nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2017‒10‒08
23 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The effect of neighbourhoods and school quality on education and labour market outcomes in South Africa By Asmus Zoch
  2. Evaluating classroom innovations for motivation and learning: Principles of microeconomics specific course case By Felipe Bedoya Maya; Mónica Ospina; Santiago Sánchez González
  3. The Typology of Parental Engagement and its Relationship with the Typology of Teaching Practices, Student Motivation, Self-Concept and Academic Achievement By Nor Aniza Ahmad
  4. Internationalization of the higher education in Romania and EU countries By Oancea, Bogdan; Pospisil, Richard; Dragoescu, Raluca Mariana
  5. Post Conflict Reconstruction Efforts in Tribal Areas of Pakistan through Informal Education By Mamoon, Dawood
  6. The effect of immigrant peers in vocational schools By Tommaso Frattini; Elena Meschi
  7. The return to higher education: evidence from Romania By Oancea, Bogdan; Pospisil, Richard; Dragoescu, Raluca
  8. Classroom Arrangement through Computer: A New Approach By Irshad Ullah
  9. "The Application of Bandura’s Social Learning Theory in the Teaching of Academic Writing" By Zarihan Samsudin
  10. Wealth Disparities for Early Childhood Anthropometrics and Skills: Evidence from Chilean Longitudinal Data By Jere Behrman; Dante Contreras; Isidora Palma; Esteban Puentes
  11. A logit model for the estimation of the educational level influence on unemployment in Romania By Oancea, Bogdan; Pospisil, Richard; Dragoescu, Raluca
  12. Information, perceived education level, and attitudes toward refugees: Evidence from a randomized survey experiment By Simon, Lisa; Piopiunik, Marc; Lergetporer, Philipp
  13. "Job Satisfaction and Absenteeism on the Performance of Lecturer in Private Higher Education in Semarang" By Arnis Budi Susanto
  14. Enhancing advanced skills to better meet labour market demand in the Slovak Republic By Gabriel Machlica; Ján Toman; Martin Haluš; Dávid Martinák
  15. Does early child care attendance influence children's cognitive and non-cognitive skill development? By Kuehnle, Daniel; Oberfichtner, Michael
  16. The Trend of Academic Achievement among Malaysian Boys and Girls: Where are the Boys? By Nor Aniza Ahmad
  17. Entrepreneurship, College and Credit: The Golden Triangle By M Samaniego, Roberto; Yu Sun, Juliana
  18. Concept Formation Teaching Model: An Innovation in Teaching By Aamna Irshad
  19. "Students’ Knowledge and Attitude on Preventive Behaviour of Zika Disease" By Mahirah Abdul Rahman
  20. Yes we can! Teaching DSGE models to undergraduate students By Solis-Garcia, Mario
  21. The Effect of Quality of Education on Violence: Evidence from Colombia By Andres Giraldo; Manini Ojha; Manini Ojha
  22. Healthy Business? Managerial Education and Management in Healthcare By Nicholas Bloom; Renata Lemos; Raffaella Sadun; John Van Reenen
  23. Does Quality of Early Childhood Education and Care Affect the Home Learning Environment of Children? By Susanne Kuger; Jan Marcus; C. Katharina Spiess

  1. By: Asmus Zoch (Department of Economics, University of Mannheim)
    Abstract: This study evaluates the relative importance of family, neighbourhood and school quality in explaining variation in standardized test results, reaching and passing matric, university attendance and labour market earnings. It adds to the literature, by using a spatial approach to link a neighbourhood wealth index from the Census 2011 community survey to a unique administrative school data set from the Western Cape. For the long-term perspective the household and school information from the National Income Dynamics Study are explored. The results from administrative school data show how student wealth and differences in school quality produce vastly different outcomes for a cohort of grade 6 to 12 learners in Cape Town. It shows how grade 6 children going to the richest 20% of all schools are 30% more likely to pass matric in time, furthermore by grade 9 the learning gap is approximately four grade-levels worth of learning in comparison to children going to the poorest 20% of schools. However, this study also demonstrates that even children from the poorest neighbourhood would perform well if they go to one of the richest 20% of schools. Yet, given the limited number of quality schools, the segregated location of quality schools, financial as well as transport constraints, only very few children from the poorest 60% actually attend a top quintile schools. These results can be replicated for the national data set and show that in order to achieve more equal education outcomes, the quality of schools in the poor neighbourhoods have to be drastically improved. In addition, using the new school wealth index as an instrument for school quality, there seems to be a significant premium for quality education in labour markets earnings regressions, which show the long-term implications of the schooling system.
    Keywords: South Africa, Education, Spatial analysis, Neighbourhood effects, Family effects
    JEL: D10 I24 J15
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Felipe Bedoya Maya; Mónica Ospina; Santiago Sánchez González
    Abstract: The objective of this research is piloting and evaluating the introduction of teaching innovations for better learning in a general microeconomics course for undergraduate students. The assessment is based on the Self Determination The- ory and student-centered methodologies (SDT)(Deci and Ryan, 1985; Deci et al., 1991a), which remark the individual motivation as crucial for learning. The pilot- ing of the instrument was implemented with a sample of 323 students grouped into 14 classes, giving evidence that the most relevant course problem is that students do not feel that what they are learning is really useful in their specific professions, despite the fact that they agree with the importance to know about such topics. This piloting allowed us to validate the used instrument which implements two psy- chometric scales: Knowledge transfer and self-determination scales. The impact evaluation was implemented for a sample of 204 students, distributed in treated and control groups. The assignment of students to treatment is random. Results provide evidence that the intervention significantly improves the self-determined motivation as well as the academic performance of students, although in a modest magnitude.
    Keywords: Educational Innovation, Self Determination Theory, Impact Evaluation
    JEL: I21 I23 O33
    Date: 2017–09–21
  3. By: Nor Aniza Ahmad (Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia. Author-2-Name: Siti Aishah Hassan Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia. Author-3-Name: Abdul Razak Ahmad Author-3-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. Author-4-Name: Chua Lay Nee Author-4-Workplace-Name: Raja Melewar Teacher Trainee College, Malaysia. Author-5-Name: Nor Hashim Othman Author-5-Workplace-Name: SMK Mambau, Jalan Port Dickson, Malaysia)
    Abstract: Objective – The aim of this study is to identify and explore the relationship of parental engagement on teaching practices, student motivation, self-concept and academic achievement. Methodology/Technique – This study applies the perspectives of relevant ecological, socio-cultural and psychological theories. Samples comprise 1075 high school students who were randomly stratified across Malaysia. Data were extracted from questionnaires which were analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) AMOS. Findings – Findings show that parental engagement, teaching practices, student motivation and self-concept have a significant relationship with academic achievement. Novelty – This study provides significant implications to the development of theoretical models for parental engagement, teaching practices, student motivation, self-concept and academic achievement in the Malaysian education system.
    Keywords: Academic Achievement; Motivation; Parental Engagement; Self-Concept; Teaching Practices.
    JEL: I21 I23
    Date: 2016–12–29
  4. By: Oancea, Bogdan; Pospisil, Richard; Dragoescu, Raluca Mariana
    Abstract: Internationalization of higher education has become a part of the globalization process. In this paper we analyze the internationalization of the higher education in Romania and EU countries, identifying the forms of the internationalization, the main statistical indicators available to measure the process of internationalization. The figures presented in this article show that although Romania took some measures to support the internationalization and the number of foreign students started to increase especially after 2007, it has one of the lowest rates of student mobility among EU countries. The asymmetry ratio of students’ mobility shows that Romania is not currently an attractive country for tertiary education. Only medicine seems to attract foreign students mainly because the tuition fee is much lower than in other European countries. The determinants of the student mobility were investigated through some simple regression models which showed that the GDP per capita and the ratio between the number of students and professors influence the decision to study abroad.
    Keywords: higher education, internationalization, mobility, statistics of education
    JEL: I21 I23
    Date: 2016–07
  5. By: Mamoon, Dawood
    Abstract: The paper is a first effort of its kind to discuss the issue of post conflict reconstruction efforts in the tribal belt of Pakistan by focusing on soft skills and peaceful behavior of locals on account of informal means of delivering education. The paper explains why informal education in comparison to formal schooling is a preferred strategy to change the behaviors of locals towards subtle national integration in short time span. The paper presents the learning initiatives and possible outcomes with help of academic literature that focuses on post conflict reconstruction efforts in regions like Africa and Asia.
    Keywords: Informal Education, Post Conflict Reconstruction,
    JEL: I21 Z1 Z13
    Date: 2017–10–02
  6. By: Tommaso Frattini (University of Milan, LdA, CReAM and IZA); Elena Meschi (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari)
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence on how the presence of immigrant peers in the classroom affects native student achievement. The analysis is based on longitudinal administrative data on two cohorts of vocational training students in Italy’s largest region. Vocational training institutions provide the ideal setting for studying these effects because they attract not only disproportionately high shares of immigrants but also the lowest ability native students. We adopt a value added model, and exploit within-school variation both within and across cohorts for identification. Our results show small negative average effects on maths test scores that are larger for low ability native students, strongly non-linear and only observable in classes with a high (top 20%) immigrant concentration. These outcomes are driven by classes with a high average linguistic distance between immigrants and natives, with no apparent role played by ethnic diversity.
    Keywords: Immigration, education, peer effects, vocational training, language
    JEL: I20 J15
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Oancea, Bogdan; Pospisil, Richard; Dragoescu, Raluca
    Abstract: Education is one of the most important components of the human capital, and an important determinant of the personal income. Estimating the rate of return to education is a main topic of economic research. In this paper we analyzed the rate of return to higher education in Romania using the well-known Mincer equation. Besides the educational level and the number of years of experience on the labor market we also used a series of socio-demographic variables such as gender, civil status, the area of residence. We were interested mainly in calculating the rate of return to higher education, therefore we computed this rate for bachelor, master and doctoral degrees separately. We also investigated the rate of return to higher education on technical, science, economics, law, medicine, and arts fields. Our results showed that the rate of return to higher education has a greater value than most of the developed countries of EU and the field of higher education that brings the highest rate of return is medicine
    Keywords: Mincer equation; higher education; returns to education
    JEL: J31
    Date: 2017–09–06
  8. By: Irshad Ullah (Education Department, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Author-2-Name: Aamna Irshad Author-2-Workplace-Name: Centre for Counseling and Career Advisory, National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan)
    Abstract: "Objective – In the classroom, computers can be used for its better learning arrangements. Computers can be used either by the teacher or the learner but whatever way it is used, it is an important tool in the teaching-learning environment. Without proper class room arrangement and management, it becomes difficult to create a proper environment for learning. It can also affect the learning behaviors of students. Student may learn more effectively and efficiently in a cool environment. Different educationalists from the education field put in a lot of effort in this respect, suggesting many different methods for solving learning problems. In this paper an attempt has been made to demonstrate how computers may assist in the arrangement of classes for better learning environments. Methodology/Technique – Different perspectives are investigated by collecting data from both students and teachers with different levels of familiarity with the use of computers in the learning environment. Findings – Based on the analysed results, different techniques and strategies are proposed for use in the classroom to achieve better learning environments. Novelty – The study suggests an approach for classroom arrangement though the use of computers."
    Keywords: Computer; Internet; Management; Students; Class.
    JEL: I21 O32
    Date: 2017–01–15
  9. By: Zarihan Samsudin (School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Kolej Universiti Poly-Tech MARA, Malaysia. Author-2-Name: Zainon Shamsudin Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Education and Social Sciences, Universiti Selangor (UNISEL), Malaysia. Author-3-Name: Mohd. Faisal Mohd Arif Author-3-Workplace-Name: School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Kolej Universiti Poly-Tech MARA, Malaysia.)
    Abstract: "Objective – This experimental study seeks to ascertain whether Bandura’s (1977) Social Learning Theory can be used to teach academic writing. Interpreted in terms of an approach to the teaching of writing, the theory suggests that students can learn to write a particular text by observing closely the structural as well as the linguistic features of that text. Methodology/Technique – By observing how the text is written, students obtain an idea of how it is formed, and on later occasions they can use this information as a guide to produce similar texts. The sample of this study consists of 100 students from College University Poly-Tech MARA, Kuala Lumpur. The study adopts a pre/post-assessment of the students’ writing performances for three types of academic essays. T-tests were used to compare the results of the 3 pretests with the results of the 3 post-tests which were administered to the participants after they underwent each of the 3 treatment sessions. Findings – The study reveals that the Social Learning Theory speaks the truth about the human natural learning process. Thus, this implies that this potent theory be used in designing varying approaches to teaching students the skills to write academic texts. Novelty – The study suggests that observational learning of sample texts provides students with guidance on how to improve their writing as it makes them aware of the different ways texts are organized for different communicative purposes, thereby promoting their confidence and positive attitude towards writing."
    Keywords: Academic Writing; Social Learning Theory; Observational Learning; Analyzing; Emulating; Model Text.
    JEL: I21 I25
    Date: 2017–04–20
  10. By: Jere Behrman; Dante Contreras; Isidora Palma; Esteban Puentes
    Abstract: We study wealth disparities in the formation of anthropometrics, cognitive skills and socio-emotional skills. We use a sample of preschool and early school children in Chile. We extend the previous literature by using longitudinal data, which allow us to study the dynamics of child growth and skills formation. Also, we include information on mother's and father's schooling attainment and mother's cognitive ability. We find that there are no significant anthropometric differences favoring the better-off at birth (and indeed length differences at birth to the disadvantage of the better-off), but during the first 30 months of life wealth disparities in height-for-age z scores (HAZ) favoring the better-off emerge. Moreover, we find wealth disparities in cognitive skills favoring the better-off emerge early in life and continue after children turn 6 years of age. We find no concurrent wealth disparities for and socio-emotional skills. Thus, even though the wealth disparities in birth outcomes if anything favor the poor, significant disparities favoring the rich emerge in the early post-natal period. Mother's education and cognitive ability also are significantly associated with disparities in skill formation.
    Date: 2017–09
  11. By: Oancea, Bogdan; Pospisil, Richard; Dragoescu, Raluca
    Abstract: Education is one of the main determinants of the unemployment level in all EU countries. In this paper we used a logit model to estimate the effect of the educational level on the unemployment in Romania using data recorded at the Population and Housing Census 2011. Besides the educational level we also used other socio-demographic variables recorded at the Census like gender, marital status, residential area. Data processing was achieved using R software system and since the data set used for model estimation was very large we used special techniques suited for big data processing. The results showed that the lowest odds ratio to be unemployed was recorded for population with tertiary education which is consistent with other studies at international level and with the official statistics data, but our study indicates that tertiary education has a greater impact on unemployment in Romania than in other EU countries.
    Keywords: educational level, unemployment, logit, higher education
    JEL: I20 J24
    Date: 2016–06–07
  12. By: Simon, Lisa; Piopiunik, Marc; Lergetporer, Philipp
    Abstract: From 2014 onwards, Europe has witnessed an unprecedented influx of refugees. We conducted a survey experiment with almost 5,000 university students in Germany in which we randomly shifted the perception of refugees’ education level through information provision. We find that the perceived education level significantly affects respondents’ concerns regarding labor market competition, but these concerns do not translate into general attitudes toward refugees.
    JEL: H12 H53 I38 D83 D72 P16
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Arnis Budi Susanto (University of Jember, Indonesia. Author-2-Name: Suyatno Author-2-Workplace-Name: STIE AKA Semarang, Citarum No. 44, 50122, Semarang, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Theresia Susetyarsi Author-3-Workplace-Name: STIE Semarang, Menoreh Utara Raya No. 11 50236, Semarang, Indonesia)
    Abstract: "Objective – The lecturer is a key element in higher education. This study aims to examine the relationship of job satisfaction lecturer on the performance of lecturer in private higher education in Semarang. Framework constructs in this study presents a variable relationship to one another, illustrating both individual performance and job satisfaction awoke from elements of soft and hard approach. Methodology/Technique – The sample of this research was determined by using two stage random sampling of 200 lecturers at private higher education in Semarang. Data were analyzed with structural equation modeling (SEM). Findings – The empirical results showed that job satisfaction is able to reduce absenteeism and improve the performance of lecturer in private higher education, both directly and indirectly. Novelty – This research findings supported by original data."
    Keywords: Job Satisfaction; Absenteeism; Job performance, Semerang.
    JEL: I23 J21
    Date: 2017–04–06
  14. By: Gabriel Machlica (OECD); Ján Toman (OECD); Martin Haluš (OECD); Dávid Martinák (OECD)
    Abstract: Changing labour market demand and moving up the global value chain requires high-skilled workers. However, the share of adults with high skill levels in the Slovak Republic is one of the lowest in the OECD. Improving the education system would raise quality and better align students’ skills with new labour market needs and help them face further changes in the work environment. The contribution of the tertiary education system to skills improvement is one of the lowest in the OECD. It has to open itself more to the outside world: by easing the conditions for foreign professors and researchers to teach at Slovak universities, promoting internationally respected research and intensifying the cooperation with the business sector. Another challenge is to secure an adequate supply of skilled workers in the face of rapid population ageing and increasing emigration of young high-skilled workers. Ageing of the population will not only lead to shrinking labour supply, but a growing part of the workforce will need to be retrained. Bolstering the supply of skills requires lifelong learning and attracting skilled migrants, including returning Slovaks. This Working Paper relates to the 2017 OECD Economic Survey of the Slovak Republic ( y-slovak-republic.htm).
    Keywords: brain drain, Skills, tertiary education, vocational education
    JEL: F22 I23 I25 I28 J48
    Date: 2017–10–04
  15. By: Kuehnle, Daniel; Oberfichtner, Michael
    Abstract: While recent studies mostly find that attending child care earlier improves the skills of children from low socio-economic and non-native backgrounds in the short-run, it remains unclear whether such positive effects persist. We identify the short- and medium-run effects of early child care attendance in Germany using a fuzzy discontinuity in child care starting age between December and January. This discontinuity arises as children typically start formal child care in the summer of the calendar year in which they turn three. Combining rich German survey and administrative data, we follow one cohort from age five to 15 and examine standardised cognitive test scores, non-cognitive skill measures, and school track choice. We find no evidence that starting child care earlier affects children's outcomes in the short- or medium-run. Our precise estimates rule out large effects for children whose parents have a strong preference for sending them to early child care.
    Keywords: child care,child development,skill formation,cognitive skills,non-cognitive skills,fuzzy regression discontinuity
    JEL: J13 I21 I38
    Date: 2017
  16. By: Nor Aniza Ahmad (Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia Author-2-Name: Siti Aishah Hassan Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia Author-3-Name: Abdul Razak Ahmad Author-3-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Author-4-Name: Chua Lay Nee Author-4-Workplace-Name: Raja Melewar Teacher Trainee College, Malaysia Author-5-Name: Nor Hashim Othman Author-5-Workplace-Name: SMK Mambau, Malaysia)
    Abstract: "Objective – Gender differences in education remain as one of the global issues that has been widely and comprehensively discussed. This study aims at exploring the pattern of academic achievement of boys and girls in Malaysia. Methodology/Technique – The study analyzes the data of student achievement in public examination from 2008 until 2014, which were obtained from the Malaysian Examination Board. Findings – The findings showed that Malaysian girls performed better than Malaysian boys. The findings also showed that there were significant differences in academic achievement between the boys and the girls. Novelty – This study implicated the need to identify the factors causing the achievement gap across genders. Hence, strategies and interventions can be undertaken to reduce the gap."
    Keywords: Academic Achievement; Boy’s Performance; Girl’s Performance; Gender Differences.
    JEL: I21 I23
    Date: 2017–01–24
  17. By: M Samaniego, Roberto (The George Washington University); Yu Sun, Juliana (School of Economics, Singapore Management University)
    Abstract: We develop a model to evaluate the impact of college education finance on welfare, inequality and aggregate outcomes. Our model captures the stylized fact that entrepreneurs with college are more common and more profitable. Our calibration to US data suggests this is mainly because higher labor earnings allow college educated agents to ameliorate credit constraints when they become entrepreneurs. The welfare benefits of subsidizing education are greater than those of eliminating financing constraints on education because subsidies ameliorate the impact of financing constraints on would-be entrepreneurs.
    Date: 2016–04–28
  18. By: Aamna Irshad ("Centre for Counseling and Career Advisory, National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan" Author-2-Name: Irshad Ullah Author-2-Workplace-Name: "Education Department, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 44000, Islamabad, Pakistan ")
    Abstract: "Objective – In the study, a teaching model was devised named as “concept formation teaching model” and its effect on grade IX students’ academic achievement was investigated over lecture method. Methodology/Technique – Experimental group (143 students) and control group (147 students) were chosen for experiment from three Government Girls and Boys High Schools of Rawalpindi. Pretest, posttest Non-equivalent-Groups Design was selected for the study. Pre and post-test were given to experimental and control groups at the start and end of the study. Lessons plans were based on the format of direct instruction. Experimental and control groups were compared by applying t-test and analysis of covariance. Findings – The results showed that concept formation teaching model was more effective for clarification and strengthening of concepts than lecture method. Novelty – The study proves that this model is better than lecture method for strengthening Chemistry concepts. "
    Keywords: "Concept; Concept Formation; Teaching; Teaching Chemistry; Concept Formation Teaching Model. "
    JEL: P46 I21 O31
    Date: 2017–03–21
  19. By: Mahirah Abdul Rahman (International Islamic University, Malaysia Author-2-Name: Norhani Mohd Jais Author-2-Workplace-Name: International Islamic University, Malaysia Author-3-Name: Saodah Wok Author-3-Workplace-Name: International Islamic University, Malaysia)
    Abstract: "Objective – The purpose of this paper is to identify knowledge and attitude on preventive behaviour of the Zika disease. Using the Social Learning Theory, the present study aims: (1) to evaluate levels of knowledge, attitude and preventive behaviour on Zika disease; (2) to examine the relationship between knowledge and attitude with preventive behaviour; and (3) to determine the best predictor for Zika preventive behaviour. Methodology/Technique – This study employs the quantitative research design using the survey method. Data are collected using the self-administered questionnaire. A total of 207 students from a public university participated in the study. Findings – The levels of knowledge, attitude and preventive behaviour are high. There are positive correlations among knowledge, attitude and preventive behaviour. Attitude is the best predictor for preventive behaviour. With knowledge and positive attitude towards the disease, the preventive behaviours are practiced. Novelty – Very limited studies have been done in Malaysia regarding the Zika disease. This study provides valuable insights of knowledge and attitude that influence prevention behaviour of the disease especially among university students."
    Keywords: Malaysia; Mosquito-borne Disease; Social Learning Theory; Students; Zika.
    JEL: I12 I21
    Date: 2017–04–16
  20. By: Solis-Garcia, Mario
    Abstract: Dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) models have become the workhorse of modern macroeconomics and the standard way to communicate ideas among applied macroeconomists. Undergraduate students, however, often remain unaware of their existence. The lack of specialized knowledge can hurt them if they decide to attend graduate school. Indeed, many first-year PhD students discover that the material they are currently learning differs significantly from what they mastered in college. But this can change. In this essay, I describe how to teach a full-fledged macroeconomics course where DSGE models take center stage. I discuss how to arrange such a course within a one-semester time frame, detail the main components of instruction, and finish with some thoughts based on my teaching experience at Macalester College.
    Keywords: DSGE models, Bayesian estimation, undergraduate education, advanced macroe- conomics
    JEL: A22 B41 E30 E60
    Date: 2017–09–21
  21. By: Andres Giraldo; Manini Ojha; Manini Ojha
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the impact of quality of education on violence and crime using student performances on a mandatory examination as the measure of quality. The paper exploits transfers of funds from central government to municipalities for investments in education as a source of exogenous variation and finds that better education quality has a negative impact on economic crimes such as kidnapping rates, rate of theft on persons and presence of illegal armed groups. The findings are consistent with an opportunity cost effect of education, that is, high quality education increases expectations of being absorbed by the labor market and discourages engaging in criminal activities. Results also point to perhaps a pacifying effect of education such that improvement of education quality generates less violent environments, promotes social and political stability. The results are found to be robust to a number of econometric concerns and different measures of quality of education.
    Keywords: Quality of Education, Economic Crime, Conflict, Spatial Instruments
    JEL: D74 I25 O11
    Date: 2017–06–07
  22. By: Nicholas Bloom; Renata Lemos; Raffaella Sadun; John Van Reenen
    Abstract: We investigate the link between hospital performance and managerial education by collecting a large database of management practices and skills in hospitals across nine countries. We find that hospitals that are closer to universities offering both medical education and business education have higher management quality, more MBA trained managers and lower mortality rates. This is true compared to the distance to universities that offer only business or medical education (or neither). We argue that supplying joint MBA-healthcare courses may be a channel through which universities increase medical business skills and raise clinical performance.
    Keywords: management, hospitals, mortality, education
    JEL: M1 I1
    Date: 2017–09
  23. By: Susanne Kuger; Jan Marcus; C. Katharina Spiess
    Abstract: Both, a high quality of the Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) setting and a high quality of the home learning environment foster children’s development. However, we know little about the interactions between ECEC quality and the home learning environment. We examine whether the child’s attendance in a high ECEC quality setting improves the quality of her home learning environment. We use very rich data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), which provides detailed panel information through children`s age of 6 months to 9 years on ECEC quality and on the child’s home learning environment. Our analysis is based on a sample of 700 children who have been in non-family child care for at least 10 hours/week. We estimate level and value-added specifications and show that ECEC quality improves the home learning environment at various measurement points. The effects sizes indicate that anincrease in ECEC quality by one standard deviation increases the home learning environment by about 0.08 standard deviations. Furthermore, results differ by sub-groups: The home learning environment from more advantaged children benefits more from higher ECEC quality. Thus the potential of high ECEC quality on the home learning environment is not effectively used for disadvantaged children. Policies could work on this potential link, in particular.
    Keywords: ECEC quality, home learning environment, spill-over, disadvantaged children
    JEL: J13 I20 I24
    Date: 2017

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