nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2017‒06‒11
24 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Differentiated Accountability and Education Production: Evidence from NCLB Waivers By Steven W. Hemelt; Brian Jacob
  2. Nudging Study Habits: A Field Experiment on Peer Tutoring in Higher Education By Wilson, Nicholas; Pugatch, Todd
  3. An Evaluation of Bias in Three Measures of Teacher Quality: Value-Added, Classroom Observations, and Student Surveys By Andrew Bacher-Hicks; Mark J. Chin; Thomas J. Kane; Douglas O. Staiger
  4. The Impact of Free Early Childhood Education and Care on Educational Achievement: A Discontinuity Approach Investigating Both Quantity and Quality of Provision By Jo Blanden; Emilia Del Bono; Kirstine Hansen; Birgitta Rabe
  5. The Dynamics of Study-Work Choice and Its Effect on Intended and Actual University Attainment By Gong, Xiaodong
  6. The impact of exposure to cash transfers on education and labor market outcomes By Paredes-Torres, Tatiana
  7. Health effects of instruction intensity: Evidence from a natural experiment in German high-schools By Quis, Johanna Sophie; Reif, Simon
  8. Education and Skills: The UK Policy Agenda By Sandra McNally; Gill Wyness
  9. Implications for Teacher Training and Support for Inclusive Education in Cambodia: An Empirical Case Study in a Developing Country By Kuroda, Kazuo; Kartika, Diana; Kitamura, Yuto
  10. Academies 2: the new batch - the changing nature of academy schools in England By Andrew Eyles; Stephen Machin; Olmo Silva
  11. Intergenerational effect of education reform program and maternal education on children’s educational and labor outcomes: evidence from Nepal By Vinish Shrestha; Rashesh Shrestha
  12. (Il)legal assignments in school choice By EHLERS, Lars; MORRILL, Thayer
  13. Born Under a Lucky Star: Financial Aid, College Completion, Labor Supply, and Credit Constraints By Jeffrey T. Denning
  14. Impact of Universal Primary Education Policy on Out of School Children in Uganda By Lamichhane, Kamal; Tsujimoto, Takahiro
  15. The Labor Market Gender Gap in Denmark: Sorting Out the Past 30 Years By Gallen, Yana; Lesner, Rune V.; Vejlin, Rune Majlund
  16. Closing or Reproducing the Gender Gap? Parental Transmission, Social Norms and Education Choice By Humlum, Maria Knoth; Nandrup, Anne Brink; Smith, Nina
  17. The Effects of School Reform Under NCLB Waivers: Evidence from Focus Schools in Kentucky By Sade Bonilla; Thomas Dee
  18. School Performance, Accountability and Waiver Reforms: Evidence from Louisiana By Thomas Dee; Elise Dizon-Ross
  19. The Effect of School Quality on Housing Rent: Evidence from Matsue city in Japan By Yuta Kuroda
  20. How Do Peers Impact Learning? An Experimental Investigation of Peer-To-Peer Teaching and Ability Tracking By Kimbrough, Erik O.; McGee, Andrew; Shigeoka, Hitoshi
  21. The Future of Distance Learning for Theological Education in Romania By Daniel Fodorean
  22. Efficiency of investment in compulsory education: empirical analyses in Europe By Tommaso Agasisti; Ralph Hippe; Giuseppe Munda
  23. Father Absence and the Educational Gender Gap By Lundberg, Shelly
  24. Cost Efficiency and Cost-Benefits Relationship Analysis in the Romanian Education System By Liliana Paschia

  1. By: Steven W. Hemelt; Brian Jacob
    Abstract: In 2011, the U.S. Department of Education granted states the opportunity to apply for waivers from the core requirements of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). In exchange, states implemented systems of differentiated accountability in which they identified and intervened in their lowest-performing schools (“Priority” schools) and schools with the largest achievement gaps between subgroups of students (“Focus” schools). We use administrative data from Michigan in a series of regression-discontinuity analyses to study the effects of these reforms on schools and students. Overall, we find that neither reform had appreciable impacts on various measures of school staffing, student composition, or academic achievement. We find some evidence that the Focus designation led to small, short-run reductions in the within-school math achievement gap – but that these reductions were driven by stagnant performance of lower-achieving students alongside declines in the performance of their higher-achieving peers. These findings serve as a cautionary tale for the capacity of the accountability provisions embedded in the recent reauthorization of NCLB, the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), to meaningfully improve student and school outcomes.
    JEL: I20 I21 I28 J01 J08
    Date: 2017–06
  2. By: Wilson, Nicholas (Reed College); Pugatch, Todd (Oregon State University)
    Abstract: More than two of every five students who enrolled in college in 2007 failed to graduate by 2013. Peer tutoring services offer one approach toward improving learning outcomes in higher education. We conducted a randomized controlled experiment designed to increase take-up of university tutoring services. Brief, one-time messages increased tutoring take-up by 7 percentage points, or 23% of the control group mean. Attendance at multiple tutoring sessions increased by nearly the same amount, suggesting substantial changes in study habits in response to a simple and inexpensive intervention. We find little evidence of advertising-induced tutoring on learning outcomes.
    Keywords: peer tutoring, human capital investment, behavioral response to advertising, nudges, higher education
    JEL: D83 I23
    Date: 2017–05
  3. By: Andrew Bacher-Hicks; Mark J. Chin; Thomas J. Kane; Douglas O. Staiger
    Abstract: There are three primary measures of teaching performance: student test-based measures (i.e., value added), classroom observations, and student surveys. Although all three types of measures could be biased by unmeasured traits of the students in teachers’ classrooms, prior research has largely focused on the validity of value-added measures. We conduct an experiment involving 66 mathematics teachers in four school districts and test the validity of all three types of measures. Specifically, we test whether a teacher’s performance on each measure under naturally occurring (i.e., non-experimental) settings predicts performance following random assignment of that teacher to a class of students. Combining our results with those from two previous experiments, we provide further evidence that value-added measures are unbiased predictors of teacher performance. In addition, we provide the first evidence that classroom observation scores are unbiased predictors of teacher performance on a rubric measuring the quality of mathematics instruction. Unfortunately, we lack the statistical power to reach any similar conclusions regarding the predictive validity of a teacher’s student survey responses.
    JEL: I21 J24
    Date: 2017–06
  4. By: Jo Blanden; Emilia Del Bono; Kirstine Hansen; Birgitta Rabe
    Abstract: In this paper we analyse whether entitlement to free part-time early childhood education and care at 3 years old affects educational attainment in the first year of primary school. Our identification strategy exploits date-of-birth discontinuities that lead to some children born just a few days apart being entitled to different amounts of free pre-school (up to 3.5 months) while starting school at the same time and within the same cohort. Using administrative data on all state school pupils in England, we carry out a regression discontinuity analysis and find that eligibility to free part-time early education and care results in a zero overall effect on educational achievement at age 5. This is true for advantaged and disadvantaged groups and for children attending high and low quality provision.
    Keywords: free early childhood education
    Date: 2017–06
  5. By: Gong, Xiaodong (NATSEM, University of Canberra)
    Abstract: We study the dynamics of study-work choices of Australian high school students and how these choices affect intended and actual enrolment in universities when they finish their school education. A dynamic random effect multi-equation model is constructed and estimated. We find that study-work choices are state dependent, driven by student heterogeneity and the school environment they are in. They are also related to behaviours of the fellow students in the same school. We find that study-work choices significantly affect enrolment in universities but they hardly have any effect on students' preference for university attainment.
    Keywords: study-work choices, university enrolment, dynamic models
    JEL: I21 C33
    Date: 2017–05
  6. By: Paredes-Torres, Tatiana
    Abstract: This paper studies the short and long-term effects of exposure to Bono de Desarrollo Humano (BDH), the main unconditional cash transfer program in Ecuador, on young people’s education and labor market outcomes. Using individual administrative panel data and a regression discontinuity design, I estimate the short-term impact of BDH, as well as the differential impact of a long exposure (10 years) versus a short exposure to BDH (five years). In the short-run, treated children experienced gains in enrollment and schooling, but those gains dissipated after five more years of treatment. This explains why after ten years of exposure, treated children aged 18-21 were not more likely to finish high school when compared to similar children who were only treated during the first five years of the program. Regarding labor market outcomes, BDH had a negative but not statistically significant impact on the probability of working among the young children who were treated either during five or ten years and did not increase job opportunities among young adults.
    Keywords: cash transfers, regression discontinuity, Ecuador, education, labor market outcomes, long-term effects, short-term effects, Bono de Desarrollo Humano, human capital, poverty, developing countries, regression discontinuity
    JEL: H23 I22 I24 I25 I28 I38 J24 O15
    Date: 2017–05
  7. By: Quis, Johanna Sophie; Reif, Simon
    Abstract: A large literature aims to establish a causal link between education and health using changes in compulsory schooling laws. It is however unclear how well more education is operationalized by marginal increases in school years. We shed a new light on this discussion by analyzing the health effects of a reform in Germany where total years of schooling for students in the academic track were reduced from nine to eight while keeping cumulative teaching hours constant by increasing instruction intensity. The sequential introduction of the reform allows us to implement a triple difference-in-differences estimation strategy with data from the German Socio-Economic Panel. We find that increased weekly instruction time has negative health effects for females while they are still in school. However, after graduation, females even seem to benefit from reduced school years. We find no effects on males' health.
    Keywords: education and health,instruction intensity,natural experiment,SOEP
    JEL: I19 I21 I28
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Sandra McNally; Gill Wyness
    Abstract: The UK's overall school budget has been protected in real terms but does not provide for funding per pupil to increase in line with inflation. Because pupil numbers are increasing, large falls in expenditure per pupil are expected over the next few years unless more funding is allocated. The situation facing post-16 education is a lot worse. A more widespread adoption of grammar schools is very likely to increase socio-economic segregation by school type and is unlikely to lead to any increase in average educational attainment in the country. Although increasing intermediate skills among young people and adults is needed, many concerns have been raised about the how apprenticeship policy is being implemented. This includes an emphasis on quantity over quality and differences in the provision of training opportunities for large employers compared with small and medium-sized enterprises.
    Keywords: education, expenditure, post-16 education, tuition fees, skills, apprentices
    Date: 2017–06
  9. By: Kuroda, Kazuo; Kartika, Diana; Kitamura, Yuto
    Abstract: Research in developed countries has consistently demonstrated that training and experience are factors that strongly influence teacher attitudes toward inclusive education. Given the implications of this research for teacher-related policies on inclusive education in other countries, the present study seeks to empirically determine and verify the impact of training and experience in the developing country context. Surveys were conducted across Cambodia in February 2015 involving 448 teachers of children with and without disabilities, to find out how their training and experience influences their perspectives on how children with disabilities should be educated. Twenty-four were then selected for focus group interviews. A Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the statistical significance of (i) training on teaching children with disabilities, and (ii) experience in teaching children with disabilities, in teacher perceptions of inclusive education. Their perceptions were also analyzed by disability categories. Statistical analysis revealed that neither training nor experience in teaching children with disabilities significantly influences teacher perceptions of inclusive education in Cambodia. Qualitative responses pointed out that not only is the current cascade teacher training system ineffective in reaching out to all teachers, the message of inclusive education?its purpose and methods?is also not effectively transmitted to all teachers. The responses show that the lack of quality training and on-site support negatively affected their experience of teaching and meeting the educational needs of children with disabilities. The results also showed that the inclusion of severe sensory impaired children in such programs is perceived much more negatively in Cambodia as compared to developed countries. The findings of this study thus have implications for teacher training programs, their resources, and the support for teachers that is required to facilitate the inclusion of disabled students in the context of developing countries, particularly for those students with severe sensory impairment.
    Keywords: Inclusive Education,disabilities,teacher attitudes,training and experience,developing countries
    Date: 2017–03
  10. By: Andrew Eyles; Stephen Machin; Olmo Silva
    Abstract: The English education system has undergone large-scale restructuring through the introduction of academy schools. The most salient feature of these schools is that, despite remaining part of the state sector, they operate with more autonomy than the predecessors they replaced. Two distinct time periods of academy school introduction have taken place, under the auspices of different governments. The first batch was initiated in the 2002/03 school year by the Labour government of the time, and was a school improvement programme directly aimed at turning around badly performing schools. The second batch involved a mass academisation process following the change of government in May 2010 and the Academies Act of that year, which resulted in increased heterogeneity of new academies. This paper compares the two batches of introduction with the aim of getting a better understanding of their similarities and differences, and their importance for education policy. To do so, we study what types of schools were more likely to change to academy status in the two programmes, and the impact of this change on the quality of new pupil enrolments into the new types of school. Whilst we do point out some similarities, these are the exception rather than the norm. For the most part, our analysis reveals a number of marked dissimilarities between the two programmes, in terms of both the characteristics of schools that become academies and the changes in pupil intakes that occurred post-conversion.
    Keywords: Academies; Pupil Intake
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2017–05–27
  11. By: Vinish Shrestha; Rashesh Shrestha
    Abstract: We examine a potential intergenerational determinant of child labor by investigating the effect of maternal education on children0s educational and labor outcomes. To account for endogeneity of mother's education, we use the Nepal Education System Plan (NESP) (1971), one of the first education reforms in the country, as an exogenous source of variation. We find that NESP increased educational outcomes among females that were most likely affected by the reform due to their birth year and district of birth. Furthermore, an increase in mother's highest level of schooling increases a child's probability of finishing 5th grade only among mothers from a higher caste households. We find modest effects of mother's education on child labor outcomes, with the IV estimate indicating that a year increase in mother's education reduces a child's weekly work by approximately an hour. The IV estimates are about two-fold larger than the OLS estimates in most cases. We caution that exclusion based on social hierarchy should be considered when promoting maternal education as a medium to improve children's well-being in developing nations like Nepal.
    Keywords: returns to education, maternal education, child labor, schooling
    JEL: I26 J20 I30
    Date: 2017
  12. By: EHLERS, Lars; MORRILL, Thayer
    Abstract: In public school choice, students with strict preferences are assigned to schools. Schools are endowed with priorities over students. Incorporating different constraints from applications, priorities are often modeled as choice functions over sets of students. It has been argued that the most desirable criterion for an assignment is fairness; there should not be a student having justified envy in the following way: he prefers some school to his assigned school and has higher priority than some student who got into that school. Justified envy could cause court cases. We propose the following fairness notion for a set of assignments: a set of assignments is legal if and only if any assignment outside the set has justified envy with some assignment in the set and no two assignments inside the set block each other via justified envy. We show that under very basic conditions on priorities, there always exists a unique legal set of assignments, and that this set has a structure common to the set of fair assignments: (i) it is a lattice and (ii) it satisfies the rural-hospitals theorem. This is the first contribution providing a "set-wise" solution for many-to-one matching problems where priorities are not necessarily responsive and schools are not active agents.
    JEL: C78 D61 D78 I20
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Jeffrey T. Denning (Brigham Young University)
    Abstract: Higher education has experienced many changes since the 1970s, including an increase in the price of college, an increase in student employment during college, a decrease in college completion rates, and an increase in time to degree. This paper ties these trends together by causally linking changes in financial aid with time to degree and student employment during college. I find that additional financial aid accelerates graduation for university seniors because they increase credits attempted and reduce earnings while in college. In reaching this finding, I use administrative education and earnings data to examine a discrete change in the amount of federal financial aid available to financially independent students. The estimates in this paper imply that roughly 50 percent of the observed increase in time to degree can be explained by changes in tuition.
    Keywords: financial aid, labor supply, college completion
    JEL: I22 D14 H52
    Date: 2017–02
  14. By: Lamichhane, Kamal; Tsujimoto, Takahiro
    Abstract: Despite the recognition of the importance of providing quality education to all children in several international declarations, still majority of children with disabilities are likely to face barriers to quality education particularly in developing countries. Numerous existing studies examine the education of female as out of school children, yet only few studies exists on children with disabilities. To bridge the knowledge gap in the existing studies, using the nationally representative demographic and health survey dataset, we estimate the effect of Universal Primary Education (UPE) policy on educational attainments of out of school children in Uganda. Following the identification strategies in previous literatures, we compare two cohorts (pre- and post- UPE) for those with and without disabilities. While UPE was found effective to bridge the gender gap, we observe no significant improvements between children with and without disabilities in poor households. This finding suggests the difficulty of parents with financial constraints to invest in education regardless of whether their children are disabled or not. Additionally, for the samples with disabilities only, we observe positive effect of UPE on years of schooling for full and female samples but not for poor households. These findings suggest that simply waiving of tuition fee as UPE policy does is not sufficient to increase the school enrollment and years of schooling of persons with disabilities, especially in poor households.
    Keywords: Universal primary education policy,persons with disabilities,Gender,out of school children,Uganda
    Date: 2017–04
  15. By: Gallen, Yana (Harris School, University of Chicago); Lesner, Rune V. (Aarhus University); Vejlin, Rune Majlund (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: We document the declining gap between the average earnings of women and men in Denmark from 1980 to 2010. The decline in the earnings gap is driven by increased labor force participation and in-creases in hours worked by women, and to a smaller extent by a decline in the gender wage gap. The gap has declined least among higher earning women – the average wage of the top 10 percent of fe-male earners is 28-33% lower than the average wage of the top 10 percent of male earners. Women are becoming more educated and are a larger share of the professional labor force than in previous decades, but a substantial wage gap of about 10 percent remains for the youngest cohorts even after controlling for age, education, experience, occupation, and firm choice. Unlike the case of the US, dif-ferences in educational attainment, occupational choice, industry, and experience explained about 15 percentage points of the Danish wage gap in 1980, but now these factors explain only about 6 percent-age points of the Danish wage gap. In fact, though variation in the wage gap across occupations is sub-stantial, this variation is not correlated with the fraction of the occupation which is female. The data show a great deal of sorting and segregation across industries, occupations, and even firms. However, this sorting does not explain more than half of the wage gap. We conclude that a great deal of the re-maining disparity between the wages of women and men is tied to the differential effects of parenthood by gender.
    Keywords: gender pay gap, sorting
    JEL: J71 J31
    Date: 2017–05
  16. By: Humlum, Maria Knoth (Aarhus University); Nandrup, Anne Brink (Aarhus University); Smith, Nina (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: Over the last decade, the economic literature has increasingly focused on the importance of gender identity and sticky gender norms in an attempt to explain the persistence of the gender gaps. Using detailed register data on the latest cohorts of Danish labour market entrants, this paper examines the intergenerational correlation in gender-stereotypical choice of education. Although to some extent picking up inherited and acquired skills, our results suggest that if parents exhibit gender stereotypical labour market behaviour, children of the same sex are more likely to choose a gender stereotypical education. The associations are strongest for sons. Exploiting the detailed nature of our data, we use birth order and sibling sex composition to shed light on the potential channels through which gender differences in educational preferences are transmitted across generations. We propose that such transmissions may attenuate the final closing of the gender gap.
    Keywords: intergenerational transmission, gender differences, gender identity, social norms
    JEL: I23 J16 J24
    Date: 2017–05
  17. By: Sade Bonilla; Thomas Dee
    Abstract: Under waivers to the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, the federal government required states to identify schools where targeted subgroups of students have the lowest achievement and to implement reforms in these “Focus Schools.” In this study, we examine the Focus School reforms in the state of Kentucky. The reforms in this state are uniquely interesting for several reasons. One is that the state developed unusually explicit guidance for Focus Schools centered on a comprehensive school-planning process. Second, the state identified Focus Schools using a “super subgroup” measure that combined traditionally low-performing subgroups into an umbrella group. This design feature may have catalyzed broader whole-school reforms and attenuated the incentives to target reform efforts narrowly. Using regression discontinuity designs, we find that these reforms led to substantial improvements in school performance, raising math achievement by 17 percent and reading achievement by 9 percent.
    JEL: H70 I2 I24
    Date: 2017–06
  18. By: Thomas Dee; Elise Dizon-Ross
    Abstract: States that received federal waivers to the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act were required to implement reforms in designated "Focus Schools" that contribute to achievement gaps. In this study, we examine the performance effects of such "differentiated accountability" reforms in the state of Louisiana. The Focus School reforms in Louisiana emphasized school-needs assessments and aligned technical assistance. These state reforms may have also been uniquely high-powered because they were linked to a new letter-based school-rating system. We examine the impact of these reforms in a sharp regression discontinuity (RD) design based on the assignment of schools to Focus status. We find that, over each of three years, Louisiana's Focus School reforms had no measurable impact on school performance. We discuss evidence that these findings may reflect policy uncertainty and implementation fidelity at the state and local level.
    JEL: H70 I2
    Date: 2017–06
  19. By: Yuta Kuroda
    Abstract: This study investigates the effect of public school quality on the housing rent within its school district by using Japanese data. I estimate the causal effect of school quality as measured by average test score on housing rent by using regression discontinuity design to control for unobserved characteristics of neighborhoods. Specifically, I focus on apartment buildings located on school attendance district boundaries. I find that school quality has significantly positive effect on housing rent of apartment for families, where school quality does not have significant effect on housing rent of houses for single person. This results show that parents are willing to pay more to send their child to better school.
    Date: 2017–04
  20. By: Kimbrough, Erik O. (Simon Fraser University); McGee, Andrew (University of Alberta); Shigeoka, Hitoshi (Simon Fraser University)
    Abstract: Classroom peers are believed to influence learning by teaching each other, and the efficacy of this teaching likely depends on classroom composition in terms of peers' ability. Unfortunately, little is known about peer-to-peer teaching because it is never observed in field studies. Furthermore, identifying how peer-to-peer teaching is affected by ability tracking – grouping students of similar ability – is complicated by the fact that tracking is typically accompanied by changes in curriculum and the instructional behavior of teachers. To fill this gap, we conduct a laboratory experiment in which subjects learn to solve logic problems and examine both the importance of peer-to-peer teaching and the interaction between peer-to-peer teaching and ability tracking. While peer-to-peer teaching improves learning among low-ability subjects, the positive effects are substantially offset by tracking. Tracking reduces the frequency of peer-to-peer teaching, suggesting that low-ability subjects suffer from the absence of high-ability peers to teach them.
    Keywords: peer-to-peer teaching, ability tracking, peer effects, group composition, education and inequality, laboratory experiment
    JEL: I24 C91 I28
    Date: 2017–05
  21. By: Daniel Fodorean (Baptist Theological Institute of Bucharest)
    Abstract: Romanian education system is in constant change, trying to distance itself from the communist approach to education, but also in fast integration with our contemporary new pedagogical methods. In the opinion of some observers especially careful on education, the changes that have occurred in the nearly 27 years since the fall communism in Romania has been too slow. Others believe that in these 27 years has made radical changes Romanian education. A kind of jumps from modern approaches to postmodern approaches, from traditional education methods in education, using innovative pedagogical methods almost most. Distance education has found its place in education specific legislation in 1995, but the first program of distance learning in higher education was launched in the academic year 1998‚Äí1999. In theology, the situation was even more different in that it was only in 2005 launched the first distance learning program in the field of theology. This article aims to evaluate and demonstrate that the distance education in theology is the only possible path of development, thus ensuring the future for training religious ministers in Romania.
    Keywords: theology, education, distance learning education, online education, university
    Date: 2016
  22. By: Tommaso Agasisti (Politecnico di Milano School of Management Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering); Ralph Hippe (European Commission - JRC); Giuseppe Munda (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The current economic crisis has put ever more to the forefront the need to achieve educational goals in the most efficient way. Therefore, this report provides an empirical analysis of the efficiency in education in the EU. Efficiency is measured first by using two different but related traditional frontier approaches (Data Envelopment Analysis and Free Disposal Hull) and then the robustness of our findings is checked by means of multi-criteria evaluation. The analysis is based on a number of standard variables from the literature. The results show, among others, that not the amount, but the specific use of resources is what matters; and that the efficiency of an educational system could also contribute to long-term benefits in terms of adults’ skills and competences.
    Keywords: Compulsory Education; Human Capital, Efficiency Analysis; Data Envelopment Analysis; Multiple-Criteria Evaluation
    JEL: C14 C61 H52 I21
    Date: 2017–04
  23. By: Lundberg, Shelly (University of California, Santa Barbara)
    Abstract: The educational attainment of young women now exceeds that of young men in most of the devel-oped world, and women account for about 60% of new four-year college graduates in the United States. Several studies have suggested that the increase in single-parent households may be contributing to the growing gender gap in education, as boys are more vulnerable to the negative effects of father absence and economic disadvantage than girls. Using data on recent cohorts of young men and women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), I find evi-dence consistent with other studies that boys are relatively more likely to experience problems in school, including school suspensions, when their father is absent, but also that girls are relatively more likely to experience depression in adolescence, particularly in step-father families. By the time Add Health subjects are young adults, there is no evidence that father absence early in life is more strongly associated with lower rates of college graduation for men, compared to women, in either cross-sectional or family fixed-effect models.
    Keywords: education, college graduation, gender, family structure, father absence, school quality
    JEL: I20 J12 J16
    Date: 2017–05
  24. By: Liliana Paschia (Hyperion University Bucharest, Romania)
    Abstract: For reaching a certain level of performance, it is not absolutely necessary to have additional amounts of money, but an amount distribution in a more efficient manner between school units, or their reorganization. One of the important ways to reduce the base cost and in the same time to reach a high level of preparation for students is efficiency growth. In other words, the best way to grow student performance in lack of cost growth is to grow the productivity through management methods specific to teaching activities.
    Keywords: cost, cost efficiency analysis, cost-benefits analysis, overall cost, direct costs, indirect costs, education system
    JEL: I22 I26 M40
    Date: 2017–01

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