nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2017‒07‒09
fourteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Consequences of Educational Voucher Reform in Chile By Richard J. Murnane; Marcus R. Waldman; John B. Willett; Maria Soledad Bos; Emiliana Vegas
  2. Concept Mapping: An Innovative Educational Tool By Vandana Singh
  3. Expanding Schooling Opportunities in the Netherlands: A Replication of Leuven et al. (2010) By Asaad Ismail Ali; Andrea Kutinova Menclova
  5. Educational Disparities in the Battle Against Infertility: Evidence from IVF Success By Fane Groes; Daniela Iorio; Man Yee (Mallory) Leung; Raül Santaeulàlia-Llopis
  6. Heterogeneous effects of pupil-to-teacher ratio policies - A look at class size reduction and teacher aide By Simone Balestra; Uschi Backes-Gellner
  7. Does Class Size Affect Student 'Grit'? Evidence from a Randomised Experiment in Early Grades By Jana Gross; Simone Balestra; Uschi Backes-Gellner
  8. IKIGAI: Reflection on Life Goals Optimizes Performance and Happiness By Schippers, M.C.
  9. Research, knowledge transfer and innovation: the effect of Italian universities’ efficiency on the local economic development 2006-2012 By Tommaso Agasisti; Cristian Barra; Roberto Zotti
  10. Attitudes towards Immigration in an Ageing Society: Evidence from Japan By NAKATA Hiroyuki
  11. How have teachers’ salaries evolved and how do they compare to those of tertiary-educated workers? By OECD
  13. Gender beliefs and planned occupation: high school pupils and their parents By Magdalena Smyk
  14. A replication of "Education and catch-up in the Industrial Revolution" (American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 2011) By Edwards, Jeremy S. S.

  1. By: Richard J. Murnane; Marcus R. Waldman; John B. Willett; Maria Soledad Bos; Emiliana Vegas
    Abstract: In an effort to boost student achievement and reduce income-based gaps, the Chilean government passed the Preferential School Subsidy Law (SEP) in 2008, which altered the nation’s 27-year-old universal school-voucher system dramatically. Implementation of SEP increased the value of the school voucher by 50 percent for “Priority students”, primarily those whose family incomes fell within the bottom 40 percent of the national distribution. To be eligible to accept the higher-valued vouchers from these students, schools were required to waive fees for Priority students and to participate in an accountability system. Using national data on the mathematics achievement of 1,631,841 Chilean 4th-grade students who attended one of 8,588 schools during the year 2005 through 2012, we address two research questions (RQs): 1. Did student test scores increase and income-based score gaps become smaller during the five years after the passage of SEP? 2. Did SEP contribute to increases in student test scores and, if so, through what mechanisms? We addressed these RQs by fitting a sequence of multi-level interrupted time-series regression models, supplemented by other descriptive analyses. We found that: 1. On average, student test scores increased markedly and income-based gaps in those scores declined by one-third in the five years after the passage of SEP. 2. The combination of increased support of schools and accountability was the critical mechanism through which the implementation of SEP increased student scores, especially in schools serving high concentrations of low-income students. Migration of low-income students from public schools to private voucher schools played a small role. We interpret these findings as more supportive of improved student performance than other recent research on the Chilean policy reform.
    JEL: I22 I24 I25
    Date: 2017–06
  2. By: Vandana Singh
    Abstract: Today Concept map is one of the popular techniques which can be used as educational tool. In this paper the researcher reports the use of concept map in education. In the study researcher selected 80 students randomly of class XI C.B.S.E. randomly, two groups has been formed by the researcher and each group consists 40 students and labelled as Control group and experimental group. Students in the experimental group were subjected to treatment using Concept maps while students in the control group were taught using the traditional method of teaching for Biology. Pre-test and Post-test for both the groups was conducted. The data was analysed using t test. Result revealed that the score of mean and standard deviation of post-test of experimental group is more than the score of mean and standard deviation of post-test of control group and there is a statistical significant effect of concept map over traditional teaching method on academic achievement of students. Key Words: Concept Map, Traditional Teaching, Academic achievement, Biology Policy
    Date: 2017–06
  3. By: Asaad Ismail Ali; Andrea Kutinova Menclova (University of Canterbury)
    Abstract: In the Netherlands, primary schools have a rolling admissions policy. In particular, children can individually start school right after their fourth birthday instead of starting with a cohort on a fixed date. Children with birthdays during school holidays start together at the beginning of the next term. Leuven et al. (2010) indicated that these two features of the Dutch schooling system create adequate exogenous variation in children’s enrolment opportunities to identify the effects of additional early formal education on later test scores. This study replicates Leuven et al. and finds some differences.
    Keywords: replication, early childhood education, achievement
    JEL: I21 I28 J24
    Date: 2017–06–29
  4. By: Anjali Dave
    Abstract: Without disproving the importance of traditional teacher-led discussions in class, an increasing number of teachers are acknowledging the worth of allocating group work to their students. It is a false notion that cooperative learning is a replacement for the methods we use at present for teaching-learning rather it can be used to augment or enhance learning. This paper discusses the key elements of cooperative learning: positive interdependence, individual accountability, promotive or face to face interaction, interpersonal and small group skills and group processing. The research validating effectiveness of this method is summarized. The paper outlines the methods for implementing cooperative learning in higher education for successful learning to take place. The common hurdles in the implementation of cooperative learning and how to overcome them are discussed in the present study. The present study may lead to the enhancement of practices and approaches. Key Words: Cooperative learning, pedagogy, higher education Policy
    Date: 2017–06
  5. By: Fane Groes; Daniela Iorio; Man Yee (Mallory) Leung; Raül Santaeulàlia-Llopis
    Abstract: Using administrative data from Denmark (1995-2009) we find that maternal education significantly determines IVF success (live birth). Compared with high school dropouts, patients with a college (high school) degree have a 24% (16%) higher chance of attaining a live birth through IVF. Our explorations of the mechanisms underlying the education gradient rule out financial considerations, clinic characteristics, and medical conditions. Instead, we argue that the education gradient in IVF reflects educational disparities in the adoption of the IVF technology. These results are important because women’s career and fertility choices are likely to be influenced by the determinants of IVF success.
    Date: 2017–05
  6. By: Simone Balestra (University of St. Gallen); Uschi Backes-Gellner (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of two pupil-to-teacher ratio policies on test scores for children with different achievement levels. Using data from a large randomized experiment in early childhood, we estimate unconditional quantile treatment effects of small class and teacher aide, as compared to regular classes. For the small class intervention, results show that pupils in the middle of the achievement distribution profit the most from being assigned to a smaller class, whereas pupils at the bottom or at the top of the achievement distribution experience almost no gain in test scores. For the teacher aide intervention, the analysis reveals positive and significant effects for students at the bottom of the achievement distribution, an effect stronger for boys and disadvantaged pupils. The findings suggest that the average effects reported in traditional empirical studies on pupil-to-teacher ratio interventions provide an incomplete characterization of the impact on the achievement distribution, thus constituting a weak guide for policymakers.
    Keywords: class size, teacher aide, unconditional quantile regression, kindergarten
    JEL: C21 I21 J13
    Date: 2017–04
  7. By: Jana Gross (ETH Zurich); Simone Balestra (University of St. Gallen); Uschi Backes-Gellner (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: The increasing recognition of non-cognitive skills has led many researchers to investigate how educational practices enhance these skills. In this paper, we focus on the non-cognitive skill known as 'grit', and we study the relation between class size and grit in early grades. Using data from follow-up surveys of Project STAR, we show that fourth-grade pupils who experienced small classes during early grades are 0.12 standard deviations higher in grit than their peers in regular classes. Sub-sample analysis reveals that particularly boys and non-white pupils increase their grit in smaller classes. We also show that grit matters, because half of the effect of smaller classes on test scores entirely operates through grit.
    Keywords: class size, grit, non-cognitive skills
    JEL: C20 C36 I21
    Date: 2017–06
  8. By: Schippers, M.C.
    Abstract: In her inaugural address, Michaéla discusses the role of self-regulatory behaviors that people can employ in order to live a full-filling life. These behaviors include reflection and personal goal setting, in order to formulate a direction or purpose in life (Ikigai). In the inaugural address, an evidence-based goal-setting intervention is discussed. This relatively brief intervention has shown to have lasting results: not only does it increase well-being of students, the intervention also boosted academic performance of students by over 20%. Moreover, the intervention significantly decreased the gender and ethnic minority performance gap. The goal setting is shown in a broader perspective with examples in education, business and operations management. The perspective presented in this address emphasizes taking control of one’s life in order to optimize performance and happiness.
    Keywords: Goal setting, Study success, Reflection, Self-regulatory behaviour, Well-being and happiness, Gender and ethnicity gap, Personality, Team reflexivity, Behavioural operations management, Performance management
    JEL: M10 L2 M12 L12
    Date: 2017–06–16
  9. By: Tommaso Agasisti (Politecnico di Milano School of Management); Cristian Barra (Università di Salerno); Roberto Zotti (Università di Salerno)
    Abstract: In this paper, we test whether there is a link between the performance of universities and the local economic development of the territory where they operate. The performance of academic institutions is measured through an efficiency concept, estimated by means of an innovative Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA), and considering indicators of teaching, research and ‘third mission’ as outputs. A system generalized method-of-moments (Sys- GMM) dynamic panel estimator, instrumented with time lags and differences is estimated over the period from 2006 to 2012 to solve the potential endogeneity of the explanatory variables. Our findings reveal that the presence of efficient universities fosters local economic development, and that knowledge spillovers occur between areas through the geographical proximity to the efficient universities.
    Keywords: Higher education; knowledge spillovers; local economic development; efficiency of universities
    JEL: I21 E01
  10. By: NAKATA Hiroyuki
    Abstract: This paper studies the impacts of heterogeneity such as age, gender, and education on the attitude towards immigration and the effectiveness of information campaigns based on a large-scale experiment conducted in Japan. The experiment randomly exposes a large national sample of citizens to information pertaining to potential social and economic benefits from immigration embedded in a comprehension study. The results complement the companion paper (Facchini, Margalit and Nakata, 2016), which shows that the overall effectiveness of such campaigns does not vary much across different groups, while there is a substantial generational gap in the level of support towards immigration. Also, tertiary education has a positive impact amongst female respondents, which is missing amongst the male counterparts.
    Date: 2017–06
  11. By: OECD
    Abstract: The combined effects of policy reforms to attract and/or retain teachers, and financial constraints in the context of the economic downturn in 2008 may explain part of the recent trends in teachers’ salaries: decreases in statutory salaries and smaller salary gaps between levels of education. Nevertheless, statutory and/or actual salaries increased significantly in some countries between 2005 and 2014, even if in 2014 teachers’ actual salaries remain lower than those of tertiary-educated workers in most countries.
    Date: 2017–07–07
  12. By: Daudi Mika Mungure
    Abstract: This paper investigated the major challenges that encounter science and mathematics student teachers during the implementation of teaching practice exercise in Morogoro Municipality. Morogoro Teachers college, Lupanga practicing school and Morogoro secondary school were used in the data collection. Despite the experiences that science and mathematics student teachers enrich during teaching practice exercise, they also encounter some challenges which in one way or another can hamper their ability to derive maximum benefit in becoming effective and competent science and mathematics teachers through teaching practice exercise.The study employed qualitative approach with a case study design where Key informant interview, observation focus group discussion and documentary review were the main methods of data collection. The 34 respondents were purposively involved in data collection. Content analysis was used to analyze data thematically. The major challenges revealed by the study were the lack of raking of practicing schools and improper allocation of science and mathematics student teachers, improper time frame to start teaching practice, inadequate funds, lack of teaching and learning resources, lack of cooperation and support as well as lack of the involvement in extra co-curricular activities. The researcher recommend the Ministry of education, teachers’ colleges and practicing secondary schools to be aware of the challenges that hamper science and mathematics student teachers to achieve their desired outcome that is to become effective and competent science and mathematics teachers through teaching practice exercise. Key Words: Teaching Practice, Challenges, Implementation, Science and Mathematics Student Teachers, Teachers’ Colleges, Practicing Schools. Policy
    Date: 2017–06
  13. By: Magdalena Smyk (Group for Research in Applied Economics (GRAPE))
    Abstract: Psychology and sociology literature suggests that the fact that women are less likely to work in STEM occupations may be caused by gender stereotypes related to differences in math and science abilities. In this study we test whether, particularly parents' beliefs are associated with their children's gender beliefs and with their choices of occupation. We show that the correlation between parents' and children's beliefs is strong. We use High School Longitudinal Study data - survey conducted among US 9th graders, their parents and teachers. Finally, we also test to what extend gender beliefs (parents' and own) correlate with planning to work in STEM fields by high-shool pupils. We find that girls are discouraged (and boys encouraged) by parents believing that boys are better in math and science, and that the effect of parent's beliefs are stronger than the effect of pupils' school achievements in math and science.
    Keywords: gender beliefs, choice of occupation, family, STEM, gender occupational segregation
    JEL: J16 I24 J13 J24
    Date: 2017
  14. By: Edwards, Jeremy S. S.
    Abstract: Although European economic history provides essentially no support for the view that education of the general population has a positive causal effect on economic growth, a recent paper by Becker, Hornung and Woessmann (Education and catch-up in the Industrial Revolution, 2011) claims that such education had a significant impact on Prussian industrialisation. The author shows that the instrumental variable they use to identify the causal effect of education is correlated with variables that influenced industrialisation but were omitted from their regression models. Once this specification error is corrected, the evidence shows that education of the general population had, if anything, a negative causal impact on industrialisation in Prussia.
    Keywords: education,industrialization,Prussia,regional effects,invalid instrument
    JEL: I25 N13 N63 O14
    Date: 2017

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