nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2017‒08‒20
six papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. School Starting Age and Cognitive Development By Elizabeth Dhuey; David Figlio; Krzysztof Karbownik; Jeffrey Roth
  2. Unwelcome Guests? The Effects of Refugees on the Educational Outcomes of Incumbent Students By David N. Figlio; Umut Özek
  3. The Effects of English Secondary School System Reforms (2002-2014) on Pupil Sorting and Social Segregation: A Greater Manchester Case Study By Ruth Lupton; Stephanie Thomson
  4. Educational inequality and intergenerational mobility in Latin America: A new database By Neidhöfer, Guido; Serrano, Joaquín; Gasparini, Leonardo
  5. International Emigrant Selection on Occupational Skills By Miguel Flores; Alexander Patt; Jens Ruhose; Simon Wiederhold
  6. Location of Universities and National Research Institutes and Firms' Location Choice of R&D Facilities (Japanese) By EDAMURA Kazuma; INUI Tomohiko; YAMAUCHI Isamu

  1. By: Elizabeth Dhuey; David Figlio; Krzysztof Karbownik; Jeffrey Roth
    Abstract: We present evidence of a positive relationship between school starting age and children’s cognitive development from age 6 to 15 using a regression discontinuity design and large-scale population-level birth and school data from the state of Florida. We estimate effects of being relatively old for grade (being born in September versus August) that are remarkably stable – always just around 0.2 SD difference in test scores – across a wide range of heterogeneous groups, based on maternal education, poverty at birth, race/ethnicity, birth weight, gestational age, and school quality. While the September-August difference in kindergarten readiness is dramatically different by subgroup, by the time students take their first exams, the heterogeneity in estimated effects effectively disappears. We document substantial variation in compensatory behaviors targeted towards young for grade children. While the more affluent families tend to redshirt their children, young for grade children from less affluent families are more likely to be retained in grades prior to testing. School district practices regarding retention and redshirting are correlated with improved outcomes for the groups less likely to use those remediation approaches (i.e., retention in the case of more-affluent families and redshirting in the case of less-affluent families.) We also study college and juvenile detention outcomes using administrative data from a large Florida school district, and show that being an older age at school entry increases children’s college attainment and reduces the likelihood of being incarcerated for juvenile crime.
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2017–08
  2. By: David N. Figlio; Umut Özek
    Abstract: The world is experiencing the second largest refugee crisis in a century, and one of the major points of contention involves the possible adverse effects of incoming refugees on host communities. We examine the effects of a large refugee influx into Florida public schools following the Haitian earthquake of 2010 using unique matched birth and schooling records. We find precise zero estimated effects of refugees on the educational outcomes of incumbent students in the year of the earthquake or in the two years that follow, regardless of the socioeconomic status, grade level, ethnicity, or birthplace of incumbent students.
    JEL: I20 J10
    Date: 2017–08
  3. By: Ruth Lupton; Stephanie Thomson
    Keywords: School, Social, segregation, Academies, FSM, Manchester, reforms
    JEL: I2 I3
    Date: 2017–08
  4. By: Neidhöfer, Guido; Serrano, Joaquín; Gasparini, Leonardo
    Abstract: The causes and consequences of the intergenerational persistence of inequality are a topic of great interest among various fields in economics. However, until now, issues of data availability have restricted a broader and cross-national perspective on the topic. Based on rich sets of harmonized household survey data, we contribute to filling this gap computing time series for several indexes of relative and absolute intergenerational education mobility for 18 Latin American countries over 50 years, and making them publicly available. We find that intergenerational mobility has been rising in Latin America, on average. This pattern seems to be driven by the high upward mobility of children from low-educated families; at the same time, there is substantial immobility at the top of the distribution. Significant cross-country differences are observed and are associated with income inequality, poverty, economic growth, public educational expenditures and assortative mating.
    Keywords: inequality,intergenerational mobility,equality of opportunity,transition probabilities,assortative mating,education,human capital,Latin America
    JEL: D63 I24 J62 O15
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Miguel Flores; Alexander Patt; Jens Ruhose; Simon Wiederhold
    Abstract: We present the first evidence that international emigrant selection on education and earnings materializes through occupational skills. Combining novel data from a representative Mexican task survey with rich individual-level worker data, we find that Mexican migrants to the United States have higher manual skills and lower cognitive skills than non-migrants. Conditional on occupational skills, education and earnings no longer predict migration decisions. Differential labor-market returns to occupational skills explain the observed selection pattern and significantly outperform previously used returns-to-skills measures in predicting migration. Results are persistent over time and hold within narrowly defined regional, sectoral, and occupational labor markets.
    Keywords: occupational skills, emigrant selection
    JEL: F22 O15 J61 J24
    Date: 2017–06
  6. By: EDAMURA Kazuma; INUI Tomohiko; YAMAUCHI Isamu
    Abstract: Using plant- and half-year-level micro data for the period 2007-2011, this paper analyzes the location decision of a research and development (R&D) facility on a plant in Japan. We control the effects of the characteristics of the plant, the population, labor cost, industry agglomeration, and other fixed effects of the prefecture in which it is located. The results by logit model show that firms tend to locate their R&D facility on plants near universities or national research institutes with comparatively large research expenditures and a greater number of researchers.
    Date: 2017–08

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