness, Extraversion, and Neuroticism are linked to various health-related outcomes across the lifecycle. Furthermore, we find that accounting for a comprehensive set of skills, measurement error, and multiple hypothesis testing not only provides greater confidence in several established relationships but also generates novel results.
    Keywords: college education, Big Five personality taxonomy, health behavior, lifestyle, health
    JEL: I12 J24
    Date: 2017–12
  11. By: Irene Mosca (TILDA, Trinity College Dublin); Vincent O'Sullivan (Department of Economics, Lancaster University); Robert E Wright (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between maternal employment and child outcomes using micro-data collected in the third wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. A novel source of exogenous variation in the employment decisions of women is used to investigate this relationship. Between the 1920s and the 1970s in Ireland, women working in certain sectors and jobs were required to leave their jobs once they married. The majority of women affected by this “Marriage Bar†then became mothers and never returned to work, or returned only after several years. Regression analysis is used to compare the educational attainment of the children of mothers who were required to leave employment on marriage because of the Marriage Bar to the educational attainment of the children of mothers who were not required to do so. It is found that the children of mothers affected by the Marriage Bar were about seven percentage points more likely to complete university education than the children of mothers who were not. This is a sizeable effect when compared to the observation that about 40% of the children in the sample completed university education. This effect is found to be robust to alternative specifications that include variables aimed at controlling for differences in maternal occupation, personality traits, and differences in paternal education.
    Keywords: marriage, mother, employment, child, university education
    JEL: J12 J16 J20
    Date: 2017–10
  12. By: ARENAS, Andreu, (CORE, Université catholique de Louvain); MALGOUYRES, Clément, (Banque de France)
    Abstract: We study how economic conditions at the time of choosing post-compulsory education affect intergenerational mobility. Exploiting local variation in birthplace unemployment rate at age 16 across 23 cohorts in France, we find that cohorts deciding on post-compulsory education in bad economic times are more educationally mobile - their level of education is less related to having a white-collar father. These cohorts are also more occupationally mobile; and a large fraction of this effect is explaiend by business cycle-induced differences in educational attainment. Accounting for differential spatial mobility between birth and age 16 by parental background confirms the results.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility, business cycle, human capital, occupational choice
    JEL: J24 I21 E24
    Date: 2017–12–22
  13. By: Argaw, Bethlehem A. (Leibniz University of Hannover); Puhani, Patrick A. (Leibniz University of Hannover)
    Abstract: We use administrative panel data on about a quarter of a million students in the German state of Hesse to estimate the causal effect of class size on school tracking outcomes after elementary school. Our identification strategy relies on the quasi-random assignment of students to different class sizes based on maximum class size rules. In Germany, students are tracked into more or less academic middle school types at about age ten based, to a large extent, on academic achievement in elementary school. We mostly find no or small effects of class size in elementary school on receiving a recommendation or on the actual choice to attend the more academic middle school type. For male students, we find that an increase in class size by 10 students would reduce their chance of attending the higher school track – which more than 40 percent of students attend – by 3 percentage points.
    Keywords: class size, panel, administrative data, education production
    JEL: I21 I28
    Date: 2017–12
  14. By: Garibaldi, Eugenio (Bocconi University); Garibaldi, Pietro (University of Turin)
    Abstract: History is a key subject in most educational system in Western countries, and there is ongoing concern about the the degree of historical knowledge and historical sensibility that students obtain after their high school graduation. This paper proposes a simple linetime test for quantitatively measuring a human sense of history. The paper reports the results of the test administered to approximately 250 Italian university students. There are two empirical results. First, students have remarkable difficulties in ordering basic events over the time line, with the largest mistakes observed around the events that took place in the Middle Age. Second, the paper uncovers a statistical regularity in the test performance across gender, with female subjects featuring a statistical significant and quantitatively sizable downward score. The gender difference is surprising, since existing literature on differences in cognitive abilities across gender suggests that female subjects outperform male subjects in memory related tests. The paper shows also that the gender difference survives to a variety of sub periods, and falls by only 20 percent when we distinguish between violent and non violent events.
    Keywords: sense of time, gender differences
    JEL: I12
    Date: 2017–12
  15. By: OECD
    Abstract: While policy debate is often focused on the whole teaching profession, primary and secondary teachers differ in more ways than one. While all countries require teachers to have at least a bachelor degree to enter the profession in primary or lower secondary education, the structure and content of the programmes vary and are less geared towards practice at secondary than primary level. Primary school teachers spend on average 10% more of their working time teaching, though their class size will be slightly smaller. Finally, primary teachers’ salaries are less competitive than their lower secondary peers in more than half of the countries. Improving the attractiveness and effectiveness of the teaching profession can only be addressed by recognising these differences and adapting a differentiated policy to address the challenges of each.
    Date: 2018–02–01
  16. By: C. Kirabo Jackson; Cora Wigger; Heyu Xiong
    Abstract: Audits of public school budgets routinely find evidence of waste. Also, recent evidence finds that when school budgets are strained, public schools can employ cost-saving measures with no ill-effect on students. We theorize that if budget cuts induce schools to eliminate wasteful spending, the effects of spending cuts may be small (and even zero). To explore this empirically, we examine how student performance responded to school spending cuts induced by the Great Recession. We link nationally representative test score and survey data to school spending data and isolate variation in recessionary spending cuts that were unrelated to changes in economic conditions. Consistent with the theory, districts that faced large revenue cuts disproportionately reduced spending on non-core operations. However, they still reduced core operational spending to some extent. A 10 percent school spending cut reduced test scores by about 7.8 percent of a standard deviation. Moreover, a 10 percent spending reduction during all four high-school years was associated with 2.6 percentage points lower graduation rates. While our estimates are smaller than some in the literature, spending cuts do matter.
    JEL: H0 H61 I2 I20 J0
    Date: 2018–01
  17. By: Ear Sothy; Sim Sokcheng; Khiev Pirom
    Abstract: Employing the available social accounting matrix, this paper examines the impacts of different public education consumption schemes on Cambodian macroeconomics, the labour market and household welfare. The results from the simulation scenarios in the CGE model revealed that the reallocation of public spending from primary and secondary education to higher education produced a negative impact on the wage rate of low and fairly educated labour, dropped outputs, and reduced household welfare, which had adverse effects on macroeconomic variables in general. However, the shift of public spending from administration to the three education sectors, showed positive impacts on the economy, household income and welfare. Given the factor endowment structure of the Cambodian education sector, the policy that focuses on higher education by providing more spending to this sector did not yield results as good as keeping the initial education spending structure.
    Keywords: Public education spending, labour market, household Welfare, CGE, simulation modeling
    JEL: C63 C67 C68
    Date: 2017
  18. By: Csintalan, Csaba; Bădulescu, Alina
    Abstract: Education is maybe the most important engine for economic and social development and cultural empowerment, and also the most beneficial investment that a government cand make. In this paper we present a short overview on the socio-educational situation of the young people in Europe. If we refer to the social situation, the role of education becomes an undeniable one, regarding the support of the learners from a socio-economic point of view. Starting from the premise that education represents the society’s health, the education must be considered as the most important factor regarding the situation of the unemployed people from different age groups. Knowing that the higher the level of education of individuals, the more appropriate and probable are the individuals’ commitments during work. This leads to the hypothesis of a socio-economic climate, beneficial growth and further economic development. Moreover, we investigate several employment indicators, such as the unemployment rate at the European level, from the age groups of 15-24, on the period 2013-2015. We particularly investigate data in the base of some indicators, part of the training process in countries such as Poland, Estonia, Hungary and Bulgaria.
    Keywords: education, public expenditure, unemployment, NEET
    JEL: H52 I21 J21 P51
    Date: 2017–05–26
  19. By: de la Croix, David; Perrin, Faustine
    Abstract: We analyze how much a core rational-choice model can explain the temporal and spatial variation in fertility and school enrollment in France during the 19th century. The originality of our approach is in our reliance on the structural estimation of a system of first-order conditions to identify the deep parameters. Another new dimension is our use of gendered education data, allowing us to have a richer theory having implications for the gender wage and education gaps. Results indicate that the parsimonious rational-choice model explains 38 percent of the variation of fertility over time and across counties, as well as 71 percent and 83 percent of school enrollment of boys and girls, respectively. The analysis of the residuals (unexplained by the economic model) indicates that additional insights might be gained by interacting incentives with cross-county differences in family structure and cultural barriers.
    Keywords: demographic transition; education; Family macroeconomics; France; Gender Gap; Quality-Quantity Tradeoff
    JEL: J13 N33 O11
    Date: 2017–12
  20. By: Jetter, Michael (University of Western Australia); Walker, Jay K. (Old Dominion University)
    Abstract: Studying competitiveness and risk-taking among Jeopardy! contestants in the US, this paper analyzes whether and how gender differences emerge with age and by gender of opponent. Our samples contain 186 children (aged 10–12), 310 teenagers (aged 13–17), and 299 undergraduate college students. We measure competitiveness via the likelihood of (i) winning an episode, (ii) responding to a clue (i.e., 'buzzing' in), and (iii) responding correctly to a clue. Risk-taking is assessed via Daily Double wagering decisions. We identify no noticeable gender differences in our competitive measures throughout all three samples, but this result changes when considering risk-taking. Although we identify no gender differences in wagering for children, males begin to wager substantially more as they become teenagers, leading to the emergence of the gender gap. In terms of magnitude, teenage girls wager 7.3 percentage points less of their maximum wager than teenage boys, equivalent to approximately $451. This gap persists for college students, albeit with a somewhat smaller magnitude of $297. Finally, male teenagers and college students wager substantially less when competing against females. In turn, the gender of opponents does not influence female competitive behavior and risk-taking.
    Keywords: competitiveness, risk preferences, gender differences, performance under high pressure, gender of opponents
    JEL: D81 D91 J16
    Date: 2017–12
  21. By: Wen, Le (University of Auckland); Maani, Sholeh A. (University of Auckland)
    Abstract: The recent literature on overeducation has provided divergent results on whether or not overeducation bears an earnings penalty. In addition, few studies have considered overeducation among immigrants. This paper uses panel data analyses to investigate the match between education and occupation and resulting earnings effects for immigrants from English Speaking, and Non-English Speaking, Backgrounds relative to the native-born population in Australia. Based on nine years of longitudinal data, the panel approach addresses individual heterogeneity effects (motivation, ability, and compensating differentials) that are crucial in overeducation analysis. First, we find that immigrants have significantly higher incidence rates of overeducation than the native-born. This probability increases, rather than diminishes, once we control for unobserved correlated effects. Second, based on panel fixed effects analyses there is no penalty for overeducation for ESB immigrants. However, NESB immigrants receive a lower return to required and overeducation compared to the other groups after controlling for individual heterogeneity.
    Keywords: over-education, educational mismatch, immigrants, non-English-speaking, panel data, wage effects
    JEL: J24 J15 J31
    Date: 2017–12
  22. By: Dorota Dakowska (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The case of Central and Eastern European Countries – especially Poland – invites us to reconsider the temporal and political aspects of the reconfiguration of Higher Education with regard to austerity measures. The financial crisis of 2007/2008 cannot be viewed as the main trigger of this sector’s redesign, for two main reasons. First, the Polish economy has not been hit by this economic turmoil as hard as some West European countries. Secondly, the structural austerity measures which have affected the country’s public sector followed the 1989 fall of the Communist regime and the ‘shock therapy’ implemented by the first democratic governments. These neo-liberal policy measures set up in the beginning of the 1990s have led to a far-reaching privatisation of Higher Education. Still, 2007 appears as a caesura, as the new liberal government undertook several important measures to reform the Higher Education systems in the name of competitiveness, diversification and excellence.
    Keywords: Academic profession,Neo-liberalism,academic work,competitiveness,austerity,Poland,Higher Education
    Date: 2017
  23. By: Gevrek, Z. Eylem (Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto); Neumeier, Christian (University of Konstanz); Gevrek, Deniz (Texas A&M University Corpus Christi)
    Abstract: Using data from the 2012 PISA across 56 countries, this study examines the link between societal gender inequalities and the gender test score gap in mathematics. We employ a novel two-stage empirical strategy in which the first stage involves decomposing the gender mathematics gap into a part that is explained by gender differences in observable characteristics and a part that remains unexplained. We use a semiparametric Oaxaca-Blinder (OB) decomposition to analyze the gap in each country individually. In the second stage, we investigate whether the decomposition components of the gap are systematically related to country-level gender inequality measures. The results indicate that the gap is not statistically significantly associated with the indicators of gender inequality, but the unexplained part of the gap is. In more gender-equal countries, the unexplained part of the gap favoring boys appears smaller. Moreover, we find that the relationship between the unexplained part of the gap and the societal gender inequality varies within the test score distribution, and tends to become less pronounced at the upper end of the distribution.
    Keywords: gender math gap, Semiparametric Oaxaca Blinder decomposition, culture
    JEL: C14 I24 I25 J16
    Date: 2018–01
  24. By: Lu, Yang
    Abstract: The computation of the likelihood function and the term structure of probabilistic forecasts in higher-order INAR(p) models are qualified numerically intractable and the literature has considered various approximations. Using the notion of compound autoregressive process, we propose an exact and fast algorithm for both quantities. We find that existing approximation schemes induce significant errors for forecasting.
    Keywords: compound autoregressive process, probabilistic forecast of counts, matrix arithmetic.
    JEL: C22 C25
    Date: 2018–01–01
  25. By: Margolis, David N. (Paris School of Economics); Miotti, Luis (University of Paris 13)
    Abstract: This paper studies why PhDs in France take longer to find stable jobs than engineers. Using data from CEREQ's "Génération 2004" survey, we show that job finding rates of PhDs are lower than those of engineers and document the differences in their observable characteristics and fields of study. We show that this phenomenon is due to multiple factors: heterogeneity in student characteristics along observable (but not unobservable) dimensions and fields of study, directed search toward public sector positions (especially professors) among PhDs and reservation wages of PhDs for private sector jobs that are "too high" relative to their value of marginal product.
    Keywords: school-to-work transition, STEM, directed search, wage subsidies
    JEL: J24 I23 J64
    Date: 2017–12

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