nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2018‒01‒29
24 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Effect of Multigrade Classes on Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills: Causal Evidence Exploiting Minimum Class Size Rules in Italy By Checchi, Daniele; De Paola, Maria
  2. Academic resilience: What schools and countries do to help disadvantaged students succeed in PISA By Tommaso Agasisti; Francesco Avvisati; Francesca Borgonovi; Sergio Longobardi
  3. Teacher and Parental Perspectives of Barriers for Inclusive and Quality Education in Mongolia By Kameyama Yuriko; Kuroda Kazuo; Utsumi Yuji; Hosoi Yuka
  4. The Completion Shift of German Universities of Applied Sciences By Gralka, Sabine; Wohlrabe, Klaus; Bornmann, Lutz
  5. The Effect of Education and School Quality on Female Crime By Javier Cano-Urbina; Lance Lochner
  6. Home background and schooling outcomes in South Africa: Insights from the National Income Dynamics Study By Heleen Hofmeyr
  7. Parents, schools and human capital differences across countries By De Philippis, Marta; Rossi, Frederico
  8. Autonomous Schools and Strategic Pupil Exclusion By Stephen Machin; Matteo Sandi
  9. Multigrading and child achievement By Gian Paolo Barbetta; Giuseppe Sorrenti; Gilberto Turati
  10. Persistent Effects of Teacher-Student Gender Matches By Jaegeum Lim; Jonathan Meer
  11. Getting student loans right in Japan: problems and possible solutions By Dearden, Lorraine; Nagase, Nobuko
  12. Education Effects on Days Hospitalized and Days out of Work by Gender: Evidence from Turkey By Tansel, Aysit; Keskin, Halil Ibrahim
  13. Building Peace through Education: Case of India and Pakistan Conflict By Mamoon, Dawood
  14. School-based friendships among students with special educational needs By ; Joanne Banks;
  15. Work-based Learning Models in French Engineering Curricula By Siegfried Rouvrais; Bernard Remaud; Morgan Saveuze
  16. Is Scientific Performance a Function of Funds? By Alona Zharova; Wolfgang K. Härdle; Stefan Lessmann
  17. Public Funding and Corporate Innovation By Beck, Mathias; Junge, Martin; Kaiser, Ulrich
  18. Social relationships and the transition to second-level education By Smyth, Emer
  19. Educational Quality Thresholds in the Diffusion of Knowledge with Mobile Phones for Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice Asongu; Jacinta C. Nwachukwu
  20. In which countries and schools do disadvantaged students succeed? By Francesco Avvisati
  21. For Better or Worse? The Effects of Physical Education on Child Development By Knaus, Michael C.; Lechner, Michael; Reimers, Anne K.
  22. Do Preferences and Biases predict Life Outcomes? Evidence from Education and Labor Market Entry Decisions By Uschi Backes-Gellner; Holger Herz; Michael Kosfeld; Yvonne Oswald
  23. Evaluation of the Teacher Incentive Fund: Final Report on Implementation and Impacts of Pay-for-Performance Across Four Years (Executive Summary) By Hanley Chiang; Cecilia Speroni; Mariesa Herrmann; Kristin Hallgren; Paul Burkander; Alison Wellington
  24. European Framework for the Digital Competence of Educators: DigCompEdu By Christine Redecker

  1. By: Checchi, Daniele (University of Milan); De Paola, Maria (University of Calabria)
    Abstract: We analyse how schooling in multigrade classes affect the formation of student cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Our identification strategy is based on some institutional features of the Italian educational system establishing a minimum number of students per class. Classes that do not reach the minimum number of pupils are organized in multigrade classes. In addition, the Italian law also establishes a maximum number of students for multigrade classes, leaving a narrow range in the number of students per class which is very similar to small class size in single grade classes when the number of students enrolled in the grade is just above the minimum number of students per class. Using census data on 5th grade Italian students, we find that pupils in multigrade classrooms obtain worse test scores both in literacy and numeracy standardized tests compared to comparable pupils in single grade classroom. While the effect is small and not always statistically significant for the literacy score, we find a large and highly statistically significant effect on the numeracy score. No effect is found on grades assigned by teachers. We also find that pupils placed in multigrade classes tend to have a more external centred locus of control. Our results are robust to different specifications including controls for class size and a number of student and school characteristics.
    Keywords: multigrade classes, mixed-age classes, cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills
    JEL: I21 I28 C36
    Date: 2017–12
  2. By: Tommaso Agasisti; Francesco Avvisati; Francesca Borgonovi; Sergio Longobardi
    Abstract: Resilience refers to the capacity of individuals to prosper despite encountering adverse circumstances. This paper defines academic resilience as the ability of 15-year-old students from disadvantaged backgrounds to perform at a certain level in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in reading, mathematics and science that enables them to play an active role in their communities and prepares them to make the most of lifelong-learning opportunities. Using data from the most recent PISA cycles, this paper explores changes in the share of resilient students over time (2006-2015); highlights the importance of school environments and resources in mitigating the risk of low achievement for disadvantaged students; and identifies school-level factors that are associated with the likelihood of academic resilience among socio-economically disadvantaged students. Analyses reveal that several countries were able to increase the share of resilient students over time, reflecting improvements in the average performance of students, or a weaker relationship between socio-economic status and performance. In the vast majority of education systems examined, the likelihood of academic resilience among disadvantaged students is lower in schools where students report a negative classroom climate. The paper concludes by exploring school policies and practices that are associated with a positive classroom climate.
    Date: 2018–01–29
  3. By: Kameyama Yuriko; Kuroda Kazuo; Utsumi Yuji; Hosoi Yuka
    Abstract: This paper calls attention to the concept of quality education for children with disabilities in developing countries, specifically focusing on Mongolia. Quality education for children with disabilities has been overlooked by the international community despite the extensive commitment to ensuring access to basic education and learning outcomes for children (Croft, 2010). At the same time, influenced by the international community, inclusive education policies that bring children with disabilities into regular classrooms, have been introduced in many developing countries. While there have been some studies on inclusive education in the developing world, very little research has been conducted on the situation in Mongolia. This paper therefore examines how teachers and parents in regular and special schools evaluate the current educational provisions in schools towards better education for children with disabilities in Mongolia. The findings from the descriptive analyses demonstrate that perceived barriers are ‘poor school facilities,’ ‘lack of equipment,’ ‘inadequate incentives for teachers’ and ‘insufficient school budgets.’ In addition to these items, teachers and parents in special schools are highly concerned about ‘lack of understanding in the community.’ Third, each of the four groups? teachers and parents in regular and special schools?perceive ‘resource barriers’ including issues of money and facilities as the strongest obstacle, followed by ‘teacher training and experience’ and ‘understanding’ at statistically significant levels. Fourth, there are statistically significant differences in opinions between parents and teachers in regular schools related to ‘resource barriers’ (with parents viewing the problem as more important). As for ‘teacher training and experience’ barriers, there is a significant difference between personnel in regular schools and special schools as parents and teachers in regular schools perceive that there is a lack of opportunity for training. The last category of barriers evaluated is ‘understanding’ (referring to ‘lack of understanding by classmates,’ ‘lack of understanding by parents of children with disabilities,’ ‘lack of understanding by parents of children without disabilities’ and ‘lack of understanding by teachers’). Teachers in regular schools significantly feel strongest about the lack of understanding while parents in special schools significantly feel this least among all the groups. Qualitative data from interviews aligns with the statistical results and identifies that teacher training is unlikely to be effective without an appropriate teaching environment. Based on the results of both statistical and interviewed data, the study highlights the needs for a comprehensive approach to strengthening coordination and collaboration with stakeholders and donor communities, which may eventually bring benefits to all children by improving the quality of schooling.
    Keywords: quality education, inclusive education, disability, perception, parents and teachers, Mongolia
    Date: 2017–12
  4. By: Gralka, Sabine; Wohlrabe, Klaus; Bornmann, Lutz
    Abstract: In research on higher education, the evaluation of completion and drop-out rates has generated a steady stream of interest for decades. While most studies only calculate quotes using student and graduate numbers for both phenomena, we propose to also consider the budget available to universities. We transfer the idea of the excellence shift from the research (Bornmann et al., 2017) to the teaching area, and particularly to the completion rate of educational entities. The completion shift shows institutions’ ability to produce graduates as measured against their basic academic teaching efficiency, thereby avoiding the well-known heterogeneity problem in efficiency measurement. Their politically determined focus on education makes German universities of applied science the perfect sample for evaluating this novel method. Using a comprehensive dataset covering the years 2008 to 2013, we show that the shift produces results, which correlate considerably with the results of the standard Data Envelopment Approach (DEA). Thus, we recommend the completion shift as an alternative method of efficiency measurement in the teaching area. Compared to DEA, the computation of the shift is easy and the results are understandable to non-economists.
    Keywords: Efficiency, Completion Shift, DEA, Students, Universities of Applied Sciences
    JEL: A23 D61 H52 I21 I23
    Date: 2017–11–19
  5. By: Javier Cano-Urbina; Lance Lochner
    Abstract: This paper estimates the effects of educational attainment and school quality on crime among American women. Using changes in compulsory schooling laws as instruments, we estimate significant effects of schooling attainment on the probability of incarceration using Census data from 1960-1980. Using data from the 1960-90 Uniform Crime Reports, we also estimate that increases in average schooling levels reduce arrest rates for violent and property crime but not white collar crime. Our results suggest small and mixed direct effects of school quality (as measured by pupil-teacher ratios, term length, and teacher salaries) on incarceration and arrests. Finally, we show that the effects of education on crime for women are unlikely to be due to changes in labor market opportunities and may be more related to changes in marital opportunities and family formation.
    JEL: H75 I22 K42
    Date: 2017–11
  6. By: Heleen Hofmeyr (Department of Economics, Stellenbosch University)
    Abstract: Patterns of poverty and inequality in South Africa are largely sustained by differential educational outcomes of children across different strata of society. Most of these differences in educational outcomes are attributed to large differences in the quality of education received by children. It is the intention of this paper to add to our understanding of the determinants of educational outcomes in South Africa by investigating the role of the family in determining these heterogeneous educational outcomes. This is done by estimating the relationship between home background and schooling outcomes for a sample of South African youths. The analysis in this paper suggests a strong correlation between home background and the educational outcomes of the sample at hand. Broadly, the co-residence of biological parents in the household and the education attained by parents are found to be positively associated with educational outcomes of children.
    Keywords: home background, family structure, educational outcomes
    JEL: I24 J12 J13
    Date: 2018
  7. By: De Philippis, Marta; Rossi, Frederico
    Abstract: Results from international standardized tests show large cross-country differences in students’ performances. Where do these gaps come from? This paper argues that differences in cultural environments and parental inputs may be of great importance. We show that the school performance of second generation immigrants is closely related with the one of native students in their parents’ countries of origin. This holds true even after accounting for different family background characteristics, schools attended and selection into immigration. We quantify the overall contribution of various parental inputs to the observed cross-country differences in the PISA test performance, and show that they account for about 40% of the gap between East Asia and other regions. This pattern questions whether PISA scores should be interpreted only as a quality measure for a country’s educational system. They actually contain an important intergenerational and cultural component.
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2016–05
  8. By: Stephen Machin; Matteo Sandi
    Abstract: This paper studies whether pupil performance gains achieved by autonomous schools - specifically academy schools in England - can be attributed to the strategic exclusion of poorly performing pupils. In England there have been two phases of academy school introduction, the first in the 2000s being a school improvement programme for schools serving disadvantaged pupil populations, the second a mass academisation programme in the 2010s which by contrast enabled better performing schools to become academies. Overall, on average across both programmes, exclusion rates are higher in academy schools. When the two programmes are considered separately, the earlier programme featured a much higher increase in the incidence of permanent exclusion. However, a number of simulated counterfactual experiments based on the statistical estimates show that rather than being used as a strategic means of manipulation to boost measured school performance, the higher rate of exclusion is instead a feature of the rigorously enforced discipline procedures that the pre-2010 academies adopted.
    Keywords: academies, discipline, exclusion
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2018–01
  9. By: Gian Paolo Barbetta; Giuseppe Sorrenti; Gilberto Turati
    Abstract: We exploit Italian law DPR 81/2009, which determines class composition, as an instrument to identify the causal effect of grouping students of different grades into a single class (multigrading) on children cognitive achievement. This article focuses on 7-year-old students—those at the beginning of their formal education. Results suggest that attendance in multigrade classes versus single-grade classes increases students’ performance on standardized tests by 15–20 percent of a standard deviation. The positive impact of multigrading only appears for children sharing their class with peers from higher grades and is relatively stronger for students from disadvantaged backgrounds.
    Keywords: Multigrade classes, child development, peer effects, rural areas
    JEL: I28 R53
    Date: 2018–01
  10. By: Jaegeum Lim; Jonathan Meer
    Abstract: We exploit data from middle schools in Seoul, South Korea, where students and teachers are randomly assigned to classrooms, and find that female students taught by a female versus a male teacher score higher on standardized tests compared to male students even five years later. We also find that having a female math teacher in 7th grade increases the likelihood that female students take higher-level math courses, aspire to a STEM degree, and attend a STEM-focused high school. These effects are driven by changes in students' attitudes and choices.
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2017–12
  11. By: Dearden, Lorraine; Nagase, Nobuko
    Abstract: In this paper we take a detailed look at the Japanese university graduate labor market to understand more fully the problems with the current Japanese student loan system identified in Kobayashi and Armstrong (2017). We see that unlike most other countries with a large proportion of female university graduates, Japanese female graduates earn significantly less than male university graduates and this appears to be driven by significant wage falls when female graduates marry or have their first child. This means that understanding the repayment burden problems of the current student loan system and designing alternative income contingent loan systems needs to take into account the household income of graduates. We show that an affordable income contingent loan (ICL) system could be introduced in Japan, however the repayments would probably have to be based on household income. We illustrate this with a couple of example ICLs and highlight further work that needs to be done to come up with a feasible and fair student loan system in Japan for post high school education.
    Keywords: Student loans, student loan design, Japan
    JEL: I22 I28 J24
    Date: 2017–12
  12. By: Tansel, Aysit (Middle East Technical University); Keskin, Halil Ibrahim (Cukurova University)
    Abstract: The strong relationship between various health indicators and education is widely documented. However, the studies that investigate the nature of causality between these variables became available only recently and provide evidence mostly from developed countries. We add to this literature by studying the causal effect of education on days hospitalized and days out of work for health reasons. We consider two educational reforms. One is the educational expansion of the early 1960s and the other is the 1997 increase in compulsory level of schooling from five to eight years. However, due to the possibility of weak instruments we do not further pursue this avenue. We focus on individuals in two cohorts namely, 1945–1965 which is an older cohort and 1980–1980 which is a younger cohort. We estimate Tobit models as well as Double Hurdle models. The results suggest that an increase in years of education causes to reduce the number of days hospitalized for both men and women unambiguously and the number of days out of work only for men while an increase in education increases the number of days out of work for a randomly selected women.
    Keywords: education, days hospitalized, days out of work, education reform, Tobit model, double hurdle model, gender, Turkey
    JEL: I15 J16 J18 C34 C36
    Date: 2017–12
  13. By: Mamoon, Dawood
    Abstract: The paper utilises unique conflict data set from literature to capture different aspects of India and Pakistan conflict and analyses the role of education in peace building between the two countries. Education not only directly eases hostilities but it also puts a positive effect on economic growth rates and democratic values in both countries that in return further reduce tensions in dyadic conflict proxies.
    Keywords: Education, Conflict Transformation, Peace, South Asia
    JEL: H52 I2 I28
    Date: 2017–11–16
  14. By: ; Joanne Banks;
    Date: 2017
  15. By: Siegfried Rouvrais (PASS - Process for Adaptative Software Systems - IMT Atlantique - IMT Atlantique Bretagne-Pays de la Loire - IRISA_D4 - LANGAGE ET GÉNIE LOGICIEL - IRISA - Institut de Recherche en Informatique et Systèmes Aléatoires - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - INSA Rennes - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - Rennes - UBS - Université de Bretagne Sud - ENS Rennes - École normale supérieure - Rennes - Inria - Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique - CentraleSupélec - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - IMT Atlantique - IMT Atlantique Bretagne-Pays de la Loire, INFO - Département Informatique - IMT Atlantique - IMT Atlantique Bretagne-Pays de la Loire); Bernard Remaud (Remaud - Remaud Consulting (Remaud Consulting)); Morgan Saveuze (CESI - CESI Group (CESI))
    Abstract: In the 90s, the French engineering education accreditation body introduced in its quality standards a compulsory internship period. Based on this national experience, this paper presents an in-depth background and description of the use of internships and apprenticeships models in French engineering education. The elements of analysis presented may provide some inputs to programme designers in other contexts. Thus, this paper proposes to extend the CDIO framework to systematically include Work-based Learning as integrated activities in educational programme, to better match industry requirements and student competency expectations as future engineers.
    Keywords: Engineering,Competency,France Télécom,Quality,Industry and student involvement in the development of engineering education,CDIO,CDIO skills &, aptitudes,EURACE,CTI,ENAEE,EHEA,WBL,WIL,Engineering education,Industry,Skills,Curriculum,Curriculum design,Apprenticeship,Co-op programme,Work integrated learning,Internship,Work based learning
    Date: 2017–06–18
  16. By: Alona Zharova; Wolfgang K. Härdle; Stefan Lessmann
    Abstract: The management of universities demands data on teaching and research performance. While teaching parameters can be measured via student performance and teacher evaluation programs, the connection of research outputs and their grant antecedents is much harder to check, test and understand. This paper elicits the interdependence structure between third-party expenses (TPE), publications, citations and academic age. To describe the relationship, we analyze individual level data from a sample of professorships from a leading research university and a Scopus database for the period 2001 to 2015. Using estimates from a PVARX model, impulse response functions and a forecast error variance decomposition, we show that analyzing on the high aggregation level of universities does not reflect the behavior of its faculties. We explain the differences in relationship structure between indicators for social sciences and humanities, life sciences and mathematical and natural sciences. For instance, for mathematics and some fields of social sciences and humanities the relationship between the TPE and the number of publications is insignificant, however, the influence of the TPE on the number of citation is significant and positive that indicates the difference between quality and quantity of research outputs. The paper also proposes a visualization of the cooperation between faculties and research interdisciplinarity via the co-authorship structure among publications. We discuss the implications for policy and decision making and suggest recommendations for research management of universities.
    Keywords: research performance; decision making; third-party funds; publications; citations; PVARX model
    JEL: M10 C32
    Date: 2017–08
  17. By: Beck, Mathias (ETH Zurich); Junge, Martin; Kaiser, Ulrich (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: We review and condense the body of literature on the economic returns of public R&D on private R&D and find that: (i) private returns to R&D appear to be large and larger than the returns to alternative investments; (ii) private R&D and R&D subsidies are positively correlated and there is no evidence for crowding out; (iii) R&D cooperation increases private R&D; (iv) there appear to exist complementarities between alternative sources of funding; (v) the mobility of R&D workers, particularly of university scientists, is positively related to innovation; (vi) there are many university spin-offs but these are no more successful than non-university spin-offs; (vii) universities constitute important collaboration partners and (viii) clusters enhance collaboration, patents and productivity. Key problems for economic policy advice are that the identification of causal effects is problematic in most studies and that little is known about the optimal design of policy measures.
    Keywords: R&D subsidies, R&D tax credits, cooperation, labor mobility, returns to R&D, university spin-offs, R&D clusters, public-private knowledge transfer
    JEL: C54 J6 I28 O3 L52
    Date: 2017–12
  18. By: Smyth, Emer
    Date: 2017
  19. By: Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun); Jacinta C. Nwachukwu (Coventry University, UK)
    Abstract: The study investigates critical masses or thresholds of educational quality at which the diffusion of information with mobile phones enhances inclusive human development. The empirical evidence is based on simultaneity-robust Fixed Effects regressions with data from 49 Sub-Saharan African countries for the period 2000-2012. The following findings are established: (1) There are positive marginal and net effects on inclusive development from the interaction between mobile phones and educational quality, (2) Between 10 and 27 pupils per teacher is needed in primary education in order for mobile phones to enhance inclusive human development, (3) From a comparative dimension: (i) English Common law countries enjoy higher net effects compared to their French Civil law counterparts, (ii) positive net effects are more obvious in politically stable (vis-à-vis politically unstable) countries, (iii) positive net impacts are also more apparent in resource-poor (vis-à-vis resource-rich) countries, (iv) low income (vis-à-vis higher income) countries have a higher net effect on inclusive development, (v) landlocked (vis-à-vis unlandlocked) countries experience higher net effects and (iv) Islam-dominated countries have a slightly higher net impact compared to their Christian-oriented counterparts.
    Keywords: Mobile phones; inclusive human development; Africa
    JEL: G20 I10 I32 O40 O55
    Date: 2017–01
  20. By: Francesco Avvisati (OECD)
    Abstract: PISA 2015 data show that, on average across OECD countries, as many as three out of four students from the lowest quarter of socio-economic status reach, at best, only the baseline level of proficiency (Level 2) in reading, mathematics or science. While in Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hong Kong (China), Ireland, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Norway, Singapore, Slovenia and Viet Nam, more than 30% of disadvantaged students scored at Level 3 or above in all PISA subjects in 2015, and can thus be considered “academically resilient”. Students who perform at Level 3 begin to demonstrate the ability to construct the meaning of a text and form a detailed understanding from multiple independent pieces of information when reading. They can work with proportional relationships and engage in basic interpretation and reasoning when solving mathematics problems; and they can handle unfamiliar topics in science. Such skills are the foundations for success and further learning later in life. PISA data collected over a decade (in 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2015) show that several countries have been able to increase the share of academically resilient students among those in the bottom quarter of socio-economic status.
    Date: 2018–01–29
  21. By: Knaus, Michael C. (University of St. Gallen); Lechner, Michael (University of St. Gallen); Reimers, Anne K. (Chemnitz University of Technology)
    Abstract: This study analyses the effects of regular physical education at school on cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills, motor skills, physical activity, and health. It is based on a very informative data set, the German Motorik-Modul, and identifies the effect by using variation in the required numbers of physical education lessons across and within German federal states. The results show improvements in cognitive skills. Boys' non-cognitive skills are adversely affected driven by increased peer relation problems. For girls, the results suggest improvements in motor skills and increased extra-curricular physical activities. Generally, we find no statistically significant effects on health parameters.
    Keywords: physical education, cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills, motor skills, physical activity, health
    JEL: I12
    Date: 2018–01
  22. By: Uschi Backes-Gellner (University of Zurich); Holger Herz (University of Fribourg); Michael Kosfeld (Goethe University Frankfurt); Yvonne Oswald (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: Evidence suggests that acquiring human capital is related to better life outcomes, yet young peoples' decisions to invest in or stop acquiring human capital are still poorly understood. We investigate the role of time and reference-dependent preferences in such decisions. Using a data set that is unique in its combination of real-world observations on student outcomes and experimental data on economic preferences, we find that a low degree of long-run patience is a key determinant of dropping out of upper-secondary education. Further, for students who finish education we show that one month before termination of their program, present-biased students are less likely to have concrete continuation plans while loss averse students are more likely to have a definite job offer already. Our findings provide fresh evidence on students' decision-making about human capital acquisition and labor market transition with important implications for education and labor market policy.
    Keywords: Economic preferences, education, dropout, human capital, job search
    JEL: D01 D03 D91 I21 J64
    Date: 2018–01
  23. By: Hanley Chiang; Cecilia Speroni; Mariesa Herrmann; Kristin Hallgren; Paul Burkander; Alison Wellington
    Abstract: Research has revealed that effective teachers are critical to improving student achievement. Little evidence exists, however, about the best ways to help teachers be more effective, or about how schools that serve the students in most need can attract and retain the most effective teachers.
    Keywords: Pay-for-Performance, Teacher Compensation, Principal Compensation, Teacher Incentive Fund, Performance-Based Compensation System, Teacher Effectiveness, Teacher Salaries, Teacher Recruitment, Teacher Retention, Principal Retention, Teacher Surveys, Teacher Attitudes, Teacher Leadership, Teacher Evaluation, Administrator Effectiveness, Administrator Evaluation, Administrator Attitudes, Professional Development, Teachers, Principals, Student Achievement, Academic Achievement, Student Achievement Growth
    JEL: I
  24. By: Christine Redecker (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: As the teaching professions face rapidly changing demands, educators require an increasingly broad and more sophisticated set of competences than before. In particular the ubiquity of digital devices and the duty to help students become digitally competent requires educators to develop their own digital competence. On International and national level a number of frameworks, self-assessment tools and training programmes have been developed to describe the facets of digital competence for educators and to help them assess their competence, identify their training needs and offer targeted training. Analysing and clustering these instruments, this report presents a common European Framework for the Digital Competence of Educators (DigCompEdu). DigCompEdu is a scientifically sound background framework which helps to guide policy and can be directly adapted to implement regional and national tools and training programmes. In addition, it provides a common language and approach that will help the dialogue and exchange of best practices across borders. The DigCompEdu framework is directed towards educators at all levels of education, from early childhood to higher and adult education, including general and vocational training, special needs education, and non-formal learning contexts. It aims to provide a general reference frame for developers of Digital Competence models, i.e. Member States, regional governments, relevant national and regional agencies, educational organisations themselves, and public or private professional training providers.
    Keywords: Education, Digital Competence, Teacher
    Date: 2017–11

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