nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2017‒08‒27
twenty-six papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Risky Business? The Effect of Majoring in Business on Earnings and Educational Attainment By Rodney J. Andrews; Scott Imberman; Michael Lovenheim
  2. Raising skills in Portugal By Sónia Araújo
  3. Can Superstition Create a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy? School Outcomes of Dragon Children of China By Naci H. Mocan; Han Yu
  4. The impact of academic service quality on student satisfaction By Manik, Ester; Sidharta, Iwan
  5. Can Raising Instructional Time Crowd Out Student Pro-Social Behaviour? Unintended Consequences of a German High School Reform By Christian Krekel
  6. Choice of Majors: Are Women Really Different from Men? By Kugler, Adriana D.
  7. Professores da Educação Básica no Brasil: condições de vida, inserção no mercado de trabalho e remuneração By Milko Matijascic
  8. Eficiência do Gasto da Educação Fundamental Municipal By Ajax Moreira
  9. Longevity and Lifetime Education: Global Evidence from 919 Surveys By Mohammad Mainul Hoque; Elizabeth King; Claudio E. Montenegro; Peter F. Orazem
  10. Education Quality and the Empirics of Economic Growth By Mauro Rodrigues; Danilo P. Souza
  11. The Gendered Spillover Effect of Young Children's Health on Human Capital: Evidence from Turkey By Marcella Alsan
  12. Maternal education and childhood immunization in Turkey By Mustafa Özer; Jan Fidrmuc; Mehmet Ali Eryurt
  13. Longevity and Lifetime Education: Global Evidence from 919 Surveys By Hoque, Mohammad Mainul; King, Elizabeth M.; Montenegro, Claudio M.; Orazem, Peter
  14. Vocational vs. General Education and Employment over the Life-Cycle: New Evidence from PIAAC By Hampf, Franziska; Woessmann, Ludger
  15. The Political Economy of Program Enforcement: Evidence from Brazil By Brollo, Fernanda; Kaufmann, Katja Maria; Ferrara, Eliana La
  16. French and British Colonial Legacies in Education: Evidence from the Partition of Cameroon By Dupraz, Yannick
  17. (How) Do Non-Cognitive Skills Programs Improve Adolescent School Achievement? Experimental Evidence By Pedro S. Martins
  18. First and Second Generation Impacts of the Biafran War By Richard Akresh; Sonia Bhalotra; Marinella Leone; Una O. Osili
  19. Conducting and Disseminating Education Research (About Us) By Mathematica Policy Research
  20. Does Female Education have a Bargaining Effect on Household Welfare? Evidence from Ghana and Uganda By Raymond B. Frempong; David Stadelmann
  21. Does Income and education of working-women transform societal values: An evidence from Pakistan By Riaz, Rida
  22. Trade policy preference, childhood sporting experience, and informal school curriculum: Examination from the viewpoint of behavioral economics By Eiji Yamamura; Yoshiro Tsutsui
  23. How Much Do the Effects of Education and Training Programs Vary Across Sites? Evidence from Past Multisite Randomized Trials By Michael J. Weiss; Howard S. Bloom; Natalya Verbitsky-Savitz; Himani Gupta; Alma E. Vigil; Daniel N. Cullinan
  24. The response of parental time investments to the child’s skills and health By Cheti Nicoletti; Valentina Tonei
  25. Inside Job or Deep Impact? Using Extramural Citations to Assess Economic Scholarship By Joshua Angrist; Pierre Azoulay; Glenn Ellison; Ryan Hill; Susan Feng Lu
  26. Male Education and Domestic Violence in Turkey: Evidence from a Natural Experiment By Özer, Mustafa; Fidrmuc, Jan

  1. By: Rodney J. Andrews (The University of Texas at Dallas); Scott Imberman (University of Houston); Michael Lovenheim (Cornell University)
    Abstract: One of the most important decisions a student can make during the course of his or her college career is the choice of major. The field of study a student selects translates directly into the types of skills and knowledge he or she will obtain during college, and it can influence the type of career chosen after postsecondary education ends. Business is one of the most popular majors in the US, accounting for 19% of all college degrees granted. We study the impact of choosing a business major using a regression discontinuity design that exploits GPA cutoffs for switching majors in some Texas universities. Even though nearly 60% of marginal business majors would have majored in a STEM field otherwise, we find large and statistically significant increases in earnings of 80% to 130% 12+ years after college entry, driven mainly by women. These are considerably larger than OLS estimates that condition on a rich set of demographic, high school achievement, and high school fixed-effects controls, which is consistent with students choosing majors based on comparative advantage. We do not find statistically significant effects of majoring in business on educational outcomes, except for positive effects on male 6-year graduation rates.
    Keywords: postsecondary education, higher education, college major, returns to education
    JEL: I23 J24
    Date: 2017–08
  2. By: Sónia Araújo (OECD)
    Abstract: Despite significant progress made, improving skills remains one of Portugal’s key challenges for raising growth, living standards and well-being. Upskilling the adult population remains a priority and lifelong learning activities should focus more on the low skilled. While active labour market policies have increased their training content in recent years, spending per unemployed is still low. A systematic monitoring of the different programmes would allow concentrating resources on the policies that are more effective in raising skills and employment prospects. In the education system, successive increases in compulsory education have not eliminated early school leaving, and a significant share of youth is left without completed secondary education, thus facing poor labour market prospects and a risk of falling into poverty. Another challenge for the education system is to reduce the link between learning outcomes and socio-economic backgrounds. This could be achieved by providing earlier and individualised support to students at risk of falling behind, strengthening teachers and principals training and exposure to best practices, and creating incentives to attract the more experienced teachers to disadvantaged schools. Vocational education and training (VET) has received less attention than general education until recent years and has suffered from fragmented management. This has curtailed the employment prospects of youth not wishing to pursue tertiary education. Establishing a single VET system and reinforcing work-based learning in companies would address this issue. Tertiary education has expanded considerably over recent years but could have a stronger focus on labour market needs, including by developing tertiary technical education. Enhanced support for business research activities could be coupled with strengthening management skills and the ties between businesses and researchers, for example by creating incentives for academics to cooperate with the private sector. This Working Paper relates to the 2017 OECD Economic Survey of Portugal ( y-portugal.htm).
    Keywords: Adult Education and Training, Education System, Labour Market Segmentation, Vocational Education and Training, Youth Unemployment,
    JEL: I24 I25 I28 J24
    Date: 2017–08–28
  3. By: Naci H. Mocan; Han Yu
    Abstract: In Chinese culture those who are born in the year of the Dragon under the zodiac calendar are believed to be destined for good fortune and greatness, and parents prefer their kids to be born in a Dragon year. Using province level panel data we show that the number of marriages goes up during the two years preceding a Dragon year and that births jump up in a Dragon year. Using three recently collected micro data sets from China we show that those born in a Dragon year are more likely to have a college education, and that they obtain higher scores at the university entrance exam. Similarly, Chinese middle school students have higher test scores if they are born in a Dragon year. We show that these results are not because of family background, student cognitive ability, self-esteem or students’ expectations about their future. We find, however, that the “Dragon” effect on test scores is eliminated when we account for parents’ expectations about their children’s educational and professional success. We find that parents of Dragon children have higher expectations for their children in comparison to other parents, and that they invest more heavily in their children in terms of time and money. Even though neither the Dragon children nor their families are inherently different from other children and families, the belief in the prophecy of success and the ensuing investment become self-fulfilling.
    JEL: D91 I21 Z1
    Date: 2017–08
  4. By: Manik, Ester; Sidharta, Iwan
    Abstract: Implementation of education through higher education is one indicator of high public awareness of the benefits of education. But to prepare high quality education is a major challenge in Indonesia. Many things need to be considered to improve the quality of education services for students. This study aims to measure the level of student satisfaction on academic services with SERVQUAL measuring tool. The research was conducted on computer science and management high school students in Bandung city by using explorative method. Data analysis techniques use structural equation modeling (SEM). The result of research shows that there is a significant influence of SERQUAL on student satisfaction. The results of this study indicate that by increasing SERQUAL, student satisfaction on academic services can be achieved.
    Keywords: Academic Service Quality, Student Satisfaction.
    JEL: M3
    Date: 2017–03
  5. By: Christian Krekel
    Abstract: We study whether raising instructional time can crowd out student pro-social behaviour. To this end, we exploit a large educational reform in Germany that has raised weekly instructional hours for high school students by 12.5% as a quasi-natural experiment. Using a difference-in-differences design, we find that this rise has a negative and sizeable effect on volunteering, both at the intensive and at the extensive margin. It also affects political interest. There is no similar crowding out of scholastic involvement, but no substitution either. Impacts seem to be driven by a reduction in available leisure time as opposed to a rise in intensity of instruction, and to be temporary only. Robustness checks, including placebo tests and triple differencing, confirm our results.
    Keywords: instructional time, student pro-social behaviour, volunteering, scholastic involvement, political interest, quasi-natural experiment, “G8” reform, SOEP
    JEL: I21 I28 D01
    Date: 2017–08
  6. By: Kugler, Adriana D.
    Abstract: Recent work suggests that women are more responsive to negative feedback than men in certain environments. We examine whether negative feedback in the form of relatively low grades in major-related classes explains gender differences in the majors undergraduates choose. We use unique administrative data from a large private university on the East Coast from 2009-2016 to test whether women are more sensitive to grades than men, and whether the gender composition of major-related classes affects major changes. We also control for other factors that may affect a student's major including: high school student performance, gender of faculty, and economic returns of majors. Finally, we examine how students' decisions are affected by external cues that signal STEM fields as masculine. The results show that high school academic preparation, faculty gender composition, and major returns have little effect on major switching behaviors, and that women and men are equally likely to change their major in response to poor grades in major-related courses. Moreover, women in male-dominated majors do not exhibit different patterns of switching behaviors relative to their male colleagues. Women are, however, more likely to switch out of male-dominated STEM majors in response to poor performance compared to men. Therefore, we find that it takes multiple signals of lack of fit into a major (low grades, gender composition of class, and external stereotyping signals) to impel female students to switch majors.
    Keywords: Education Gender Gap; Major Choice; STEM fields
    JEL: I23 I24 J16
    Date: 2017–08
  7. By: Milko Matijascic
    Abstract: As condições de vida dos professores da educação básica, quando comparadas às da média da população ocupada, são melhores no Brasil. Mas a forte presença de professores em domicílios com renda per capita inferior a 0,5 salário mínimo (SM) requer atenção. As escolas públicas, com destaque para as estaduais seguidas mais à distância pelas municipais, apresentam, em geral, melhores indicadores de instrução e organização sindical, sendo que as escolas privadas possuem indicadores piores em quase todas as regiões brasileiras. A remuneração dos professores é relativamente baixa no Brasil e varia entre regiões e por local de residência. A consolidação de uma nova realidade, na qual o salário médio seja o equivalente à média dos profissionais com nível superior completo, deve mudar essa realidade e criar condições mais favoráveis à melhoria do desempenho dos alunos em matéria de aprendizado. Life conditions for teachers working in basic education are better than those of the average Brazilian working population. However, the high number of teachers living in households with per capita income below 0.5 of the minimum wage requires attention. Teachers in public schools have better conditions than private school teachers, when controlling for teachers schooling and union representation. Nevertheless, teachers’ incomes are reduced and salaries vary quite a bit throughout the country. When teachers’ average salaries equal the average of the population with tertiary education, it would create conditions that would foster improved student learning.
    Date: 2017–06
  8. By: Ajax Moreira
    Abstract: A educação fundamental é principalmente prestada pelos municípios segundo um modelo descentralizado, em que a gestão local transforma recursos transferidos pelo governo federal em resultados educacionais, que são monitorados centralmente. Este modo de operação é propício para a avaliação da eficiência da gestão, pois favorece a existência de variedade de modelos de gestão com desempenho medidos de forma homogênea. Foram utilizados os dados da Prova Brasil dos anos 2007, 2009, 2011 e 2013 para estimar medidas de eficiência econômica da educação fundamental municipal, que considera como insumo o gasto por aluno, e medidas do desempenho do aluno e da escola filtradas de forma a eliminar o efeito das famílias dos discentes. Obtivemos resultados descritivos do comportamento das escolas e dos municípios, além de medidas da eficiência econômica que se mostraram robustas para diferentes seleções de municípios, persistentes intertemporalmente. Estas medidas mostram diferenças substanciais entre municípios e estados. Fundamental education is mainly provided by municipalities according to a decentralized model in which local management transforms resources transferred by the federal government into educational results that are centrally monitored. This mode of operation is conducive to the evaluation of management efficiency, since it favors the existence of a variety of management models with performance measured in a homogeneous way. We used the data from Prova Brasil from the years 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2013 to estimate measures of economic efficiency of municipal basic education, which considers as input the expenditure per student, and measures of student and school performance in order to eliminate the effect of student families. We obtained descriptive results of the behavior of schools and municipalities, and measures of economic efficiency that proved to be robust for different selections of municipalities, and persistent intertemporally. These measures show substantial differences between municipalities and states.
    Date: 2017–06
  9. By: Mohammad Mainul Hoque; Elizabeth King; Claudio E. Montenegro; Peter F. Orazem
    Abstract: Data from 919 household surveys conducted between 1960 and 2012 spanning 147 economies are used to evaluate the relationship between rising life expectancy at birth and lifetime years of schooling for successive birth cohorts between 1905 and 1988. We find significant positive effects of increased life expectancy at birth on lifetime completed years of schooling in 95% of the surveys with significant negative effects found in only 2.3%. Rising life expectancy at birth for a birth cohort has intergenerational benefits in that their children’s schooling also increases. Rising life expectancy at birth since 1905 can explain 70% of the rising completed years of schooling for those birth cohorts.
    Date: 2017–08
  10. By: Mauro Rodrigues; Danilo P. Souza
    Abstract: We extend Mankiw, Romer and Weil's (1992) classic paper by introducing differences in education quality (proxied by students' performance on the PISA test). This substantially reduces the role of human capital investment rates in explaining cross-country income differences. More importantly, the coefficient on this variable is now consistent with microeconomic evidence on returns to education.
    Keywords: Education quality; human capital; cross-country income differences
    JEL: O47 E24 I25
    Date: 2017–08–16
  11. By: Marcella Alsan
    Abstract: Recent policy debates on closing the education gender gap in developing countries have focused on cash transfers, but standard models of intrahousehold allocation imply that reducing the opportunity cost of girls' schooling might also be effective. I test this prediction using quasi-experimental variation from a national vaccination campaign targeting under-five children in Turkey. I find gains in health and human capital among age-eligible children of both sexes. However, educational spillover effects accrue exclusively to their adolescent, ineligible sisters. These spillover effects are increasing if the mother works outside the home and in the number of young children in the household, and are absent if an elder sister is present. My results suggest reducing morbidity among preschool children may have the added benefit of improving educational outcomes for their adolescent sisters in the developing world
    JEL: I25 J16 O15
    Date: 2017–08
  12. By: Mustafa Özer (Faculty of Economics and Administrative Science, Kilis Yedi Aralık University, Turkey; Economics and Finance Department, University of Portsmouth, UK); Jan Fidrmuc (Department of Economics and Finance and CEDI, Brunel University, UK; Institute for Strategy and Analysis, Government Office of the Slovak Republic; CESifo Munich; The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis; Global Labor Organization); Mehmet Ali Eryurt (Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies, Turkey)
    Abstract: We study the causal effect of maternal education on childhood immunization rates. We use the Compulsory Education Law (CEL) of 1997, and the differentiation in its implementation across regions, as instruments for schooling of young mothers in Turkey. The CEL increased the compulsory years of schooling of those born after 1986 from 5 to 8 years. We find that education of mothers increases the probability of completing the full course of DPT and Hepatitis B vaccinations for their children. The results are robust to variation in regression specification and including various individual and community variables.
    Keywords: DPT (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus), Hepatitis B, Maternal Education, Vaccination, Difference-in-Difference-in-Difference, Instrumental variable
    JEL: H51 H52 I12
    Date: 2017–08
  13. By: Hoque, Mohammad Mainul; King, Elizabeth M.; Montenegro, Claudio M.; Orazem, Peter
    Abstract: Data from 919 household surveys conducted between 1960 and 2012 spanning 147 countries are used to evaluate the relationship between rising life expectancy at birth and lifetime years of schooling for successive birth cohorts between 1905 and 1988. We find significant positive effects of increased life expectancy at birth on lifetime completed years of schooling in 95% of the surveys with significant negative effects found in only 2.3%.Rising life expectancy at birth for a birth cohort has intergenerational benefits in that their children’s schooling also increases. Rising life expectancy at birth since 1905 can explain 70% of the rising completed years of schooling for those birth cohorts.
    Date: 2017–08–11
  14. By: Hampf, Franziska (ifo Institute at the University of Munich); Woessmann, Ludger (University of Munich, ifo Institute, CESifo, and IZA)
    Abstract: It has been argued that vocational education facilitates the school-to-work transition but reduces later adaptability to changing environments. Using the recent international PIAAC data, we confirm such a trade-off over the life-cycle in a difference-in-differences model that compares employment rates across education type and age. An initial employment advantage of individuals with vocational compared to general education turns into a disadvantage later in life. Results are strongest in apprenticeship countries that provide the highest intensity of industry-based vocational education.
    Keywords: vocational education; apprenticeship; employment; life-cycle; PIAAC JEL Classification: J24; J64; I20
    Date: 2017
  15. By: Brollo, Fernanda (University of Warwick); Kaufmann, Katja Maria (Mannheim University); Ferrara, Eliana La (Bocconi University)
    Abstract: Do politicians manipulate the enforcement of conditional welfare programs to in- fluence electoral outcomes? We study the Bolsa Familia Program (BFP) in Brazil, which provides a monthly stipend to poor families conditional on school attendance. Repeated failure to comply with this requirement results in increasing penalties. First, we exploit random variation in the timing when beneficiaries learn about penalties for noncompliance around the 2008 municipal elections. We find that the vote share of candidates aligned with the President is lower in zip codes where more beneficiaries received penalties shortly before (as opposed to shortly after) the elections. Second, we show that politicians strategically manipulate enforcement. Using a regression discontinuity design, we find weaker enforcement before elections in municipalities where mayors from the presidential coalition can run for reelection. Finally, we provide evidence that manipulation occurs through misreporting school attendance, particularly in municipalities with a higher fraction of students in schools with politically connected principals.
    Keywords: JEL Classification:
    Date: 2017
  16. By: Dupraz, Yannick (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: I use the partition of Cameroon between France and the UK after WWI and its reunification after independence to investigate colonial legacies in education. Using border discontinuity analysis, I find that Cameroonians born in the 1970s are 9 percentage points more likely to have completed high school if they were born in the former British part. French and British Cameroon started diverging after partition, but the British advantage disappeared when the French increased education expenditure in the 1950s. The resurgence of a British advantage is explained by the French legacy of high repetition rates and their detrimental effect on dropout.
    Keywords: Africa, colonization, education, persistence, border discontinuity.JEL Classification: N37, I25, H52, O43
    Date: 2017
  17. By: Pedro S. Martins
    Abstract: Non-cognitive skills programs may be an important policy option to improve the academic outcomes of adolescents. In this paper, we evaluate experimentally the EPIS program, which is based on bi-weekly individual or small-group non-cognitive mediation short meetings with low-performing students. Our RCT estimates, covering nearly 3,000 7th- and 8th-grade students across over 50 schools and a period of two years, indicate that the program increases the probability of progression by 11% to 22%. The e ects are stronger amongst older students, girls, and in language subjects (compared to maths). JEL codes: I20, I24, J08
    Keywords: student achievement, non-cognitive skills, RCT, gender
    Date: 2017
  18. By: Richard Akresh; Sonia Bhalotra; Marinella Leone; Una O. Osili
    Abstract: We analyze long-term impacts of the 1967-1970 Nigerian Civil War, providing the first evidence of intergenerational impacts. Women exposed to the war in their growing years exhibit reduced adult stature, increased likelihood of being overweight, earlier age at first birth, and lower educational attainment. Exposure to a primary education program mitigates impacts of war exposure on education. War exposed men marry later and have fewer children. War exposure of mothers (but not fathers) has adverse impacts on child growth, survival, and education. Impacts vary with age of exposure. For mother and child health, the largest impacts stem from adolescent exposure.
    JEL: I12 I25 J13 O12
    Date: 2017–08
  19. By: Mathematica Policy Research
    Abstract: Mathematica is advancing the science of education research, contributing to public discourse about education reform, and helping to inform decisions about education programs and policy.
    Keywords: Conducting and Disseminating Education Research (About Us)
    JEL: I
  20. By: Raymond B. Frempong; David Stadelmann
    Abstract: Female education and its potential to empower women in the development process have engaged the interest of policy makers and academics over the years. By employing individual level data from Ghana and Uganda, we analyze whether female education has a direct bargaining effect on six household welfare indicators: child labor and school enrollment; food expenditure and nutrition intake; female labor force participation and fertility rates. The empirical results indicate that both, the level of the wife and her husband's education, are significant determinants of household welfare. However, the wife’s education has no larger effect than that of her husband's, and the relative bargaining position of the wife, at most, has negligible effects on the welfare indicators studied. Further robustness analysis largely confirms our findings. We conclude that, whilst female education has the potential to enhance household welfare, the effect does not necessarily work though enhanced bargaining power.
    Keywords: Women Empowerment; Intra-household Bargaining; Household Welfare; Ghana; Uganda
    JEL: I2 J13 J16
    Date: 2017–08
  21. By: Riaz, Rida
    Abstract: Women’s socio-economic empowerment is instrumental in transforming the societal values particularly in developing countries. However, this transition from traditional to modern social values is linked to women’s income and education levels. This paper investigates this phenomenon in the context of working women in Pakistan. To this extent, three hundred and six working-women were interviewed in urban vicinity of Lahore city. By employing Multinomial logit model our study confirms that socio-economic status of working-women plays a significant role in transforming their social values. Both income and education levels of working-women tend to display similar association to values, although differences persist in some important dimensions. Women’s empowerment through higher education and rising income leads to more bargaining power in household decision making, increasing political participation, and valuing gender equality. However, modernization as result of increased income levels and education has led to a decline in importance of religion in women from upper classes unlike the lower classes.
    Keywords: Relation of Economics with Social Values, Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables: General, Household behavior and family economics.
    JEL: A1 A13 C3 C30 D1
    Date: 2017–08–15
  22. By: Eiji Yamamura (Seinan Gakuin University); Yoshiro Tsutsui (Konan University)
    Abstract: We investigated how childhood education and experiences helped to form noncognitive skills and later, trade policy preferences. We used individual-level data with approximately 10,000 observations collected July 2016. Using the instrumental variables (IV) method, with sporting experience and informal education in the childhood as exogenous IV, we found that (1) sporting experiences and informal education lead people to have positive subjective views about the role of group work, competition, reciprocity, patience, and generalized trust and (2) positive views about the role of group work, competition, reciprocity, patience, and generalized trust leads people to prefer the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP).
    Keywords: Trade policy; Policy preferences; TPP; Informal school curriculum; Childhood sporting experience; Social capital
    JEL: F13 D83 I21 Z13
    Date: 2017–08
  23. By: Michael J. Weiss; Howard S. Bloom; Natalya Verbitsky-Savitz; Himani Gupta; Alma E. Vigil; Daniel N. Cullinan
    Abstract: Multisite trials, in which individuals are randomly assigned to alternative treatment arms within sites, offer an excellent opportunity to estimate the cross-site average effect of treatment assignment (intent to treat or ITT) and the amount by which this impact varies across sites.
    Keywords: design parameters, minimum detectable effect, power calculation, effect variation, external validity
    JEL: I
  24. By: Cheti Nicoletti; Valentina Tonei
    Abstract: Recent empirical research in family economics has shown the importance of parental investments on child's human capital development, but it is still not clear whether parents respond to changes across time in their child's skills and health. Using the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, we measure parental investments by considering the time parents spend with their child doing formative activities. By adopting a child fixed-effect instrumental variable estimation to address endogeneity issues, we find that parents reinforce for differences in their child's socio-emotional skills, compensate for changes in her physical health, and are neutral to variation in her cognitive skills.
    Keywords: Time-use, family investment, quality time, skills, child development.
    JEL: J13 D13 C23 C26
    Date: 2017–08
  25. By: Joshua Angrist; Pierre Azoulay; Glenn Ellison; Ryan Hill; Susan Feng Lu
    Abstract: Does academic economic research produce material of scientific value, or are academic economists writing only for clients and peers? Is economics scholarship uniquely insular? We address these questions by quantifying interactions between economics and other disciplines. Changes in the impact of economic scholarship are measured here by the way other disciplines cite us. We document a clear rise in the extramural influence of economic research, while also showing that economics is increasingly likely to reference other social sciences. A breakdown of extramural citations by economics fields shows broad field impact. Differentiating between theoretical and empirical papers classified using machine learning, we see that much of the rise in economics’ extramural influence reflects growth in citations to empirical work. This parallels a growing share of empirical cites within economics. At the same time, the disciplines of computer science and operations research are mostly influenced by economic theory.
    JEL: A11 A12 A13 A14 B41 C18
    Date: 2017–08
  26. By: Özer, Mustafa; Fidrmuc, Jan
    Abstract: We utilize a natural experiment, an education reform increasing compulsory schooling from five to eight years in Turkey, to obtain endogeneity-robust estimates of the effect of male education on the incidence of abusive and violent behaviour against women. We find that husband`s education lowers the probability of suffering physical, emotional and economic violence. The only aspect of violence not affected by spouse`s education is sexual violence. Schooling also lowers the likelihood that the marriage was arranged against the woman`s will, and makes men less inclined to engage in socially unacceptable behaviours such as drinking, gambling, and drug abuse. We also find that women whose mothers or whose husbands’ mothers experienced domestic violence are more likely to suffer violence themselves.
    Keywords: Education,Domestic Violence,Autonomy of Women,Difference-in-Difference-in-Difference,Instrumental Variable
    JEL: H52 J12
    Date: 2017

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