nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2017‒07‒30
29 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. School Infrastructure Spending and Educational Outcomes in Northern Italy By Alessandro Belmonte; Vincenzo Bove; Giovanna D'Inverno; Marco Modica
  2. The zone of proximal teacher development under the microscope: Reflections of a teacher educator By Josef De Beer
  3. Additional Career Assistance and Educational Outcomes for Students in Lower Track Secondary Schools By Fitzenberger, Bernd; Licklederer, Stefanie
  4. Immigrant Concentration at School and Natives’ Achievement: Does the Type of Migrants and Natives Matter? By Bossavie, Laurent
  5. Hallmarks Of School-Based Management: Their Impact To Quality Improvement Among Public Secondary Schools By Percyveranda Lubrica; Imelda Parcasio; Manolita Alvaro; Jingle Cuevas; Alma Vida Gallardo; Ruth Batani; Dominador Garin
  6. An Alternative Look at Measurement of University Performance in STEM education: A Data Envelopment Analysis Project By Sukanya Kemp; Irina Chernikova
  7. School Boards and Student Segregation By Hugh Macartney; John D. Singleton
  8. The Effects of Drama Education on Student Self-Concept in Senior Secondary Education By Wijayasri Vitharana
  9. Student Personality, Lecturer Competency, Campus Facilities, and Students? Learning Motivation in Private Univ By Arif Prasetio; Fetty Sary; Bachruddin Luturlean
  10. Importance of specific risks in higher education By Maja Glogovac; Marija Krasic; Aleksa Vulovic; Zoran Rakicevic; Ana Horvat
  11. Comparison between Saudi female and male undergraduate medical student performance in the clinical phase: An experience from a new medical school By Najwa Al-Mously
  12. CONTEXTUALIZING TEACHING PRACTICES IN A DIVERSIFIED CLASSROOM: AN ASSESSMENT By Percyveranda Lubrica; Janet Lynn Montemayor; Arnulfo Capili; Evelyn Angiwan
  13. Metal Ship and Robotic Car: A Hands-on Activity to Develop Scientific and Engineering Skills for High School Students By Jutharat Sunprasert; Ekapong Hirunsirisawat; Narongrit Waraporn; Somporn Peansukmanee
  14. Non-Traditional Students and Critical Pedagogy: Transformative Practice and the Teaching of Criminal Law By Susanna Menis
  15. Young, Gifted and Lazy? The Role of Ability and Labor Market Prospects in Student Effort Decisions By Adrian Chadi; Marco de Pinto; Gabriel Schultze
  16. The Effect of Using English Movie Clips to Enhance the Listening Ability of Thai University Students By Wipada Promsing; Saiwaroon Chumpavan; Walaiporn Chaya
  18. Impact of Gamification strategy on academic achievement and achievement motivation toward learning By Nader Elshemy
  20. The Need of Educating Adolescent Females of Karachi, Pakistan regarding Reproductive Health By Rizwana Amin; Prof. Dr. Shahida Sajjad
  21. Education and tax morale By Rodríguez Justicia, David
  22. Teachers? Attitude and Beliefs to the Nature of Teaching and Learning and Relations Between the Principles of Students? Assessments By Ia Aptarashvili; Tamta Darsavelidze; Natia Gaprindashvili; Mzia Tsereteli
  23. One-To-One Technology and Student Outcomes By Hull, Marie C.; Duch, Katherine
  24. Higher Education and Economic Growth: Evidence from Africa By Boopen SEETANAH; viraiyan teeroovengadum
  25. University teachers? and students? understanding of learning a foreign language: Coping with speaking anxiety By Deyuan He; Qunying Zhang
  26. Can Gender Quotas in Candidate Lists Empower Women? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design By Bagues, Manuel F.; Campa, Pamela
  27. Life after Debt: Post-Graduation Consequences of Federal Student Loans By Nicolas Ziebarth; Martin Gervais
  28. A roadmap towards international quality standards for higher education sector in KSA By Maqsood Memon; S. Vijaya Gangoor
  29. Cooperation between higher education institutions and companies from a spatial perspective: An empirical analysis of Germany using Bayesian logistic multilevel models By Warnecke, Christian; Weller, Daniel

  1. By: Alessandro Belmonte (IMT School for advanced studies); Vincenzo Bove (University of Warwick); Giovanna D'Inverno (IMT School for advanced studies); Marco Modica (CNR IRCrES)
    Abstract: We explore whether investment in public school infrastructure affects students' achievement. We use data on extra funding to public high schools after the 2012 Northern Italy earthquake and apply a quasi-experimental design and an instrumental variable strategy. We find that spending on school infrastructure increases standardized test scores in mathematics and Italian language, and the effect is stronger for lower-achieving students and in mathematics. These results provide evidence in favor of a positive impact of capital spending in improving the learning environment and performances of high school students.
    Keywords: education; school infrastructure spending; high school
    JEL: I22 I24 H75
    Date: 2017–07
  2. By: Josef De Beer (North-West University)
    Abstract: This paper sheds light on the personal practices, experiences and research of a teacher educator, and asks the question whether a teacher educator?s inquiries might lead to a better understanding of the complexities of teaching and learning- both for the teacher educator and his/ her student teachers. The author, who has been a teacher educator for the past 25 years, reflect on his own research in pre-service teacher education, and what he and his students have learned from the joint interventions they engaged in. The three interventions reflected upon in this paper, were conceptualized to provide possible solutions to three of the perennial issues that plague teacher education, namely (a) the problem of the apprenticeship of observation; (b) the problem of enactment; and (c) the problem of complexity. Although the research is contextualized in South Africa, literature shows that these are issues of international concern. Using a qualitative research design, the author explores realistic examples of learning from practice for practice, and learning in practice, that he has implemented and researched, as possible solutions to these problems. The findings of three qualitative research studies are examined, and its affordances to enhance the professional development of student teachers is discussed. The theoretical framework is scaffolding student teachers? professional development across the zone of proximal teacher development- Warford?s take on the well-known Vygotskyan concept. The first set of research data deals with case-based teaching in pre-service teacher education. Case-based teaching provokes engaged learning, and provides student teachers with a better understanding of the complexities of the teaching profession. The second set of research data explores the affordances of a technique called prolepsis. Prolepsis refers to an approach where a teacher educator structures a learning opportunity in a way that assumes that the student teachers know more than they actually do. In this case, undergraduate student teachers were expected to teach biology to school learners on Saturdays for an entire year, and to take responsibility for meeting all the requirements set by the Department of Education. The third set of research data refers to a first year excursion for student teachers that the author initialized, and insights that emerged over 10 years of presenting the excursion curriculum. During the four-day excursion, student teachers engage in learning tasks as Homo ludens (the playing human). In this paper the excursion is viewed from a neo-Vygotskian perspective of activity theory.
    Keywords: Pre-service teacher education; engaging pedagogies; case-based teaching; prolepsis; zone of proximal teacher development; excursions; teacher professional development.
    JEL: I29 I21
    Date: 2017–05
  3. By: Fitzenberger, Bernd (Humboldt University Berlin); Licklederer, Stefanie (University of Freiburg)
    Abstract: Based on local policy variation, this paper estimates the causal effect of additional career assistance on educational outcomes for students in Lower Track Secondary Schools in Germany. We find mostly insignificant effects of the treatment on average outcomes, which mask quite heterogeneous effects. For those students, who are taking extra coursework to continue education, the grade point average is unaffected and the likelihood of completing a Middle Track Secondary School degree falls. In contrast, educational outcomes improve for students who do not take extra coursework. Hence, the treatment causes a reversal of educational plans after graduation.
    Keywords: lower track secondary schools, career guidance, educational upgrading
    JEL: I20 J24
    Date: 2017–07
  4. By: Bossavie, Laurent
    Abstract: Using a rich dataset of primary school students in the Netherlands, this paper investigates the hetero- geneous effects of immigrant concentration in the classroom on the academic achievement of natives. To identify the treatment effect, it takes advantage of some features of the Dutch primary school system and uses cohort-by-cohort deviations in immigrant concentration within schools. While we report an insignificant impact of the share of immigrant classmates overall, we show that effects are heterogeneous, both in the type of immigrant classmates, and in the type of native students that are affected. Only immigrants that have been living in the country for a short period of time are found to negatively impact natives’ performance. This negative impact is stronger among natives with low parental education. We also report a negative effect of the concentration of migrants with low parental education, while migrants with high parental education are found to have no impact. The importance of taking into account heterogeneity could explain the mixed findings reported by previous literature on the topic.
    Keywords: Immigration, education, peer effects
    JEL: I21 J15
    Date: 2017–07–20
  5. By: Percyveranda Lubrica (Benguet State University); Imelda Parcasio (Benguet State UNiversity); Manolita Alvaro (Benguet State University); Jingle Cuevas (Benguet State University); Alma Vida Gallardo (Benguet State University); Ruth Batani (Benguet State University); Dominador Garin (Benguet State University)
    Abstract: AbstractThis study is anchored on the premise that school-based management (SBM) training improves the capability of the school heads in their school governance along the following domains: Instructional Supervision, Leadership and Administration, Fiscal Management, Human Resource Development, Monitoring and Evaluation, and Planning and Development. The improved capabilities and competencies of school heads are manifested in the interventions employed in addressing the developmental needs and challenges encountered in their respective schools. It presupposes that with the acquired knowledge and skills, school heads have developed good practices in governing their respective schools of assignment .Results of the study show that school principals significantly differ in the extent of application of their knowledge and skills in school based management approaches. Student outcomes can be most powerfully impacted through improvements in curriculum and instruction, and school-based management efforts were found to have failed in addressing these areas in the school systems of public secondary schools. The school based management approaches are significant factors in affecting the development of performance standards of students and staff in the public secondary school system. Such results imply that the secondary schools should establish a substantial realization of their vision, mission and goals embarking on institutionalizing quality improvement measures in all areas of program provisions as their mandate in their respective school systems.
    Keywords: Keywords: School-based Management, Instructional supervision, Leadership and Administration, Fiscal Management, Monitoring and Accountability, Planning and development, School headsKeywords: cognitive preference modality, pedagogical approach, classroom diversity, teaching practices, differentiated instruction
    JEL: I29 I29
    Date: 2017–07
  6. By: Sukanya Kemp (University of Akron); Irina Chernikova (University of Akron)
    Abstract: How is success measured in the field of STEM education in US universities? Such a question can be difficult to answer because of the lack of uniformity among the relevant variables. Given the wide diversity in success indicators, and the fact that universities choose to pursue different aspects of educational outcomes, it is often difficult to compare performances and definitively point to one school as 'better' than another. In an attempt to measure university efficiency in the areas of engineering, natural, physical and health sciences, the authors use the non-stochastic frontier model of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is commonly used in Operations Research literature, to evaluate the efficiency of producers. In this initial research, the authors isolated the large public universities of Ohio as the subject of the analysis. They found that with the input-output structure defined by the data, certain universities clearly stood out as efficient compared to others in the dissemination of STEM education. A logistic regression isolated the inputs and outputs that had the strongest effects on the efficiency scores.
    Keywords: STEM education, University Performance, Data Envelopment Analysis, Efficiency
    JEL: A00 C67
    Date: 2017–07
  7. By: Hugh Macartney; John D. Singleton
    Abstract: This paper provides the first causal evidence about how elected local school boards affect student segregation across schools. The key identification challenge is that the composition of a school board is potentially correlated with unobserved determinants of school segregation, such as the pattern of household sorting and the degree to which boards are geographically constrained in defining zones of attendance. We overcome this issue using a regression discontinuity design at the electoral contest level, exploiting quasi-random variation from narrowly-decided elections. Such an approach is made possible by a unique dataset, which combines matched information about North Carolina school board candidates (including vote shares and political affiliation) with time-varying district-level racial and economic segregation outcomes. Focusing on the political composition of school board members, two-stage least squares estimates reveal that (relative to their non-Democrat counterparts) Democrat board members decrease racial segregation across schools. These estimates significantly differ from their ordinary least squares counterparts, indicating that the latter are biased upward (understating the effects). Our findings suggest that school boards realize such reductions in segregation by shifting attendance zones, a novel measure of which we construct without the need for exact geocoded boundaries. While the effect of adjusting boundaries does not appear to be offset by within-district neighborhood re-sorting in the short run, we uncover causal evidence of “white flight” out of public schools in districts in which boards have acted to reduce segregation.
    JEL: I21 I24 I28
    Date: 2017–07
  8. By: Wijayasri Vitharana (University of Sri Jayewardenepura)
    Abstract: The Effects of Drama Education on Student Self-Concept in Senior Secondary EducationW.B.A.Vitharana Department of Languages, Cultural Studies and Performing ArtsUniversity of Sri JayewardenepuraNugegoda, Sri is a significant amount of attention given to student self-concept in education today. It is known that low confidence can lead to a variety of issues such as intellectual underachievement, academic overachievement, drug addiction and aggressive behavior. Also, comprehensive educational reform movements such as multiculturalism and cooperative learning can to a certain extent improve student self-concept. The theoretical foundations of this study are linked to the theoretical work in cognitive development, psychomotor development and movement, self-concept, and perceived wellness. The key theorists include Jean Piaget, Moshe Feldenkrais, Rudolf Laban, and Albert Bandura. Drama is a performance which comes from a balanced body of facts and can successfully lead to lifelong value. The achievement comes from presentation, participation and the creation of drama. Thus drama education is a major contribution to a person?s well-being when it comes to the mind-body interaction; benefiting the individual emotionally, cognitively, and physically. This study explores the effectiveness of formalized drama education and training on student performance, particularly regarding the overall perceived wellness and self-concept of drama students in grade eleven. Drama, as an art form and formal guidance method, is an important resource that can give out a link to cognitive development, emotional growth and psychological health in adolescents, which is also associated with the academic performance of students. This study focuses on documenting the relationship between drama and its influences on the variables by comparing students who are both involved and not involved in drama programs. A significant difference is found between drama and non-drama for perceived wellness, self-concept, and cumulative marks. The evidence supports constructive contact on academic performance, but there is a need for involvement that addresses recovered views of wellness and self-concept among the drama population. Key Words -self-concept, drama education, cognitive, psychomotor, emotional, psychological, adolescence
    Keywords: self-concept, drama education, cognitive, psychomotor, emotional, psychological, adolescence
    JEL: A33 A33 A33
    Date: 2017–07
  9. By: Arif Prasetio (telkom university); Fetty Sary (telkom university); Bachruddin Luturlean (telkom university)
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to identify the effect of student personality, lecturer competency, and campus facilities toward the student learning motivation. Motivation is an important factor which affects the student?s academic performance. The participants were 187 students from various classes in Telkom University in Bandung. We implemented the mutiple regression analysis to measure the simultaneous and partial relation. 35 items used in the questionnaires which distributed using convenience approach. Simultaneously, all three independent variables had significant and positive effect on student? learning motivation (R2 0.250 and Sig. 0.000). Furthermore, partially, student personality, lecturer competency, and campus facilities also had significant and positive effect on student? learning motivation. Beta? results for those three independent variables are 0.203, 0.285, and 0.154 respectively with the Sig. below 0.000. The university or faculty need to improve the teacher competency and their learning facilities if they want to enhance student motivation. Since the personality of students also played impportant part, the selection process should need to consider types of student personality which help to improve the performance.
    Keywords: Student? Personality, Lecturer Competency, Campus Facilities, Learning Motivation
    JEL: I20 M54
    Date: 2017–07
  10. By: Maja Glogovac (Faculty of organisational sciences); Marija Krasic (Faculty of organisational sciences); Aleksa Vulovic (Faculty of organisational sciences); Zoran Rakicevic (Faculty of organisational sciences); Ana Horvat (Faculty of organisational sciences)
    Abstract: Taking the increasing importance of risk-based thinking and importance of education into consideration, this paper aims at pointing out the rank of risks in higher education institution (HEI) according to their importance. Additionally, the paper aims at identifying best methods for avoiding these risks. This can help HEI to identify risks in order to improve their teaching process by using best methods. Since teaching process was observed as the main process of higher education institutions, we conducted the questionnaire to establish the rank of risks according to their importance from the student?s point of view. Using t-test and SPSS software, we got three most important risks: low quality of lectures, imbalanced criteria on exams (too strong or too weak), and non-use of technology and modern equipment while teaching. Also, it is proven in this paper that there are differences in ranking risks? importance between students from developed and developing countries, as well as between male and female students. When we observed students? year of study and their average grade, we also found differences in ranking risks? importance.
    Keywords: Risks; Importance; Higher Education Institutions (HEI); Measures; Teaching process; Students
    JEL: A00
    Date: 2017–05
  11. By: Najwa Al-Mously (Faculty of Medicine / King Fahad Medical City)
    Abstract: Background: Academic success is considered to be a significant predictor of postgraduate achievement. There have been several studies on predictors of success in medical school regarding the influence of gender. In a previous study, our research group demonstrated that there is a significant difference between the academic performance of the male and female student in most of the courses in preclinical phase. The relationship between student gender and examination of medical knowledge and clinical competence has been assessed by other studies, and they found that female students outperformed male on both clinical evaluations and written examination. However others reported no difference. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether gender would make a difference on the performance of Saudi medical students in different courses of the clinical phase, and the final certifying grade point average (GPA). Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the King Fahad Medical City Institutional Review Board for approval (IRB Number: 10-106). The final grades of clinical rotations during the clinical phase of the medical curriculum were collected for both male and female students (both gender first batch graduates), in addition to, the pre-clinical GPA and final certifying GPA. Data were statistically analyzed and the degree of statistical significance is denoted by the p-value of 0.05. Results: The total number of students who has completed the sixth year in medical school were 86/100%, 34/39.5% of them were females, and 52/60.5% of them were males. Female medical students significantly outscored their male counterpart in most of the clinical subjects except for Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) course, male students were better (p 0.05). Female students scored significantly higher preclinical GPA, as well as, higher final certifying GPA (p
    Keywords: Medical students, clinical pgase, gender
    Date: 2017–07
  12. By: Percyveranda Lubrica (Benguet State University); Janet Lynn Montemayor (Benguet State Universitz); Arnulfo Capili (Benguet State University); Evelyn Angiwan (Benguet State University)
    Abstract: ABSTRACTManaging diverse populations is one great challenge facing the Philippine society. Educators affirm that the classroom is diverse, but continue to treat all learners alike while paying lip service to the principle of diversity. This study looked into the extent by which teachers contextualize teaching and learning practices amidst diversity in cognitive preference modality and personal, academic status, demographic profile, and socio-economic condition. Teacher Education students from the six state universities and colleges in the Cordillera Administrative Region (n=715) were randomly selected to assess teachers regarding their level of effectiveness in managing diversity in various areas of pedagogical approaches while teachers (n=45) were purposively selected to validate data through a focused group discussion. Results show that teachers were competent but insufficiently observe students? preferred teaching practices (mean=3.29, SD=.37), management of diverse learning environment (mean=3.21; SD=.46), and accommodation of diversity (mean=3.24, SD=.47). Analysis of variance and t-test for independent means revealed significant differences (p
    Keywords: classroom diversity, teaching practices, differentiated instruction
    Date: 2017–07
  13. By: Jutharat Sunprasert (King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi); Ekapong Hirunsirisawat (King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi); Narongrit Waraporn (King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi); Somporn Peansukmanee (King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi)
    Abstract: Metal Ship and Robotic Car is one of the hands-on activities in the course, the Fundamental of Engineering that can be divided into three parts. The first part, the metal ships, was made by using engineering drawings, physics and mathematics knowledge. The second part is where the students learned how to construct a robotic car and control it using computer programming. In the last part, the students had to combine the workings of these two objects in the final testing. This aim of study was to investigate the effectiveness of hands-on activity by integrating Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) concepts to develop scientific and engineering skills. The results showed that the majority of students felt this hands-on activity lead to an increased confidence level in the integration of STEM. Moreover, 48% of all students engaged well with the STEM concepts. Students could obtain the knowledge of STEM through hands-on activities with the topics science and mathematics, engineering drawing, engineering workshop and computer programming; most students agree and strongly agree with this learning process. This indicated that the hands-on activity: ?Metal Ship and Robotic Car? is a useful tool to integrate each aspect of STEM. Furthermore, hands-on activities positively influence a student?s interest which leads to increased learning achievement and also in developing scientific and engineering skills.
    Keywords: Hands-on activity, STEM education, Computer programming, Metal work
    Date: 2017–07
  14. By: Susanna Menis (Birkbeck London University)
    Abstract: This article explores the practical implication of adopting critical pedagogy, and more specifically critical legal pedagogy, in the teaching of non-traditional students in HE context. It is based on the teaching of criminal law at Birkbeck School of Law, addressing learning tasks which have been designed to enhance students? learning experience. The proposition put forward in this article suggests that exactly because many of the non-traditional, mature students do not intend to pursue an ad hoc legal profession, the teaching approach should be geared towards widening the social context of learning and the acquisition of transferable skills, but mainly towards fostering students? social ?transformation?.
    Keywords: non-traditional students; widening participation; student-centred-approach; threshold concepts; critical (legal) pedagogy.
    Date: 2017–07
  15. By: Adrian Chadi (Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU)); Marco de Pinto (Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU)); Gabriel Schultze (Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU))
    Abstract: This paper examines the decision-making process of students from an economic perspective in order to understand what determines an in- dividual’s willingness to provide effort. Our theoretical model predicts that ability and job market prospects are positive determinants. Ana- lyzing a novel dataset on thousands of German students, however, we instead find that ability has a significantly negative effect on effort. It seems that the marginal gain of increasing effort in terms of higher ex- pected income after studying is lower for high-ability students compared to low-ability students. In regard to the second determinant, the evi- dence rejects a similar argument, according to which great job market prospects may impair student effort. Applying an instrumental vari- able approach based on official unemployment data on regional labor markets, we can confirm our prediction on the positive role of perceived employment prospects in actual student behavior.
    Keywords: higher education, effort, study time, leisure, ability, labor market data
    JEL: I23 J22 J24
    Date: 2017–05
  16. By: Wipada Promsing (Department of Western Languages, Faculty of Humanities, Srinakharinwirote University); Saiwaroon Chumpavan (Department of Western Languages, Faculty of Humanities, Srinakharinwirote University); Walaiporn Chaya (Department of Western Languages, Faculty of Humanities, Srinakharinwirote University)
    Abstract: The paper presents an experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group design. The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of using English movie clips to enhance the listening ability of Thai university students and students' attitude toward their English lessons after learning through movie clips instruction. The study employed the English listening test and the attitude questionnaire as the main researh instruments for data collection. The participants involved in the study were sixty first-year students enrolled in English for Everyday Use course at Rajamagala University of Technology Krungthep. Two classes were randomly assigned in the experimental group and learned English through movie clips; while the other class, the control group, learned English with conventional teaching methods. The results clearly revealed that there were significant positive differences in the achievement of listening ability and attitudes toward learning listening through the English movie clips of students before and after the experiment and between those two groups.
    Keywords: Movie clips, Listening ability, Attitude
    Date: 2017–07
  17. By: Nilgün Demir (Munzur Universty)
    Abstract: Khaldun's masterpiece, Muqaddimah, one of the forerunners of the history of sociology, deals with many social institutions. One of these institutions is education. Khaldun has a very valuable opinion about education and educational sociology. In the interests of these views; The qualifications that the teacher should possess, learning - teaching processes, teaching methods, religious education, rules to be followed in child education, etc. Much of the pedagogical findings mentioned in the Muqaddimah still remain updated. According to Khaldun; Students should not be treated harshly, instead of teaching two pieces of information at the same time, a gradual expression model should be followed. In the educational environment, to get rid of the memorization of the subject and negotiation should be encouraged. In addition, concrete experiences should be preferred over learning abstract concepts The model of learning by living should be followed and educational trips should be given to important. Many of these determinations are also being applied in schools that have conducted their educational activities on the basis of the Montessori approach, on training sands on Waldorf Schools and other contemporary approaches. This study aims to examine the pedagogical views and method of Ibn Khaldun and their reflection in contemporary education.
    Keywords: Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddimah , Education, Teaching and Teaching Techniques
    Date: 2017–05
  18. By: Nader Elshemy (Arab Open University AOU)
    Abstract: The current study aims to determine the effect of Gamification strategy on academic achievement and achievement motivation among students of the second stage of basic education in Muscat Governorate. The current research sample has reached (68) students divided into an experimental group (34) and a control group (34). The quasi-experimental approach has been used for the application of the study, as well as the descriptive analytical methodology for the analysis & interpretation of previous Arabic and foreign studies addressing the subject of Gamification strategy, motivation and academic achievement. To assess such effect, researchers have used an educational electronic game for the application of Gamification strategy, motivation scale and achievement test (pre & post). The study found the existence of statistically significant differences at a level of significance (? = 0.05) between the experimental group and the control group in the increase of motivation for the experimental group, in addition to the existence of statistically significant differences at a level of significance (? = 0.05) between the experimental group and the control group in the increase of academic achievement for the experimental group.
    Keywords: e-Content, Gamification, Motivation
    JEL: I29
    Date: 2017–05
  19. By: Raneem Salem (King Fahd medical City)
    Abstract: AbstractIntroduction Near Peer Teaching is a relatively novel and interesting experience and spreading across the world. Students who have experience peer teaching get an insight into their own abilities and often find it beneficial. Most studies have been performed in the west and there is paucity of data in our region.Objectives To shed the light on peer teaching experience at our college and the perceptions of the students as well as the role of peer teachers in the process. Methods Modified Clinical teaching preference Questionnaire (CTPQ) and Peer teaching experience questionnaire(PTEQ) were distributed to 1st year(n=34) and 6th year students(n=31) as learner group and to peer teachers(interns, n=6 and 6th yr students, n=7) at King Fahad Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. These questionnaires address the teaching/learning peer teaching experience including the role of the peer teacher. Demographic data, age, gender, previous training and previous teaching/learning experience from peers were noted. The responded questionnaires were collected and anonymously analyzed, followed by statistical analysis.Results The majority of near peer teachers and near peer learners who were at different levels and in different groups and rotations responded positively to peer teaching provided that the content was relevant. As for the role of peer teachers, both groups identified information provider and facilitator as more suitable roles than as a role model, planner, assessor and resource developer.Conclusion Peer teaching can be a solution for medical schools that are facing increasing numbers of students and the shortage of efficient faculty members.
    Keywords: Peer; teach; interns; medical students; training; skills, education, new methods.
    JEL: I00
    Date: 2017–07
  20. By: Rizwana Amin (Greenwich University); Prof. Dr. Shahida Sajjad (Greenwich University)
    Abstract: Reproductive Health Awareness is not only neglected but also a taboo issue in Pakistan. The growing age women in Pakistan are hardly aware of reproductive health complications because of reasons linked to socio-cultural and religious factors which are the determinants of inadequate reproductive trends. Menstruation and menstrual practices, hygiene, reproductive tract infection, early pregnancies, infant death, mortality rate, women?s health security, child upbringing by inexperienced young mothers are the fundamental issues faced by Pakistani females and it is directly attached with ignorance of reproductive health know how. This study aimed to discover the need of educating adolescent females of city Karachi regarding reproductive health. The objective of this study was to acquire evidence on current awareness and insights on puberty and reproductive health needs. The research followed a quantitative and pragmatic approach enabling empirical analysis along with shedding light on the facts and figures. The data was collected through convenient sampling from four schools in the urban and rural areas of the city, Karachi and analyzed through descriptive statistic, linear regression and Kruskal Wallis Test. The analysis of the data indicated that awareness regarding reproductive health amongst adolescents is very minimal along with guidance and counseling provided to them at home and in school. The study highlighted the fact that education and medical facility available in schools have a significant impact on reproductive health awareness but the schools in Pakistan of both the rural and urban areas lack in mass awareness on reproductive health. The conclusion and observation leads to creating channels for imparting knowledge and awareness regarding reproductive health and its needs to the adolescents. It is recommended to create awareness amongst youth especially females by integrating it into school curriculum from grades 5 onwards or by conducting reproductive health awareness seminars in schools at different intervals.
    Keywords: Reproductive health education, reproductive health awareness, reproductive health problems
    JEL: I00
    Date: 2017–05
  21. By: Rodríguez Justicia, David
    Abstract: While the determinants of tax morale have been widely studied in the literature, surprisingly, the fundamental influence of education on tax morale has yet to be investigated. Given the insights in the psychological and political science literature about the role of education in the formation of social values, in this paper, we analyze two channels through which education shapes tax morale. We find that while the tax morale of individuals that are net receivers of welfare state benefits increases with their educational level, it decreases with educational level among those who are net contributors. Furthermore, our results indicate that the more highly educated, who have been shown to be better able to assess information in the media on public affairs, exhibit higher levels of tax morale in countries that have better quality public services, a fairer tax system and more transparent institutions. JEL classification: H26; H52; I25 Key words: Tax morale; Tax compliance; Education; Welfare state benefits; Trust in public institutions
    Keywords: Frau fiscal, Educació moral, Educació i desenvolupament, 336 - Finances. Banca. Moneda. Borsa, 37 - Educació. Ensenyament. Formació. Temps lliure,
    Date: 2017
  22. By: Ia Aptarashvili (Tbilisi State University); Tamta Darsavelidze (European Teaching University); Natia Gaprindashvili (Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia); Mzia Tsereteli (Tbilisi State university)
    Abstract: Educational paradigm has changed significantly in post-soviet states and in Georgia among others. Attitude to teaching has also changed. Specifically, directive teacher-centered teaching model is replaced with student-centered model. Most of the teachers were trained in this regard. Change of paradigm caused changes in student assessment system respectively. Thereof, teachers? attitude towards teaching and learning has become the valuable research topic - what teachers? consider as the main strategies for gaining knowledge, how the knowledge is constructed, how to make student?s experience more effective, etc. It is also interesting what methods do they use for effective teaching during the instructional process and how they assess students? achievements. The data during research was collected in two directions. On the one hand, teacher?s survey was developed and on the other hand, final works conducted by teachers were analyzed according to their structures and contents. 210 teachers were involved in the research throughout the regions of Georgia. On the basis of the survey the separate aspects of the following process were evaluated:1.Teacher?s attitude to teaching and learning;2.What approaches and teaching methods are applied during the instructional process;3.How student?s knowledge is assessed, what strategies does he/she deem effective.While evaluating final works the following key criteria had been focused on: what kind of tasks do teachers use generally - complex assignments, where students need to integrate different skills or isolated set of separate tasks, which basically grounds on recognizing and memorizing the facts. Research revealed the following tendencies:The part of teachers considers that gaining knowledge generally takes place during the instructional process (47.4% of respondents), the other part thinks that independent work is crucial (52.6%). Part of teachers (30%) deems that teacher?s function is to simply provide information and facts to students; Teachers discuss student?s individual answers, retelling the lesson (very important 57.4%) and oral presentations (68.1%) as the key assessment methods of students at the lesson; On the other hand, greater part of teachers uses isolated set of tasks to assess declarative knowledge for the final works. We also applied cross tabulation analysis according to teachers? attitudes and types of final work tasks used by them. Discussing and sharing the results of the survey is interesting for professionals working in the field and for authors of the studies, to outline the advantages and disadvantages, get feedback and outline the prospects for further research.
    Keywords: Attitudes, Assessment, Education, Learning, Teaching, Teachers' beliefs
    Date: 2017–05
  23. By: Hull, Marie C. (University of North Carolina, Greensboro); Duch, Katherine (One Minus Beta Analytics)
    Abstract: New technologies offer many promises to improve student learning, but efforts to bring them to the classroom often fail to produce improvements to student outcomes. A notable exception to this pattern is one-to-one laptop programs. While early evaluations of these programs have been encouraging, they are costly to implement, and no study has investigated the impact of a one-to-one technology program implemented on a large scale over a multiyear period. With administrative school data, this paper uses a differences-in-differences strategy to evaluate the impact of a one-to-one laptop program implemented in a midsize school district. We find that while short-term impacts of the program were modest, math scores improved by 0.15–0.17 standard deviations in the medium term (4–5 years post-implementation). We also investigate heterogeneity in impacts on test scores and the impact of the program on several measures of student behavior.
    Keywords: technology, computers, education, achievement, test score, time use
    JEL: I21 J24 O33
    Date: 2017–07
  24. By: Boopen SEETANAH (University of Mauritius); viraiyan teeroovengadum (uni of mauritius)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the economic contribution of tertiary education for a sample of 13 African economies over the time period 1990-2013. Using a Panel VAR framework to account for the dynamic and endogeneous relationship between tertiary education(TER) and growth, our findings show that TER is positively and significantly related to the economic growth of the sample of African countries under study. It is noteworthy that the magnitude of the TER coefficient remains relatively smaller as those obtained for developed country cases and samples. Interestingly the study also found the presence of a reverse causation as output appears to be also a determinant of TER. In other words, output level which proxies for the earning capacity of the economy play an important role in TER, which is mostly financed by the government in the countries under study. In addition to the national income, domestic investment, education attainment, foreign direct investment and openness level being other determinants of such TER for these countries. Moreover, there is evidence that TER encourages private investment suggesting some indirect effects of TER on output via the private capital channel. As such similar indirect effect through the FDI channel is observed.
    Keywords: Higher Education, Africa, Economic Growth
    JEL: A23
    Date: 2017–07
  25. By: Deyuan He (Universiti Brunei Darussalam); Qunying Zhang (Universiti Brunei Darussalam)
    Abstract: China is well known for its very large number of English learners, but most of them have suffered from foreign language speaking anxiety (FLSA) when expressing themselves orally in the language. FLSA has been scarcely addressed in the educational settings of China, especially in terms of the practical strategies for reducing students? FLSA. In light of this gap, an investigation into the coping strategies for FLSA was conducted by drawing comprehensive data from 302 university students and 30 teachers of English at two universities in different parts of China. Questionnaire surveys and focused interviews were adopted to collect data and explore perceptions concerning FLSA. With these two cross-validated research methods, 32 strategies for reducing students? FLSA were identified. These strategies were verified to be effective after being applied for a period of four months by the participants. The results of the study showed that persistent application of such strategies is of great significance in alleviating students? FLSA and hence making their learning more enjoyable. The results and findings were also discussed in relation to those from previous research in the field. Furthermore, the strategies verified in this study would provide important pedagogic implications for foreign language education involving English.
    Keywords: speaking anxiety; coping strategies; university students; effectiveness; China
    Date: 2017–07
  26. By: Bagues, Manuel F. (Aalto University); Campa, Pamela (University of Calgary)
    Abstract: We provide a comprehensive analysis of the short- and medium-term effects of gender quotas in candidate lists using evidence from Spain, where quotas were introduced in 2007 in municipalities with more than 5,000 inhabitants, and were extended in 2011 to municipalities with more than 3,000 inhabitants. Using a Regression Discontinuity Design, we find that quotas raise the share of women among council members but they do not affect the quality of politicians, as measured by their education attainment and by the number of votes obtained. Moreover, within three rounds of elections, women fail to reach powerful positions such as party leader or mayor, and we do not observe any statistically or economically significant changes in the size and composition of public finances.
    Keywords: gender quotas in candidate lists, regression discontinuity design
    JEL: D72 H72 J16
    Date: 2017–07
  27. By: Nicolas Ziebarth (Auburn University); Martin Gervais (University of Iowa)
    Abstract: We estimate the causal effect of student loans on post-graduation outcomes exploiting a kink in the formula determining the eligibility for need-based federal student loans. Using a nationally representative sample of students graduating with a bachelor's degree in 1993, we establish that student debt leads to lower earnings soon after graduation, an effect which dissipates over time. Surprisingly, the negative effect on earnings is driven by a decline in hours worked rather than the wage rate. Students with debt tend to be less ``choosy'' on the job market: they are more inclined to accept part-time jobs as well as jobs that are less related to their degree and offer limited career potential.
    Date: 2017
  28. By: Maqsood Memon (Al Yamamah University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia); S. Vijaya Gangoor (Dr.G.S.Vijaya2)
    Abstract: Globalization of education, job market and changing needs of the industry for graduates? qualities, attributes and skills sets has enhanced the importance of quality and innovation in teaching, learning and administration of higher education institutes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). KSA?s National Transformation Program realize the importance of quality in higher education for the transition of Saudi economy from an over-reliance on oil revenues to a more balanced and investment based model. Ensuring graduates? quality to meet the requirements of national and international job market and increasing private sector participation in education are two of the education strategic objectives of the National Transformation Program.It is mandatory for the higher education institutes in KSA to obtain institutional level accreditation from the Education Evaluation Commission for Higher Education (EEC-HE) of KSA. This paper makes an attempt in understanding the national and international quality standards in a Higher education sector; investigate the commonalities of both standards and explore the opportunities for KSA?s institutes to obtain international accreditation at program level by using national accreditation as a foundation. The study is based on extensive literature review and qualitative case analysis. The study found that the evidence of documented procedure and practices in compliance with national accreditation?s standards and criteria are very comprehensive. Implemented standards of the national accreditation (EEC-HE) provide strong foundation and evidence to meet the requirements of international accreditation such as ACBSP. International accreditation can help institute to implement world class practices in teaching, learning and administration, enhance faculty and staff morale, increase graduates? employability and acceptance in global education and job market.
    Keywords: Quality Management Systems in Higher Education. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award for Higher Education. Accreditation Council for Collegiate Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP).
    Date: 2017–05
  29. By: Warnecke, Christian; Weller, Daniel
    Abstract: This research paper aims at highlighting factors which influence the spatial focus of interactions between higher education institutions (HEIs) and the economic system in Germany. In the pursuit of this goal, our research work employs a Bayesian statistical analysis of empirical data gathered from a German-wide online survey of professors (7,500 participants) focused on the extent of knowledge diffusion with respect to their institutions of origin. The results provided by our statistical analysis indicate that some fields of research are favourable in facilitating cooperation between companies and University professors in the region, while others are more prone to cooperate supraregional. In the case of professors at Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS), the results reveal only a low influence concerning the research discipline. These findings are not surprising because of the narrow spectrum of research disciplines at UAS. Beyond these results, the time budget allocated for research poses as a major factor of influence for the cooperation activities of professors at UAS. These findings have been expected since UAS professors have less allocated time for research leading to a more regional focus of cooperation with companies. Surprisingly across all models, only a very few categories in total are credible for the "Application relevance of research" and the "Cooperation intensity".
    Keywords: university-industry links,knowledge transfer,collaborative research,Bayesian multilevel analysis,spatial analysis,German-wide survey
    JEL: I23 I25 O32 O31 O33 R12
    Date: 2017

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