nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2017‒11‒12
24 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Higher Education Funding Reforms: A Comprehensive Analysis of Educational and Labor Market Outcomes in England By Azmat, Ghazala; Simion, Stefania
  2. The Local Effects of the Texas Shale Boom on Schools, Students, and Teachers By Marchand, Joseph; Weber, Jeremy
  3. Do Boys Benefit from Male Teachers in Elementary School? Evidence from Administrative Panel Data By Puhani, Patrick A.
  4. How does PISA measure students’ ability to collaborate? By OECD
  5. The Consequences of Academic Match between Students and Colleges By Eleanor Wiske Dillon; Jeffrey Andrew Smith
  6. Sleep and Student Success: The Role of Regularity vs. Duration By Luong, Phuc; Lusher, Lester; Yasenov, Vasil
  7. Measuring success in education: the role of effort on the test itself By Uri Gneezy; John List; Jeffrey Livingston; Xiangdong Qin; Sally Sadoff; Yang Xu
  8. Relationships between Parental Involvement and Adolescents’ Academic Achievement and Aspiration By Midori Otani
  9. How much will the literacy level of the working-age population change from now to 2022? By OECD
  10. Education, signaling and the allocation of entrepreneurial skills By Arozamena, Leandro; Ruffo, Hernán
  11. The Effects of Mandatory and Free College Admission Testing on College Enrollment and Completion By Vansuch, Mary
  12. Does Low Skilled Immigration Cause Human Capital Polarization? Evidence from Italian Provinces By Brunello, Giorgio; Lodigiani, Elisabetta; Rocco, Lorenzo
  13. Impacts of Late School Entry on Children's Cognitive Development in Rural Northwestern China—Does Preprimary Education Matter? By Qihui Chen
  14. The Effects of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals on the Educational Outcomes of Undocumented Students By Hsin, Amy; Ortega, Francesc
  15. Early Tracking, Academic vs. Vocational Training and the Value of 'Second Chance' Options By Biewen, Martin; Tapalaga, Madalina
  16. Maternal Employment and Child Outcomes: Evidence from the Irish Marriage Bar By Mosca, Irene; O'Sullivan, Vincent; Wright, Robert E.
  17. Youth Enfranchisement, Political Responsiveness and Education Expenditure: Evidence from the U.S. By Bertocchi, Graziella; Dimico, Arcangelo; Lancia, Francesco; Russo, Alessia
  18. Карьерные ожидания студентов, магистрантов и докторантов в сельскохозяйственных университетах Казахстана By Bekenova, Gulnar
  19. Understanding Parental Choices of Secondary School in England Using National Administrative Data By Simon Burgess; Ellen Greaves; Anna Vignoles
  20. Antecedents of Overtime Work: The Case of Junior Academics By Frei, Irina; Grund, Christian
  21. How do teachers become knowledgeable and confident in classroom management?: Insights from a pilot study By OECD
  22. Big Data Measures of Well-Being: Evidence from a Google Well-Being Index in the United States By Algan, Yann; Beasley, Elizabeth; Guyot, Florian; Higa, Kazuhito; Murtin, Fabrice; Senik, Claudia
  23. Strategic Default Among Private Student Loan Debtors: Evidence from Bankruptcy Reform By Darolia, Rajeev; Ritter, Dubravka
  24. Nighttime Lights as a Proxy for Human Development at the Local Level By Anna Bruederle; Roland Hodler

  1. By: Azmat, Ghazala (Sciences Po, Paris); Simion, Stefania (University of Edinburgh)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of changes in the funding of higher education in England on students' choices and outcomes. Over the last two decades – through three major reforms in 1998, 2006 and 2012 – undergraduate university education in public universities moved from being free to students and state funded to charging substantial tuition fees to all students. This was done in conjunction with the government offering generous means-tested maintenance grants and loans. Using detailed longitudinal micro-data that follows all students attending state schools in England (more than 90 percent of all school-aged children) from lower education to higher education, we document the socio-economic distributional effects of the 2006 and 2012 policy reforms on a comprehensive set of outcomes, including enrolment, relocation decisions, selection of institution, program of study, and performance within university. For a subset of students, we track them after completing higher education, allowing us to study the labor market effects of the policy reforms. Despite the substantial higher education funding reforms, we do not find large aggregate effect on student enrolment or on other margins. Moreover, the small negative impacts found on the enrolment were largely borne on those in higher parts of the wealth distribution – reducing the enrolment gap across socio-economic groups.
    Keywords: higher education, tuition fees, means-tested support, career choices, career outcomes
    JEL: I22 I23 I29 J30
    Date: 2017–10
  2. By: Marchand, Joseph (University of Alberta, Department of Economics); Weber, Jeremy (University of Pittsburgh)
    Abstract: This study explores how the Texas shale boom affected schools, students, and teachers. Using variation in geology across school districts and oil prices over time, the evidence shows that test scores in the average shale district declined despite tripling the tax base and creating a revenue windfall. Greater spending went to capital projects and servicing debt, not to teachers. Higher labor market wages did not affect student completion rates, but a growing gap in wages between the private and education sectors contributed to greater teacher turnover and more inexperienced teachers, which helps explain the decline in test scores.
    Keywords: local labor markets; local public finances; resource booms; schools; students; teachers
    JEL: H70 I22 J24 J40 Q33 R23
    Date: 2017–10–31
  3. By: Puhani, Patrick A.
    Abstract: With girls having overtaken boys in many education indicators, the “feminization” of elementary school teaching is causing debates about disadvantages for male students. Using administrative panel data on the universe of students, teachers and schools for a German state, I exploit within school and within teacher variation to determine teacher characteristics’ effects on students’ tracking outcomes. Germany tracks students at age 10 into more or less academic school types. I find hardly any effects of teacher’s gender, age, pay level, qualifications, or working hours on boys’ or girls’ school track recommendations or school choice. Even when following students into middle school, no effects of elementary-school teacher gender on school type change or grade repetition can be detected.
    Keywords: education,gender,identification,fixed effect,teacher quality
    JEL: I21 J45 J71 J78
    Date: 2017
  4. By: OECD
    Abstract: Solving unfamiliar problems on one’s own is important, but in today’s increasingly interconnected world, people are often required to collaborate in order to achieve their goals. Teamwork has numerous benefits, from a diverse range of opinions to synergies among team members, and assigning tasks to those who are best suited to them. Collaboration can also be fraught with difficulties. Instead of dividing tasks effectively, one team member might reproduce another’s work. Interpersonal tension and poor communication might also prevent the team from achieving its full potential. Working with others is a skill that might not be natural to everyone, but it can be developed with time and practice. Every three years, PISA measures students’ ability to apply their knowledge in three core subjects – science, reading and mathematics – to familiar settings. These competencies, however, are not sufficient to thrive in life. Hence, PISA 2015 – for the first time ever in any international assessment – measures students’ ability to solve problems collaboratively in 52 education systems around the world.
    Date: 2017–10–31
  5. By: Eleanor Wiske Dillon; Jeffrey Andrew Smith
    Abstract: We consider the effects of student ability, college quality, and the interaction between the two on academic outcomes and future earnings using data on two cohorts of college enrollees drawn from the NLSY-79 and the NLSY-97. We find that student sorting has increased modestly between cohorts, and that student ability and college quality strongly improve degree completion and earnings. These patterns imply that, on average, students benefit from “overmatch†of the sort generated by affirmative action in admissions. We find little evidence of match effects on degree completion at eight years or on STEM degree completion, but suggestive evidence of some complementarity between student ability and college quality in degree completion at four years and long-term earnings. Such complementarity implies a tradeoff between equity and efficiency for policies that move lower ability students to higher quality colleges.
    Keywords: college mismatch, college quality
    JEL: J31 I24
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Luong, Phuc (University of California, Davis); Lusher, Lester (University of Hawaii at Manoa); Yasenov, Vasil (University of California, Berkeley)
    Abstract: Recent correlational studies and media reports have suggested that sleep regularity – the variation in the amount of sleep one gets across days – is a stronger determinant of student success than sleep duration – the total amount of sleep one receives. We identify the causal impacts of sleep regularity and sleep duration on student success by leveraging over 165,000 student-classroom observations from a large university in Vietnam where incoming freshmen were randomly assigned into course schedules. These schedules varied significantly: some had the same daily start time across the week, while others experienced extreme shifts. Across a multitude of specifications and samples, we precisely estimate no discernible differences in achievement between students with highly varying start times versus students with consistent schedules. Moreover, we find much smaller gains to delayed school start times compared to previous studies.
    Keywords: school start time, sleep regularity, education policy
    JEL: I20 I21 I23
    Date: 2017–10
  7. By: Uri Gneezy; John List; Jeffrey Livingston; Xiangdong Qin; Sally Sadoff; Yang Xu
    Abstract: Tests measuring and comparing educational achievement are an important policy tool. We experimentally show that offering students extrinsic incentives to put forth effort on such achievement tests has differential effects across cultures. Offering incentives to U.S. students, who generally perform poorly on assessments, improved performance substantially. In contrast, Shanghai students, who are top performers on assessments, were not affected by incentives. Our findings suggest that in the absence of extrinsic incentives, ranking countries based on low-stakes assessments is problematic because test scores reflect differences in intrinsic motivation to perform well on the test itself, and not just differences in ability.
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Midori Otani (Ph.D., Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP))
    Abstract: This study investigates two aspects of maternal and paternal involvement. First, what are the associations of parental involvement with adolescents’ academic achievement? Second, how does adolescent’s educational aspiration mediate the relationship between parental involvement and achievement? Samples of middle school students were analysed separately according to adolescents’ gender. The analyses were conducted by using a generalised structural equation model. The results show that both maternal and paternal involvement is associated with adolescent’s academic outcome even though some differences are also found. Adolescent’s educational aspirations mediate the association between parental involvement and academic grade. Discussion topic that are related to adolescents’ schooling is more significantly and positively associated with grade.
    Keywords: Parental Involvement, Gender, Mother, Father, Middle school, Japan
    JEL: I21 I24
    Date: 2017–10
  9. By: OECD
    Abstract: Between 2012 and 2022, the literacy proficiency of the working-age population in the countries that took part in the Survey of Adult Skills is set to improve, mainly driven by the relatively low proficiency of the cohorts who will reach 65 between now and 2022 and the much higher literacy skills among the incoming age group. The participating countries are thus reaping the distant rewards of their investment in education since the 1970s. What these data show is that high quality schooling alone will not be enough to raise the quality of the workforce nearly as quickly as skills requirements are rising. Governments therefore need to redouble their efforts to make lifelong and lifewide learning a reality for all.
    Date: 2017–11–17
  10. By: Arozamena, Leandro; Ruffo, Hernán
    Abstract: We assess the allocative importance of education when workers can choose to self-employ. To do so, we build a model combining educational choices with the labor market and selfemployment. Education can increase workers' human capital and may signal their ability as well. Both roles can be more important for working in a firm than for self-employment. We show that when education performs worse its signaling role, firms cannot distinguish high and low productivity workers, and there is a higher proportion of workers that allocate in less productive activities as self-employed. This option further reduces incentives to educate, given that education is less valuable for a worker if self-employed. Lowering the cost of education increases the number of educated workers, but does not solve the signaling problem, and could generate stronger misallocation.
    Keywords: Educación, Economía, Emprendimiento, Investigación socioeconómica, Productividad, Sector privado, Sector productivo, Trabajo y protección social, Habilidades y destrezas,
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Vansuch, Mary
    Abstract: Between the years 2001 and 2015, twenty-three states and the District of Columbia implemented a policy providing mandatory and free college admission exams (ACT or SAT) to all public high school juniors. As such, the policy reduced to zero out of pocket expenses for exam fees, and likely reduced out-of-pocket expenses for exam preparation, because schools might have been induced to provide such a service in-house. The policy also reduced the time cost of test taking because the test is administered during class time and at a student’s school. Because the mandatory exam is administered during the junior year, the policy may also have increased the amount of information a student has about her college prospects earlier on in her decision making process. In this paper I hypothesize that the decreased costs and increased information may induce more students to apply to and enroll in college. I use both college-level longitudinal data (IPEDS) along with cross-sectional student-level data (ACS) to test these predictions. Specifically, I exploit the fact that not all states implemented the policy and that those which did so implemented the policy at different points in time. In the college-level analysis, I find that the average college saw an increase in about 88 enrolled students and 460 applications from the policy without any effect on their graduation rates. In the individual-level analysis, I find that treated individuals have approximately 1.03 times the odds of untreated individuals of attending college. In the appendix I propose a model for the decision to apply, enroll, and complete college.
    Keywords: economics of education, education, educational attainment, college admissions, economics, economics of decision making, behavioral economics, act, sat
    JEL: D6 D61 D63 H0 H4 H7 I2 I20 I21 I22 I24 I28
    Date: 2017–05
  12. By: Brunello, Giorgio (University of Padova); Lodigiani, Elisabetta (University of Padova); Rocco, Lorenzo (University of Padova)
    Abstract: While there is a vast literature considering the labour market effects of immigration, less has been done to investigate how immigration affects the educational choices of young natives. Using Italian provincial data and an instrumental variables strategy, we show that the recent increase in the immigration of low skilled labour has produced human capital polarization, i.e. the contemporaneous increase in the share of natives with less than high school and not enrolled in school and in the share with a college degree or enrolled in college. This evidence is stronger for males than for females. We adapt the standard Card's model of educational choice and spell out under what conditions human capital polarization occurs. We estimate wage equations by gender and find that these conditions are satisfied, especially for Italian males.
    Keywords: low skilled, immigration, human capital, Italy
    JEL: J26 H55 J21 J14 J11
    Date: 2017–10
  13. By: Qihui Chen
    Abstract: This article estimates the causal effect of primary school entry age on children's cognitive development in rural northwestern China, using data on nearly 1,800 primary school aged children from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families. Instrumental variable estimates, exploiting the discontinuity structure in children's school entry age around the enrolment cut-off date, indicate that a 1-year delay in school entry reduces children's scores on a cognitive ability test administered when they were aged 9–12 by 0.11–0.16 standard deviations (of the distribution of test scores). The negative late-school-entry effect is significantly larger in villages with no preprimary schools. It also persists as children advance to higher grades. These findings suggest that delayed school entry, even if it may be rural parents' rational response to resource constraints, can be harmful for children's cognitive development in developing areas with underdeveloped preprimary school systems.
    Keywords: school entry age, cognitive development, preprimary school, rural China
  14. By: Hsin, Amy (Queens College, CUNY); Ortega, Francesc (Queens College, CUNY)
    Abstract: Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) is the first large-scale immigration reform to affect undocumented immigrants in the United States in decades and offers eligible undocumented youth temporary relief from deportation and renewable work permits. While DACA has improved the economic conditions and mental health of undocumented immigrants, we do not know how DACA improves the social mobility of undocumented immigrants through its effect on educational attainment. This paper uses administrative data on students attending a large public university to estimate the effect of DACA on undocumented students' educational outcomes. The data are unique because they accurately identify students' legal status, account for individual heterogeneity, and allow separate analysis of students attending community colleges versus baccalaureate-granting, 4-year colleges. Results from difference-in-difference estimates demonstrate that as a temporary work-permit program, DACA incentivizes work over educational investments but that the effect of DACA on educational investments depends on how easily colleges accommodate working students. At 4-year colleges, DACA induces undocumented students to make binary choices between attending school on a full-time basis or dropping out of school to work. At community colleges, undocumented students have the flexibility to simply reduce course work to accommodate increased work hours. Overall, the results suggest that the precarious and temporary nature of DACA creates barriers to educational investments.
    Keywords: immigration, undocumented immigration, education, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, natural experiment
    JEL: J15 J24
    Date: 2017–10
  15. By: Biewen, Martin (University of Tuebingen); Tapalaga, Madalina (University of Tübingen)
    Abstract: This paper employs the dynamic treatment effects methodology proposed by Heckman et al. (2016, 2017) to examine educational transitions and expected returns in the German education system which is characterized by rigid early tracking but with options to revise track choices at later stages. We document strong sorting of individuals along observed and unobserved characteristics across the stages of the system. We consider expected wage returns to track choices including the continuation values arising from the options opened up by choosing a certain track. Expected returns to choosing higher tracks are generally positive but highly heterogenous. We find sorting on gains at many but not all stages of the system. A considerable percentage of the population exercises 'second chance' options to revise earlier track choices. The value of these options strongly depends on parental background as individuals from higher backgrounds are better able to exploit the possibilities opened up by these options at later stages. We present estimates of wage returns to different forms of vocational and academic training free of ability and sorting bias. Returns to academic training are particularly heterogenous.
    Keywords: heterogeneous returns, vocational training, educational expansion, sorting on gains
    JEL: C3 I21 J31
    Date: 2017–10
  16. By: Mosca, Irene (Trinity College Dublin); O'Sullivan, Vincent (Lancaster University); Wright, Robert E. (University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between maternal employment and child outcomes using micro-data collected in the third wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. A novel source of exogenous variation in the employment decisions of women is used to investigate this relationship. Between the 1920s and the 1970s in Ireland, women working in certain sectors and jobs were required to leave their jobs once they married. The majority of women affected by this "Marriage Bar" then became mothers and never returned to work, or returned only after several years. Regression analysis is used to compare the educational attainment of the children of mothers who were required to leave employment on marriage because of the Marriage Bar to the educational attainment of the children of mothers who were not required to do so. It is found that the children of mothers affected by the Marriage Bar were about seven percentage points more likely to complete university education than the children of mothers who were not. This is a sizeable effect when compared to the observation that about 40% of the children in the sample completed university education. This effect is found to be robust to alternative specifications that include variables aimed at controlling for differences in maternal occupation, personality traits, and differences in paternal education.
    Keywords: marriage, mother, employment, child, university education
    JEL: J12 J16 J20
    Date: 2017–10
  17. By: Bertocchi, Graziella (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia); Dimico, Arcangelo (Queen's University Belfast); Lancia, Francesco (University of Salerno); Russo, Alessia (Norwegian Business School (BI))
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of preregistration laws on government spending in the U.S. Preregistration allows young citizens to register before being eligible to vote and has been introduced in different states in different years. Employing a difference-in-differences regression design, we first establish that preregistration shifts state-level government spending toward expenditure on higher education. The magnitude of the increase is larger when political competition is weaker and inequality is higher. Second, we document a positive effect of preregistration on state-provided student aid and its number of recipients by comparing higher education institutions within border-county pairs. Lastly, using individual-level data on voting records, we show that preregistration promotes a de facto youth enfranchisement episode. Consistent with a political economy model of distributive politics, the results collectively suggest strong political responsiveness to the needs of the newly-enfranchised constituent group.
    Keywords: education expenditure, political responsiveness, preregistration, voter turnout, youth enfranchisement
    JEL: D72 H52 P16
    Date: 2017–10
  18. By: Bekenova, Gulnar
    Abstract: В Казахстане ежегодно государство выделяет образовательные гранты на сельскохозяйственные специальности, однако агропромышленный комплекс (АПК) до сих пор не достаточно обеспечен квалифицированными аграрными кадрами, а сельские районы остаются малопривлекательными для молодых специалистов. Реализуемая государством с 2009 года программа «С дипломом в село» по привлечению молодых кадров в сельскую местность имеет низкую эффективность и охват аграрных специальностей. Развитие современной системы аграрного образования невозможно без анализа изменений внешней среды и влияния различных факторов на конкурентоспособность выпускников. Цель аналитического исследования - анализ мотивации, стремлений и карьерных ожиданий обучающихся аграрного университета и разработка рекомендаций по мотивации, планированию карьеры, повышению трудоустройства выпускников. В процессе исследования применялись общенаучные и статистические методы анализа, приемы сравнений и обобщений, особое место занимает метод анкетного опроса. По результатам исследования определяющими факторами выбора университета и специальности выступают домашние факторы. Среди бакалавров и магистрантов еще присутствуют не определившиеся с выбором профессии, более половины бакалавров не имеют четких карьерных планов, а их карьерные ожидания зачастую завышены. Большинство обучающихся хотят работать в городе, а его основными причинами выступают неудовлетворенность размером будущей зарплаты, экономическими и социально-бытовыми условиями села. Для достижения высокой конкурентоспособности и трудоустройства выпускников аграрных университетов рекомендуется усилить работу по формированию мотивированного контингента обучающихся, оказание помощи в построении карьерных планов бакалавров введением курсов по карьерному планированию, совершенствовать государственные программы занятости молодежи, включить в них больше нужных селу аграрных специальностей, развивать студенческое предпринимательство, практикоориентированное обучение, улучшить социально-бытовые условия села, повышение оплаты аграрного труда, расширение возможностей для карьерного роста молодых специалистов в АПК.
    Keywords: Cельскохозяйственное образование,мотивация,карьерные ожидания,agricultural education,motivation,career expectations,Agrarausbildung,Motivation,Karriereerwartungen
    JEL: I20 I21 I23 I28
    Date: 2017
  19. By: Simon Burgess; Ellen Greaves; Anna Vignoles
    Abstract: We study the process of school choice in England, using a new dataset giving all the preferences of all parents seeking a school place in state secondary schools. We set out new facts on the number of choices made, the chance of getting an offer from the first choice, and whether the nearest school is first choice. We use the rich data available to describe these choices by pupil characteristics, school characteristics and neighbourhood characteristics. We show that parents do pro-actively use the choice system, but that the admissions criteria do not work well for poorer families.
    Date: 2017–10–25
  20. By: Frei, Irina (RWTH Aachen University); Grund, Christian (RWTH Aachen University)
    Abstract: Despite the ongoing public debate about precarious working conditions in academia, there is only little evidence on working hours and overtime work for the group of (non-tenured) junior academics. By using unique longitudinal survey data on the occupational situation and careers of doctoral students and doctorate holders in STEM fields in Germany, we explore potential antecedents of overtime. We find that overtime hours are less pronounced among firm employees holding a doctorate and among postdocs than they are among doctoral students. This result holds in the cross-section and also when examining status changes (from doctoral student to postdoc or to firm employee holding a doctorate) in difference-in-differences estimations. In contrast to firm employees, overtime hours are considerably positively associated with part-time contracts for doctoral students. Furthermore, our results reveal that individuals' career orientation is positively associated with extra hours. In contrast, individuals with family responsibilities and a stronger preference for leisure time spend significantly fewer hours at work.
    Keywords: working time, overtime, part-time employment, academia
    JEL: I23 J22 M51
    Date: 2017–10
  21. By: OECD
    Abstract: The Innovative Teaching for Effective Learning (ITEL) Teacher Knowledge Survey is the first international study to explore the nature, function and development of teachers’ pedagogical knowledge, i.e. what teachers know about teaching and learning. In-service and pre-service teachers exhibited higher knowledge on the classroom management portion of the assessment than in other areas related to instructional process, such as teaching methods and lesson planning. Results suggest that the more teachers learn about classroom management, the more confident they feel about mastering the teaching and learning process in general. Classroom management also seems to have a larger impact on self-efficacy than does learning about lesson planning. In-service teachers who report feeling confident about managing classrooms also report higher quality instructional practices in this domain. Knowledge related to learning and development; incorporating aspects of cognitive learning strategies, memory and information processes, is the area with most room for improvement in the pedagogical knowledge base.
    Date: 2017–11–09
  22. By: Algan, Yann; Beasley, Elizabeth; Guyot, Florian; Higa, Kazuhito; Murtin, Fabrice; Senik, Claudia
    Abstract: We build an indicator of individual well-being in the United States based on Google Trends. The indicator is a combination of keyword groups that are endogenously identified to fit with weekly time-series of subjective wellbeing measures collected by Gallup Analytics. We find that keywords associated with job search, financial security, family life and leisure are the strongest predictors of the variations in subjective wellbeing. The model successfully predicts the out-of-sample evolution of most subjective wellbeing measures at a one-year horizon.
    Keywords: Subjective Well-Being; Big Data; Bayesian Statistics
    Date: 2016–06
  23. By: Darolia, Rajeev (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia); Ritter, Dubravka (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia)
    Abstract: Bankruptcy reform in 2005 restricted debtors’ ability to discharge private student loan debt. The reform was motivated by the perceived incentive of some borrowers to file bankruptcy under Chapter 7 even if they had, or expected to have, sufficient income to service their debt. Using a national sample of credit bureau files, we examine whether private student loan borrowers distinctly adjusted their Chapter 7 bankruptcy filing behavior in response to the reform. We do not find evidence to indicate that the moral hazard associated with dischargeability appreciably affected the behavior of private student loan debtors prior to the policy.
    Keywords: student loans; bankruptcy; bankruptcy reform
    JEL: D14 G21 I22 K35
    Date: 2017–11–02
  24. By: Anna Bruederle; Roland Hodler
    Abstract: Nighttime lights are increasingly used by social scientists as a proxy for economic activity and economic development in subnational spatial units. However, so far, our understanding of what nighttime lights capture is limited. We construct local indicators of household wealth, education and health from geo-coded Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 29 African countries. We show that nighttime lights are positively associated with these indicators across DHS cluster locations as well as across grid cells of roughly 50 x 50 km. We conclude that nighttime lights are a good proxy for human development at the local level.
    Keywords: nighttime lights, local development, Africa
    JEL: I15 I25 I32 O15 O55
    Date: 2017

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