nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2018‒01‒08
27 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Education Reform in General Equilibrium: Evidence from California’s Class Size Reduction By Mike Gilraine; Hugh Macartney; Rob McMillan
  2. It's Time to Learn: Understanding the Differences in Returns to Instruction Time By Andrés Barrios F.; Giulia Bovini
  3. Educación Escolar para la Inclusión y la Transformación Social en el Caribe Colombiano By Leonardo Bonilla-Mejía; Eduard F. Martínez-González
  4. Violence, Psychological Stress and Educational Performance during the “War on Drugs†in Mexico By Maren M. Michaelsen; Paola Salardi
  5. What do you mean by ‘good’? The search for exceptional primary schools in South Africa’s no-fee school system By Gabrielle Wills
  6. Intergenerational Effects of Education on Risky Health Behaviours and Long-Term Health By Mathias Huebener
  7. The Effect of Court-Ordered Hiring Guidelines on Teacher Composition and Student Achievement By Cynthia (CC) DuBois; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach
  8. Financing Education Abroad: A Developing Country Perspective By Gega Todua
  9. Fertility effects of college education: Evidence from the German educational expansion By Kamhöfer, Daniel A.; Westphal, Matthias
  10. Expected Fertility and Educational Investment: Evidence from the One-Child-Policy in China By Raiber, Eva
  11. Causal Effects of Family Income on Child Outcomes and Educational Spending: Evidence from a Child Allowance Policy Reform in Japan By Michio Naoi; Hideo Akabayashi; Ryosuke Nakamura; Kayo Nozaki; Shinpei Sano; Wataru Senoh; Chizuru Shikishima
  12. Shopping for Schools: Mapping Choice Architecture in the Education Marketplace By Steven Glazerman
  13. Unawareness and Selective Disclosure: The Effect of School Quality Information on Property Prices By John Haisken-DeNew; Syed Hasan; Nikhil Jha; Mathias Sinning
  14. Macroeconomic consequences of the demographic and educational transition in Poland By Aleksandra Kolasa
  15. Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century By Philips, Robin C. M.; Földvàri, Péter; Van Leeuwen, Bas
  16. The Academic and Behavioral Consequences of Discipline Policy Reform: Evidence from Philadelphia By Matthew P. Steinberg; Johanna Lacoe
  17. Improving productivity and job quality of low-skilled workers in the United Kingdom By Sanne Zwart; Mark Baker
  18. Evaluation of the Teacher Incentive Fund: Final Report on Implementation and Impacts of Pay-for-Performance Across Four Years By Hanley Chiang; Cecilia Speroni; Mariesa Herrmann; Kristin Hallgren; Paul Burkander; Alison Wellington
  19. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Behavior of Female Young Adults in the Philippines By Abrigo, Michael R.M.
  20. Education Effects on Days Hospitalized and Days out of Work by Gender: Evidence from Turkey By Aysit Tansel; Halil Ibrahim Keskin
  21. Denver WIOA Out-of-School Youth Services: Using Evidence-Informed Practices to Advance Youth Self-Sufficiency and Well-Being By Annalisa Mastri; Marykate Zukiewicz
  22. The long(er)-term impacts of Chile Solidario on human capital and labour income By Guido Neidhöfer; Miguel Niño-Zarazúa
  23. Wealth Inequalities in Perceptions of School Quality in Pakistan By Marine De Talance
  24. Remarks: Tribal Community Perspectives on Higher Education / Neel Kashkari, President ... Minneapolis, MN ... September 27, 2017 By Kashkari, Neel
  25. The Social Origins of Inventors By Philippe Aghion; Ufuk Akcigit; Ari Hyytinen; Otto Toivanen
  26. The Concept of Culture in Educational Management By Samuiel Bâlc
  27. Child Work and Schooling in Rural North India What Does Time Use Data Say About Tradeoffs and Drivers of Human Capital Investment? By Sudha Narayanan; Sowmya Dhanaraj

  1. By: Mike Gilraine; Hugh Macartney; Rob McMillan
    Abstract: This paper sheds new light on general equilibrium responses to major education reforms, focusing on a sorting mechanism likely to operate whenever a reform improves public school quality significantly. It does so in the context of California’s statewide class size reduction program of the late-1990s, and makes two main contributions. First, using a transparent differencing strategy that exploits the grade-specific roll-out of the reform, we show evidence of general equilibrium sorting effects: Improvements in public school quality caused marked reductions in local private school shares, consequent changes in public school demographics, and significant increases in local house prices – the latter indicative of the reform’s full impact. Second, using a generalization of the differencing approach, we provide credible estimates of the direct and indirect impacts of the reform on a common scale. These reveal a large pure class size effect of 0.11σ (in terms of mathematics scores), and an even larger indirect effect of 0.16σ via induced changes in school demographics. Further, we show that both effects persist positively, giving rise to an overall policy impact estimated to be 0.4σ higher after four years of treatment (relative to none). The analysis draws attention, more broadly, to conditions under which the indirect sorting effects of major reforms are likely to be first order.
    Keywords: Education Reform, General Equilibrium, Education Production, Sorting, Class Size Reduction, Persistence, Difference-in-Differences, Triple Differences
    JEL: H40 I21 I22
    Date: 2018–01–02
  2. By: Andrés Barrios F.; Giulia Bovini
    Abstract: As hours per day are inherently a limited resource, increasing daily instruction time reduces the amount of time pupils can dedicate to other activities outside school. We study how the effect of longer school days on achievement varies across students and schools. We exploit a large-scale reform of school schedules that substantially increased daily instruction time in Chilean primary schools. We show that the average effect of one additional year of exposure to the longer school day on reading and on mathematics test scores at the end of grade 4 masks substantial heterogeneity. Students from disadvantaged backgrounds benefit more from longer schedules, indicating that returns to time spent at school are larger the scarcer the learning opportunities available at home. Added instruction time yields higher gains in charter than in public schools, suggesting that more autonomy on administrative and pedagogical decisions may increase the effectiveness of other school inputs.
    Keywords: instruction time, education reform, heterogeneous effects, charter schools
    JEL: I28 I24 I20
    Date: 2017–12
  3. By: Leonardo Bonilla-Mejía; Eduard F. Martínez-González
    Abstract: La región Caribe tiene un rezago importante en términos de cobertura y calidad de la educación escolar. Este documento tiene por objetivo proponer una serie de políticas que permitan dar un gran impulso al sistema de educación pública de la región y cerrar la brecha para el año 2030. Se proponen cuatro grandes ejes de intervención: educación preescolar, jornada única, formación de docentes y capacidad institucional. Se estima que para llevar a cabo los programas de esta propuesta se requiere de 6.274 millones de dólares en 12 años, de los cuales 2.114 corresponden a inversiones y 4.160 a los costos recurrentes adicionales del sistema educativo. ******ABSTRACT: The Caribbean Region of Colombia is particularly behind in terms of school coverage and quality. This paper proposes a set of policies that provide a big push to the public education system and allow closing the gap by 2030. Policies are organized into four categories: Preschool education, full-day schooling, teacher training and institutional capacity. The total cost of the intervention is estimated at 6,274 million dollars over 12 years, of which 2,114 correspond to investments and 4,160 to the additional recurrent expenditures of the education system.
    Keywords: Educación, desigualdad regional, Colombia
    JEL: I20 I21 I28 R10
    Date: 2017–12–18
  4. By: Maren M. Michaelsen; Paola Salardi
    Abstract: We provide evidence that violence in Mexico related to the “war on drugs†from 2006-2011 had a significant negative impact on educational performance that is primarily attributable to acute psychological stress among students in the immediate aftermath of local violence. Using geographically and temporally disaggregated data we demonstrate that the largest impacts of violence on educational performance result from homicides committed within the vicinity of schools during the week immediately prior to national standardized tests. This short-term impact increases with geographic proximity and levels of violence, and dramatically exceeds the effects of longer-term violence spread over a full school year.
    Keywords: Violence, Primary Educational Performance, Psychological Stress, Mexico
    JEL: D74 I24 I25 O12
    Date: 2018–01–03
  5. By: Gabrielle Wills (Research on Socio-Economic Policy, Department of Economics, Stellenbosch University)
    Abstract: This paper describes a rigorous data collection process to find and verify the quality of what could potentially be high-functioning or high-performing schools accessible to the poor in three of South Africa’s nine provinces. A potential sample of outlier schools is selected using system-wide Universal Annual National Assessment data corroborated against school recommendations collected from a variety of system actors expected to be informed about school quality. Unfortunately, literacy testing in 31 purposively selected schools yields no example of high-performing, no-fee schools. However, we identify outlier or resilient students even in under-performing schools. Furthermore, within the no-fee school system there exists a continuum of functionality. Schools exist that while far from reaching good (or even adequate) median levels of English literacy, exhibit relatively higher literacy levels than other sample schools after controlling for student background differences. The presence of these relatively better performing sample schools (and performance variation more generally in the no-fee system) suggests that there is a middle-ground, a rightward movement away from dysfunction that can be reached. However, it is not clear that all system actors are able to detect variations in school quality. Our sample of respondents recommending ’good’ schools are only able to identify slightly better performing no-fee schools. For certain groups, specifically education district officials, enrolment growth appears to be a better indicator of their perceptions of ‘good’ than measures of student performance.
    Keywords: Exceptional schools, literacy, no-fee schools, school quality, South Africa
    JEL: I20 I21
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Mathias Huebener
    Abstract: This paper estimates the causal effects of parental education on their children's risky health behaviours and health status. I study the intergenerational effects of a compulsory schooling reform in Germany after World War II. Implemented across federal states at different points in time, the reform increased the minimum number of school years from eight to nine. Instrumental variable estimates and difference-in-differences estimates reveal that increases in maternal schooling reduce children's probability to smoke and to be overweight in adolescence. The effects persist into adulthood, reducing chronic conditions that often result from unhealthy lifestyles. No such effects can be identified for paternal education. Increased investments in children's education and improvements in their peer environment early in life are important for explaining the effects. Changes in family income, family stability, fertility and parental health-related behaviours are less relevant empirically. The intergenerational effects of education on health and health-related behaviours exceed the direct effects. Studies neglecting the intergenerational perspective substantially understate the full causal effects.
    Keywords: Parental education, returns to education, smoking, overweight, compulsory schooling
    JEL: I12 I20
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Cynthia (CC) DuBois; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of a court-ordered hiring guidelines intended to increase the share of black teachers employed in a school district in Louisiana. We find that the court-ordered hiring policy significantly increased the share of teachers who are black in the district relative to the rest of the state, and to a matched synthetic control sample. The policy also increased the share of new teachers hired who are black, and decreased the student-teacher representation gap, defined as the difference in enrollment share black among students and teachers in a district. There were increases in the share of black teachers observed in both predominately white and predominately black schools in the district. The policy had no measurable impacts—either positive or negative—on district-level measures of student achievement.
    JEL: I21 I28 J7
    Date: 2017–12
  8. By: Gega Todua
    Abstract: Developing countries intensively promote education abroad through financial aid policies. While some financially support students with scholarships, other countries prefer to provide loans. This paper provides a novel data-set containing characteristics of world-wide government-funded scholarship and loan programs supporting education abroad. The data allows us to identify unique stylized facts on these financing policies for middle and low income countries. We find that scholarship programs more frequently select students based on merit criteria, target graduate and postgraduate study level, and require recipients to return after studies than loan programs do. We build a two-country student migration model with government intervention to qualitatively account for the observed patterns. In our model, government intervention is justified for two reasons. First, students from a developing country are financially constrained and cannot afford education abroad. Second, the government values the productivity of ”returnees” higher than the market does. We argue that when students are uncertain about their future productivity and may fail at their studies, scholarship programs can insure them against potential default. Consequently, if students differ in their expected ability, under certain conditions a government with a tight budget will prioritize ex-ante high-ability students and support them with scholarships with the return requirement, and support ex-ante low-ability students with loans without the return requirement.
    Keywords: student migration; international migration; higher education policy; social welfare
    JEL: F22 H52 O15
    Date: 2017–12
  9. By: Kamhöfer, Daniel A.; Westphal, Matthias
    Abstract: We estimate the effects of college education on female fertility - a so far understudied margin of education, which we instrument by arguably exogenous variation induced through college expansions. While college education reduces the probability of becoming a mother, college-educated mothers have slightly more children than mothers without a college education. Unfolding the effects by the timing of birth reveals a postponement that goes beyond the time in college - indicating a negative earlycareer effect on fertility. Coupled with higher labor-supply and wage returns for nonmothers as compared to mothers the timing effects moreover suggest that career and family are not fully compatible.
    Keywords: Fertility,family planning,education
    JEL: C31 H52 I21 J12 J13
    Date: 2017
  10. By: Raiber, Eva
    Abstract: How does future expected fertility affect current educational investment? Theory suggests that expected fertility can impact both returns to education and the resources available for parental consumption. Using policy data about varying eligibility criteria for second child permits during the One-Child-Policy in China, I investigate the effect of eligibility status on fertility and education. In the 1990s, second child permits increased the likelihood of having a second child by 11 percentage points. Being allowed to have a second child increased schooling by 0.7 years on average, an effect that is likely concentrated in the subset of individuals for whom the permit constraint is binding.
    Keywords: Fertility; Schooling Investment; Family Planning; China
    JEL: J13 J24 O15
    Date: 2017–10
  11. By: Michio Naoi (Faculty of Economics, Keio University); Hideo Akabayashi (Faculty of Economics, Keio University); Ryosuke Nakamura (Faculty of Economics, Fukuoka University); Kayo Nozaki (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences); Shinpei Sano (Faculty of Law, Politics and Economics, Chiba University); Wataru Senoh (Faculty of Law, Politics and Economics, Chiba University); Chizuru Shikishima (Faculty of Liberal Arts, Teikyo University)
    Abstract: We examine the causal effects of family income on child outcomes and households'educational spending using panel data of children matched to their parents. Our identification strategy relies on the largely exogenous, discontinuous changes in the Child Allowance Policy in Japan that occurred between 2010 and 2012. We examine whether an exogenous variation in family income due to policy changes in the payment schedule has any causal effects on children's cognitive outcomes and households' educational spending. Our ordinary least squares (OLS) and first-differenced (FD) results show that, in most cases, family income is positively correlated with children's cognitive outcomes and family's educational investment. Our FD ins trumental variable (FD-IV) results, using exogenous changes in child allowance payments as an instrument, show that family income does not have any causal impacts on child outcomes in the short run. This suggests that the positive income effects on cognitive outcomes in OLS and FD models are not causal effects. In comparison, we find some evidence of positive income effects on households' educational spending. To examine the heterogeneous effects, we estimate FD-IV regressions for various population subgroups: those divided by parental education, income levels, children's age, and gender. We find that family income does not have statistically significant impacts on children's cognitive ability, whereas it has significant positive impacts on educational spending for high-income families and girls.
    Keywords: Child allowance, Family income, Educational spending, Cognitive outcome
    JEL: H24 H31 I21 I28 I38
    Date: 2017–11–13
  12. By: Steven Glazerman
    Abstract: School shopping websites are a critical source of information for school choice. This paper analyzes 14 prominent sites, documenting key design elements that make up the “choice architecture†within which choice policies play out.
    Keywords: school choice, web design, choice architecture
    JEL: I
  13. By: John Haisken-DeNew; Syed Hasan; Nikhil Jha; Mathias Sinning
    Abstract: The Australian Government launched the My School website in 2010 to provide standardised information about the quality of schools to the Australian public. This paper combines data from this website with home sales data for the state of Victoria to estimate the effect of the publication of school quality information on property prices. We use a difference-in-difference approach to estimate the causal effect of the release of information about high-quality and low-quality schools relative to medium-quality schools in the neighborhood and find that the release of information about high-quality schools increases property prices by 3.6 percent, whereas the release of information about low-quality schools has no significant effect. The findings indicate that many buyers are unaware of the relevance of school quality information and that real estate agents pursue a strategy of disclosing information about high-quality schools to increase the sales price. Results from a survey of Victorian real estate agents provide evidence in favor of this strategy.
    Keywords: School quality, housing markets, information asymmetry, public policy evaluation, difference-in-difference estimation
    JEL: D82 D84 I24 R31
    Date: 2016–12
  14. By: Aleksandra Kolasa (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: Soon after the start of the transition to market economy in the early 1990s, Poland has experi- enced both a dramatic decline in the fertility rate and an increase in the share of students among young high-school graduates. These two processes significantly changed the age structure of the population and average income characteristics of households. Using a general equilibrium model with heterogeneous households and uninsured income shocks I try to assess the impact of these demographic and educational changes on the Polish economic performance and inequalities. I find that in the long term the positive effects of educational transition on output per capita more than offset the negative impact of lower fertility, but the outcome strongly depends on the adjustments in the structure of labor demand. I also show that the educational transition increases income and consumption inequalities, while the demographic transition decreases inequality in assets.
    Keywords: population aging, educational transition, inequalities, models with heterogeneous agents
    JEL: J11 D31 I24 D58 J26
    Date: 2017
  15. By: Philips, Robin C. M.; Földvàri, Péter; Van Leeuwen, Bas
    Abstract: In this paper, we trace the causes of regional industrial development in the nineteenth century Low Countries by disentangling the complex relationship between industrialisation, technological progress and human capital formation. We use sectoral differences in the application of technology and human capital as the central elements to explain the rise in employment in the manufacturing sector during the nineteenth century, and our findings suggest a re-interpretation of the deskilling debate. To account for differences among manufacturing sectors, we use population and industrial census data, subdivided according to their present-day manufacturing sector equivalents of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). Instrumental variable regression analysis revealed that employment in the manufacturing sector was influenced by so-called upper- tail knowledge and not by average educational levels, providing empirical proof of a so-called deskilling industrialisation process. However, we find notable differences between manufacturing sectors. The textiles and clothing sectors show few agglomeration effects and limited use of steam-powered engines, and average education levels cannot adequately explain regional industrialisation. In contrast, the location of the fast- growing and innovative machinery-manufacturing sector was more influenced by technology and the availability of human capital, particularly upper-tail knowledge captured by secondary school attendance rates.
    Keywords: industrialization; deskilling; human capital; steam engine; labour; economic growth
    JEL: J24 L60 N13 N63 O14 O41
    Date: 2017–12–06
  16. By: Matthew P. Steinberg; Johanna Lacoe
    Abstract: The School District of Philadelphia (SDP) made dramatic changes to its code of conduct in 2012–2013, prohibiting the use of out-of-school suspensions for low-level conduct offenses—such as profanity and failure to follow classroom rules—and reduced the length of suspensions for more serious infractions.
    Keywords: Education, school reform, philadelphia
    JEL: I
  17. By: Sanne Zwart; Mark Baker
    Abstract: More than a quarter of adults in the United Kingdom have low basic skills, which has a negative impact on career prospects, job quality and productivity growth. Furthermore, unlike most other countries, young adults do not have stronger basic skills than the generation approaching retirement. The lack of skills development starts at young ages and continues in secondary education; despite a modest reduction in recent years, the educational attainment gap between disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged students remains high. The low participation in lifelong learning of low-skilled individuals puts them at risk of falling behind in meeting the changing skill demands of the dynamic labour market. Ongoing reforms to the vocational education and training (VET) system and apprenticeship system should have a positive impact on low-skilled productivity, enabling students to gain the necessary basic skills and for workers to find quality jobs. Improving the targeting of active labour market policies, and ensuring that the ongoing increases in the national living wage are delivered in a sustainable way will also play an important role in improving job quality and reducing the high rate of youth neither employed or in education or training. Policy responses to the rise of non-standard work will also be essential in improving the job quality of the low-skilled.
    Keywords: job quality, low-skilled, Productivity, social mobility
    JEL: E24 H75 J24 J62
    Date: 2018–01–10
  18. By: Hanley Chiang; Cecilia Speroni; Mariesa Herrmann; Kristin Hallgren; Paul Burkander; Alison Wellington
    Abstract: In 2006, Congress established the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF), which provides grants to support performance-based compensation systems for teachers and principals in high-need schools. Under a contract with the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences, Mathematica recently completed a study featuring an in-depth analysis of TIF’s implementation and the impacts of performance bonuses on educator effectiveness and student achievement.
    Keywords: teacher, incentive, bonus, student achievement, performance-based, compensation
    JEL: I
  19. By: Abrigo, Michael R.M.
    Abstract: The impact of sex education on various behavioral outcomes has been well studied in the literature. However, these studies fail to account for the simultaneity between knowledge demand and sexual behavior, leading to inconsistent effect estimates using simple comparison of means from randomized control interventions. A theoretical model of sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information demand is proposed to motivate the discussion. We show that the effect of STI knowledge on sexual behavior depends on how information affects the expected cost from sexual activity. We provide empirical evidence using Philippine data that increasing HIV/AIDS knowledge delays sexual initiation, limits sexual activity, and increases condom use among some subpopulation of female young adults.
    Keywords: Philippines, health behavior, sex education
    Date: 2017
  20. By: Aysit Tansel (Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University, IZA (Germany) and ERF (Egypt)); Halil Ibrahim Keskin (Department of Econometrics, Cukurova University)
    Abstract: The strong relationship between various health indicators and education is widely documented. However, the studies that investigate the nature of causality between these variables became available only recently and provide evidence mostly from developed countries. We add to this literature by studying the causal effect of education on days hospitalized and days out of work for health reasons. We consider two educational reforms. One is the educational expansion of the early 1960s and the other is the 1997 increase in compulsory level of schooling from five to eight years. However, due to the possibility of weak instruments we do not further pursue this avenue. We focus on individuals in two cohorts namely, 1945-1965 which is an older cohort and 1980-1980 which is a younger cohort. We estimate Tobit models as well as Double Hurdle models. The results suggest that an increase in years of education causes to reduce the number of days hospitalized for both men and women unambiguously and the number of days out of work only for men while an increase in education increases the number of days out of work for a randomly selected women.
    Keywords: Education, Days hospitalized, Days out of work, Education reform, Tobit model, Double Hurdle model, Gender, Turkey.
    JEL: I15 J16 J18 C34 C36
    Date: 2017–12
  21. By: Annalisa Mastri; Marykate Zukiewicz
    Abstract: Mathematica examined services offered through a partnership between the Office of Economic Development and Denver Public Schools to provide career and educational support to out-of-school youth. We also assessed the extent to which services incorporated features of evidence-informed interventions.
    Keywords: Denver, WIOA, Youth Services, Self-Sufficiency, Well-Being
    JEL: J I
  22. By: Guido Neidhöfer; Miguel Niño-Zarazúa
    Abstract: This paper examines Chile Solidario, a social protection programme that provides poor households in Chile with preferential access to a conditional cash transfer programme designed to facilitate investments in children’s health and education. We assess the programme’s longer-term impact on educational attainment and labour income at ages 25–28. Overall, Chile Solidario has a positive and long-lasting effect, albeit with significant impact heterogeneity. The effects on educational attainment are similar for women and men, and for indigenous and non-indigenous people, but the effects on labour income are driven by men and non-indigenous people. The impact on labour income is not significantly different from zero for women with children, but is positive and significant for women without children. The effects on both education and labour income are concentrated in urban areas. Our results indicate that the impact of Chile Solidario depends on societal and structural factors underpinning labour markets in Chile.
    Date: 2017
  23. By: Marine De Talance (LEDa - DIAL - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - Economie de la mondialisation et du développement - Université Paris-Dauphine)
    Keywords: Education,Inequalities,Pakistan,Perceptions,Private Schools,Schoolingquality,Test scores
    Date: 2017–12–13
  24. By: Kashkari, Neel (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis)
    Date: 2017–09–27
  25. By: Philippe Aghion; Ufuk Akcigit; Ari Hyytinen; Otto Toivanen
    Abstract: In this paper we merge three datasets - individual income data, patenting data, and IQ data - to analyze the determinants of an individual's probability of inventing. We find that: (i) parental income matters even after controlling for other background variables and for IQ, yet the estimated impact of parental income is greatly diminished once parental education and the individual's IQ are controlled for; (ii) IQ has both a direct effect on the probability of inventing an indirect impact through education. The effect of IQ is larger for inventors than for medical doctors or lawyers. The impact of IQ is robust to controlling for unobserved family characteristics by focusing on potential inventors with brothers close in age. We also provide evidence on the importance of social family interactions, by looking at biological versus non-biological parents. Finally, we find a positive and significant interaction effect between IQ and father income, which suggests a misallocation of talents to innovation.
    JEL: I24 J18 J24 O31
    Date: 2017–12
  26. By: Samuiel Bâlc (Bucharest Baptist Theological Institute)
    Abstract: There can be no effective education if it fails to present to those involved in the education process a clear vision of God and life, starting from the aspirations and needs of those in a particular cultural context and depending on them to organize the learning process. Such education, without a prospect based on the teaching of Sacred Scripture and without adaptation to the cultural context, would be a vain attempt and promotion of empty values. Those involved in Christian education must be prepared to confront contemporary pluralism, to take into account the cultural context and to affirm without reservation the Absolute Truth, which is the Word of God. In order to do this, we need welltrained people, able to understand the current context and willing to engage actively in the formation of tomorrow’s generation. To take an attitude of indifference to what is happening in these times means to abandon the mandate that was entrusted by Christ to all who are called Christians.
    Keywords: person, culture, education, value, behavior
    Date: 2017
  27. By: Sudha Narayanan (Associate Professor, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR),); Sowmya Dhanaraj (Lecturer, Madras School of Economics)
    Abstract: This study examines time use data for 1244 children in the age-group 6- 12 years in 274 villages in eight states in rural north India to understand the tradeoffs between time spent in school, time spent at work, time spent on home study and leisure. Using a Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SURE) Model, we find that only a few variables influence allocation of time to different activities across the board. Overall, there seems to be no tradeoff between time spent at school and at work, whereas leisure time and home study appear to be compromised for the sake of work.
    Keywords: Human capital investment, time use, primary schooling, India, child labour, seemingly unrelated regression
    JEL: I20 D19

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