nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2017‒05‒14
thirty-one papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Moving On Up for High School Graduates in Russia: The Consequences of the Uni ed State Exam Reform By Francesconi, Marco; Slonimczyk, Fabian; Yurko, Anna
  2. Are school-provided skills useful at work? Results of the Wiles test By Jacek Liwinski
  3. Parental Involvement in Education: Evidence from Field Experiments in Developing Countries By Asadul Islam
  4. Market Power and Price Discrimination in the U.S. Market for Higher Education By Dennis Epple; Richard Romano; Sinan Sarpça; Holger Sieg; Melanie Zaber
  5. Differences in educational attainment by country of origin: Evidence from Australia By Jaai Parasnis; Jemma Swan
  6. Tuition fee reforms and international mobility By OECD
  7. Tuition Reduces Enrollment Less Than Commonly Thought By Havranek, Tomas; Irsova, Zuzana; Zeynalova, Olesia
  8. Parental Work Hours and Childhood Obesity: Evidence Using Instrumental Variables Related to Sibling School Eligibility By Courtemanche, Charles; Tchernis, Rusty; Zhou, Xilin
  9. Sports and Child Development By Felfe, Christina; Lechner, Michael; Steinmayr, Andreas
  10. The Causal Effect of Age at Migration on Youth Educational Attainment By Dominique Lemmermann; Regina T. Riphahn
  11. Education and pro-family altruistic discrimination against foreigners: Five-country comparisons By Shusaku Sasaki; Naoko Okuyama, Masao Ogaki, and Fumio Ohtake
  12. Why so slow? The School-to-Work Transition in Italy By Pastore, Francesco
  13. Calculating the excellence shift: How efficiently do institutions produce highly cited papers? By Bornmann, Lutz; Wohlrabe, Klaus
  14. The Arab Spring and the Employability of Youth: Early Evidence From Egypt By Irene Selwaness; Rania Roushdy
  15. Market Signals: Evidence on the Determinants and Consequences of School Choice from a Citywide Lottery (Journal Article) By Steven Glazerman; Dallas Dotter
  16. Assessing Differences in Labor Market Outcomes Across Race, Age, and Educational Attainment By Research Department, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City
  17. Basic Education curriculum effectiveness analysis in East Africa: Using the ‘Surveys of Enacted Curriculum’ framework to describe primary mathematics and English content in Uganda By Atuhurra, Julius; Alinda, Violet
  18. Cognitive, Socioemotional and Behavioral Returns to College Quality By Dasgupta, Utteeyo; Mani, Subha; Sharma, Smriti; Singhal, Saurabh
  19. The Power of Big Data: Historical Time Series on German Education By Claude Diebolt; Gabriele Franzmann; Ralph Hippe; Jürgen Sensch
  20. The Gap Year: An Overview of the Issues By Jacob Greenspon
  21. Does migration affect education of girls and young women in Tajikistan? By Kseniia Gatskova; Artjoms Ivlevs; Barbara Dietz
  22. Do Higher Achievers Cheat Less? An Experiment of Self-Revealing Individual Cheating By Siniver, Erez; Tobol, Yossi; Yaniv, Gideon
  23. Weiterbildungsbeteiligung in Deutschland : Auswertungen mit den Daten der Erwachsenenbefragung des Nationalen Bildungspanels "Bildung im Erwachsenenalter und lebenslanges Lernen" By Kruppe, Thomas; Trepesch, Merlind
  24. The ABCs of Financial Education By Fenella Carpena; Shawn Cole; Jeremy Shapiro; Bilal Zia
  25. The teachers’ merry-go-round: job insecurity and staff turnover over the last 2 years By Gianna Barbieri; Paolo Sestito
  26. Vocational training and labour market: inclusion or segregation paths? An integrated approach on immigrant trainees in Piedmont By Falavigna Falavigna; Elena Ragazzi; Lisa Sella
  27. The Political Economy of Program Enforcement: Evidence from Brazil By Brollo, Fernanda; Kaufmann, Katja; La Ferrara, Eliana
  28. Household Education Spending in Latin America and the Caribbean: Evidence from Income and Expenditure Surveys By Santiago Acerenza; Néstor Gandelman
  29. Patterns, Trends and Policy Implications of Private Spending on Skills Development in Mexico and the United States By Miguel Székely; Pamela Mendoza
  30. Cross-border co-authorships in scientific articles and knowledge flows: implications for investigating an emerging international system of innovation By Leonardo Costa Ribeiro; Márcia Siqueira Rapini; Leandro Alves Silva; Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque
  31. The Demand for Teacher Characteristics in the Market for Child Care: Evidence from a Field Experiment By Boyd-Swan, Casey; Herbst, Chris M.

  1. By: Francesconi, Marco; Slonimczyk, Fabian; Yurko, Anna
    Abstract: In 2009, Russia introduced a reform that changed the admissions process in all universities. Before 2009, admission decisions were based on institution-specific entry exams; the reform required universities to determine their decisions on the results of a national high-school test known as Unified State Exam (USE). One of the main goals of the reform was to make education in top colleges accessible to students from peripheral areas who typically did not enroll in university programs. Using panel data from 1994 to 2014, we evaluate the effect of the USE reform on student mobility. We find the reform led to a substantial increase in mobility rates among high school graduates from peripheral areas to start college by about 12 percentage points, a three-fold increase with respect to the pre-reform mobility rate. This was accompanied by a 40-50% increase in the likelihood of financial transfers from parents to children around the time of the move and a 70% increase in the share of educational expenditures in the last year of the child's high school. We find no effect on parental labor supply and divorce.
    Keywords: Human Capital; Russia; Student migration; University admission
    JEL: J61 O15
    Date: 2017–04
  2. By: Jacek Liwinski (University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: Although it has been over 40 years since labour economists started testing human capital vs. signalling explanation of the wage premium from education, the debate is still going on and authors keep on proposing new methods of testing. The human capital theory postulates that investment in education enhances the productive capacity of individuals, while according to the signalling hypothesis the value of a graduation diploma follows from the fact that it signals innate abilities of its holder. We apply the approach proposed by Wiles to test for the signalling hypothesis and, in particular, to find out if there is a positive relation between education and productivity. For this purpose, we construct a job match index based on information if school provided knowledge and skills are useful at work and the job performed is relevant to the field of study. Then we check if the quality of job matching is related to wages of graduates in Poland. To answer this question, a wage equation was estimated using OLS on the basis of data from a representative, nationwide tracer survey of Poles who left secondary schools or graduated from higher education institutions over the period of 1998-2005. We find out that knowledge and skills acquired in the course of formal education bring wage benefits only to university graduates. Besides, this group receives a wage premium, which may be attributed to their high innate abilities. In sum, the outcomes are consistent with the weak signalling hypothesis, since they show that tertiary education signals a high level of innate abilities and at the same time it provides knowledge and skills which enhance individual productivity at work. Besides, we find evidence of the strong signalling hypothesis with regard to the secondary vocational schools leavers.
    Keywords: education, human capital, signalling, job matching, wage equation
    JEL: J24 J31
    Date: 2017–04
  3. By: Asadul Islam
    Abstract: Greater parental involvement in their children’s studies has been shown to be effective even in disadvantaged communities in developed countries. Based on a study of randomized field experiments involving regular, face-to-face meetings between teachers and parents in a rural Bangladesh setting, we show that this finding can be extended also to developing countries. Regular parent–teacher meetings induced parents to spend more time assisting their children and monitoring their school work. Not only did this help to improve students’ test scores but it also resulted in improvements in student attitudes and behavior. The treatment effects were robust across parental, teacher or school-level characteristics. These findings have major policy implications for developing countries where higher school enrolment levels have often not translated into improved educational outcomes: programs to stimulate parent–teacher interactions are cost-effective, easy to implement and scale up.
    Keywords: parental-teacher meeting, educational outcomes, field experiments, Bangladesh
    JEL: C93 I21 O15
    Date: 2017–04
  4. By: Dennis Epple (Carnegie Mellon University); Richard Romano (University of Florida); Sinan Sarpça (Koç University); Holger Sieg (University of Pennsylvania); Melanie Zaber (Carnegie Mellon University)
    Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to estimate an equilibrium model of private and public school competition that can generate realistic pricing patterns for private universities in the U.S. We show that the parameters of the model are identified and can be estimated using a semi-parametric estimator given data from the NPSAS. We find substantial price discrimination within colleges. We estimate that a $10,000 increase in family income increases tuition at private schools by on average $210 to $510. A one standard deviation increase in ability decreases tuition by approximately $920 to $1,960 depending on the selectivity of the college. Discounts for minority students range between $110 and $5,750.
    Keywords: equilibrium model, competition, price discrimination, NPSAS, pricing patterns
    JEL: H52 I20 L30
    Date: 2017–05
  5. By: Jaai Parasnis; Jemma Swan
    Abstract: This study investigates native-migrant differences in engagement in post-school education. Using a longitudinal survey of youth in Australia, we find that immigrants originating from non-English speaking countries are significantly more likely to continue with further study between the ages of 18 and 23. On the other hand, there are no significant differences between immigrants from English-speaking countries and native youth. We find several important factors influencing study decisions, including parents and family background, academic ability, aspirations and age at migration; however, accounting for these factors does not fully explain the higher probability of pursuing higher education for immigrants from non-English speaking countries. Exploring the country of origin effect, we find that immigrants from countries with low tertiary education levels are more likely to study in Australia, while differences in parental attitudes in their origin countries do not have a significant effect. The results show the importance of country of origin on the study decisions of youth, which should be taken into account when formulating migration and education policies.
    Keywords: migration, educational achievement, human capital
    JEL: I21 J15 J24
    Date: 2017–04
  6. By: OECD
    Abstract: In most countries with available data, public educational institutions charge different tuition fees for national and foreign students enrolled in the same programme. In Australia, Austria, Canada, New Zealand and the United States, foreign students pay on average about twice or more the tuition fees charged to national students. In Australia and New Zealand, the estimated revenue from foreign students’ tuition fees exceeds one-quarter of the total expenditure on tertiary educational institutions. Recent reforms in Denmark, New Zealand and Sweden show that changes in foreign students’ fees are reflected by changes in the number of international new entrants.
    Date: 2017–05–15
  7. By: Havranek, Tomas; Irsova, Zuzana; Zeynalova, Olesia
    Abstract: One of the most frequently examined relationships in education economics is the impact of tuition increases on the demand for higher education. We provide a quantitative synthesis of 443 estimates of this effect reported in 43 studies. While large negative estimates dominate the literature, we show that researchers report positive and insignificant estimates less often than they should. After correcting for this publication bias, we find that the literature is consistent with the mean tuition-enrollment elasticity being close to zero. Nevertheless, we identify substantial heterogeneity among the reported effects: for example, male students and students at private schools react strongly to changes in tuition. The results are robust to controlling for model uncertainty using both Bayesian and frequentist methods of model averaging.
    Keywords: Enrollment; tuition; demand for higher education; meta-analysis; publication bias; model averaging
    JEL: I23 I28
    Date: 2017–04–27
  8. By: Courtemanche, Charles (Georgia State University); Tchernis, Rusty (Georgia State University); Zhou, Xilin (Georgia State University)
    Abstract: This study exploits plausibly exogenous variation from the youngest sibling's school eligibility to estimate the effects of parental work on the weight outcomes of older children in the household. Data come from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth linked to the Child and Young Adult Supplement. We first show that mothers' work hours increase gradually as the age of the youngest child rises, whereas mothers' spouses' work hours exhibit a discontinuous jump at kindergarten eligibility. Leveraging these insights, we develop an instrumental variables model that shows that parents' work hours lead to larger increases in children's BMI z-scores and probabilities of being overweight and obese than those identified in previous studies. We find no evidence that the impacts of maternal and paternal work are different. Subsample analyses find that the effects are concentrated among advantaged households, as measured by an index involving education, race, and mother's marital status.
    Keywords: childhood obesity, maternal employment, women's labor supply
    JEL: I12 J22
    Date: 2017–04
  9. By: Felfe, Christina; Lechner, Michael; Steinmayr, Andreas
    Abstract: The role of curricular activities for the formation of education, health and behavioural outcomes has been widely studied. Yet, the role of extra-curricular activities has received little attention. This study analyzes the effect of participation in sports clubs-one of the most popular extra-curricular activities among children. We use alternative datasets and flexible semi-parametric estimation methods with a specific way to use the panel dimension of the data to address selection into sports. We find positive and robust effects on children's school performance and peer relations. Crowding out of passive leisure activities can partially explain the effects.
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Dominique Lemmermann; Regina T. Riphahn
    Abstract: We investigate the causal effect of age at migration on subsequent educational attainment in the destination country. To identify the causal effect we compare the educational attainment of siblings at age 21, exploiting the fact that they typically migrate at different ages within a given family. We consider several education outcomes conditional on family fixed effects. We take advantage of long running and detailed data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, which entails an oversample of immigrants and provides information on language skills. We find significant effects of age at migration on educational attainment and a critical age of migration around age 6. The educational attainment of female immigrants responds more strongly to a high age at immigration than that of males. Also, language skills do not appear to be central for the causal connection between age at migration and educational attainment.
    Keywords: Immigration, education, integration, school attainment, Germany, causal estimation, family fixed effect
    JEL: I21 J61 C21
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Shusaku Sasaki; Naoko Okuyama, Masao Ogaki, and Fumio Ohtake
    Abstract: We measure differences between altruism toward a family member and toward an unknown foreigner using hypothetical questions in internet surveys across five countries: Germany, the US, Singapore, South Korea, and Japan. Our analysis shows that people in all five countries exhibit greater altruistic tendencies toward family members compared to their behavior toward foreigners. However, the degree of discrimination differs across countries. It is lowest in Germany and largest in Japan; the remaining three countries fall within this demarcated range. Further analysis shows that correlation structures between education and altruistic discrimination differ widely. In Germany, people who have spent less time in education exhibit lower altruism toward foreigners compared to toward family members. However, in Japan, South Korea, and Singapore, people with higher education levels tend to discriminate against foreigners. The degree of discrimination is insensitive to the educational background in the US sample.
    Date: 2017–05
  12. By: Pastore, Francesco
    Abstract: This essay provides a comprehensive interpretative framework to understand the reasons why the school-to-work transition (SWT) is so slow and hard in Italy. The country is a typical example of the South European SWT regime, where the educational system is typically rigid and sequential, the labor market has been recently made more flexible through two-tier labor market reforms, and the family has typicallyan important role to absorb the individual and social cost of the passage to adulthood. The main thesis of this essay is that the traditional disorganization of the educational and training system coupled with slow economic growth, rather than the supposedly low degree of labor market flexibility explain high (youth) unemployment. Important reforms of several tiles of the Italian SWT regime – the Jobs Act, important fiscal incentives to hiring youth long term unemployed, the so-called Good School and the related introduction of work-related learning, the European Youth Guarantee and the reform of employment services – have been all recently implemented, which are causing a slow convergence towards the so-called European social model, but it is still too early to draw conclusions as to the impact of such reforms on youth labor market outcomes.
    Keywords: School-to-Work Transition,Youth Experience Gap,Human Capital Theory,Dual Principle,European Youth Guarantee,Italy
    JEL: H52 I2 I24 J13 J24
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Bornmann, Lutz; Wohlrabe, Klaus
    Abstract: The excellence shift is proposed, which shows universities’ ability to produce highly cited papers as measured against their basic academic research efficiency (ARE). To demonstrate our approach, we use data from 50 US universities.
    Keywords: Efficiency, high-impact papers, excellence shift
    JEL: A1 A12 I21 I23
    Date: 2017–05–12
  14. By: Irene Selwaness (Cairo University); Rania Roushdy
    Abstract: This paper investigates the school-to-work transition of young people from subsequent graduation cohorts between 2005 and 2012 in Egypt. The analysis compares the early employment outcomes of those who left school after the January 25th, 2011 revolution to that of those who graduated before 2011. Using recent data from the 2014 Survey of Young People in Egypt (SYPE), we estimate the probability of transition to any first job within 18-month of finishing education and that of transitioning to a good quality job, controlling for the year of end of schooling. Preliminary findings show that while transitioning to a first job seemed not to be affected by the event of the 2011 revolution, young people experienced significantly lower chances to transition to good quality jobs.
    Date: 2017–05–18
  15. By: Steven Glazerman; Dallas Dotter
    Abstract: The authors estimate school-choice preferences revealed by the rank-ordered lists submitted by more than 22,000 applicants to a citywide lottery for more than 200 traditional and charter public schools in Washington, D.C.
    Keywords: school choice, school lottery, open enrollment, public school alternatives, school quality, school segregation, rank-ordered logit, exploded logit, policy simulation, demand forecasting
    JEL: I
  16. By: Research Department, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City (Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City)
    Abstract: Broad indicators are often used to evaluate the health of the labor market but may mask disparities in outcomes across age, education, gender, and race. Understanding these disparate outcomes is part of the process of monitoring the labor market. As such, this paper summarizes work the research staff of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City has done to better understand differences in labor market outcomes. Some of these findings reinforce earlier work, while others offer novel perspectives. {{p}} First, differences in outcomes across race remain substantial. Despite a significant increase in educational attainment among black individuals, their wages are lower and their unemployment rate significantly higher than for white individuals, even after controlling for education. Second, black individuals are nearly two times more likely to become long-term unemployed than white individuals. This difference, however, explains only a modest amount of the difference in the overall unemployment rates for these groups. Third, job polarization has affected black individuals relatively more due to an education gap that has made it more difficult for those without a college education to secure high-skill employment.
    Keywords: Race; Age; Education; Gender; Labor market
    JEL: J1 J15 J24 J3 J7
    Date: 2017–04–01
  17. By: Atuhurra, Julius; Alinda, Violet
    Abstract: The most important basic education policy question in the developing countries of Sub-Saharan Africa today relates to how to transform schooling into actual learning for the majority of children who are now enrolled in primary schools across the continent. Recent evidence from annual learning assessments conducted in the three East African countries of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda reveal extremely low learning gains as children progress through primary school grades. Whereas a number of factors have been studied, there is shockingly very little evidence on basic education curricula effectiveness in East Africa. Twaweza East Africa, has adapted the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum framework to analyze the content embedded in the primary school curricula in East Africa. In this study, we develop subject taxonomies for Mathematics and English – the two main learning areas at lower primary school level in Uganda – and analyze the distribution of relative emphasis on content that is embedded in the thematic curriculum. We find that the lack of nationally-agreed well thought subject-specific comprehensive taxonomies is manifested in form of content coverage inconsistencies which hinder achievement of planned progressive learning across grades. We also find evidence of curricula over-ambitiousness manifested through the lack of emphasis, by the thematic curriculum standards, on development of the low-order thinking skills and on covering critical foundational language competence topics. This suggests that a policy that slows down the pace of learning in lower grades and emphasizes foundational skills development might improve learning profiles for the majority of Ugandan children who enroll in primary school without attending pre-primary education.
    Keywords: Education, Learning Outcomes, Developing countries, Curriculum effectiveness, East Africa
    JEL: H44 I24 I25
    Date: 2017–05–08
  18. By: Dasgupta, Utteeyo (Fordham University); Mani, Subha (Fordham University); Sharma, Smriti (UNU-WIDER); Singhal, Saurabh (UNU-WIDER)
    Abstract: We exploit the variation in the admissions cutoffs across colleges of a leading Indian university in a regression discontinuity framework to estimate the causal effects of enrolling in a selective college on: cognitive attainment, behavioral preferences, and Big Five personality. We find that enrolling in a selective college improves only females' exam scores. Further, marginally admitted females in selective colleges become less overconfident and less risk averse while males in selective colleges experience a decline in extraversion and conscientiousness. Higher attendance rates among females explain the gender differences in returns to better college and peer environment.
    Keywords: cognitive attainment, behavior, personality, college quality, peer effects, India
    JEL: I23 C9 C14 J24 O15
    Date: 2017–04
  19. By: Claude Diebolt (BETA, University of Strasbourg Strasbourg, France); Gabriele Franzmann (GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Cologne, Germany); Ralph Hippe (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Directorate for Growth and Innovation, Human Capital and Employment Unit.); Jürgen Sensch (GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Cologne, Germany)
    Date: 2017
  20. By: Jacob Greenspon
    Abstract: Taking a gap year between high school and post-secondary education appears to be an increasingly popular phenomenon in popular culture, among well-known individuals and for Canadian youth. This report reviews the literature on issues related to gap years, with a focus on the Canadian context and the experiences of youth in several similar countries. Overall, taking a gap year appears to be a beneficial choice for many Canadian youth, although the impacts of a gap year are often dependent on the youth’s socioeconomic background and the activities they participate in during their gap year. Based on these findings in the literature, a number of options for public policy are proposed to improve knowledge of gap years, increase the take-up of gap years, and make gap years a more accessible option for disadvantaged segments of the population.
    Keywords: Productivity, Education, Academics, University, High School, Youth, Socioeconomic, Employment, Measurement, Canada, Gap Year
    JEL: J11 J18 Y I21
    Date: 2017–04
  21. By: Kseniia Gatskova; Artjoms Ivlevs; Barbara Dietz
    Abstract: We study how migration affects education of girls in Tajikistan—the poorest post-Soviet state and one of the most remittance-dependent economies in the world. Using data from a threewave household panel survey conducted in 2007, 2009, and 2011, we find that the effect of migration on girls’ school attendance differs markedly by age. School attendance of young girls (ages 7–11) improves when either parents or sibling migrate, as well as when the household starts receiving remittances. In contrast, school attendance of teenage girls (ages 12–17) falls when siblings migrate, while parental migration and remittances have no effect. Having a grandmother as the head of household after parents (typically fathers) migrate improves school attendance of young and teenage girls, but reduces school attendance of young women (ages 18–22). We also find that in localities where the share of migrants is already high, an increase in the share of migrant households is associated with an increase in the marriage rate. Our results support various channels through which emigration of household members may affect girls’ and young women’s education: relaxation of budget constraints, increase in household work, change in the head of household, and pressure to marry early. Overall, our study suggests that the net effect of migration on girls’ schooling turns from positive to negative with girls’ age; this implies that migration may be detrimental to women’s empowerment in Tajikistan and casts doubts on whether migration is an appropriate long-term development strategy for this country.
    Date: 2017
  22. By: Siniver, Erez (College of Management, Rishon Lezion Campus); Tobol, Yossi (Jerusalem College of Technology (JTC)); Yaniv, Gideon (Ariel University)
    Abstract: The extensive body of survey-based research correlating between students' cheating and their academic grade point average (GPA) consistently finds a significant negative relationship between cheating and the GPA. The present paper reports the results of a two-round experiment designed to expose student cheating at the individual level and correlate it with three intellectual achievement measures: the GPA, the high-school matriculation average grade (MAG) and the psychometric exam score (PES). The experiment involved two classes of third-year economics students incentivized by a competitive reward to answer a multiple-choice trivia quiz without consulting their electronic devices. While this forbiddance was deliberately overlooked in the first round, providing an opportunity to cheat, it was strictly enforced in the second, conducted two months later in the same classes with the same quiz. A comparison of subjects' performance in the two rounds, self-revealed a considerable extent of cheating in the first one. Regressing the individual cheating levels on subjects' gender and their intellectual achievement measures exhibited no significant differences in cheating between males and females. However, cheating of both genders was found to significantly increase with each achievement measure, implying, in sharp contrast with the direct-question surveys, that higher achievers are bigger cheaters.
    Keywords: experimental data, cheating behavior, intellectual achievement
    JEL: A22 C91 C92 K42
    Date: 2017–04
  23. By: Kruppe, Thomas (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Trepesch, Merlind
    Abstract: "The topic of further education is getting more and more attention in political discussions. Also, rising participation rates show that further education becomes more important for the individuals. Due to both of these developments, several surveys include questions regarding further education. The Adult Cohort of the National Educational Panel Study (Stage 8 of the NEPS) does so in a very comprehensive manner. This article presents results from the first five panel waves concerning the participation in further education and highlights some of the main advantages of the data for further education research, e.g. the possibility to survey the participation in formal further education over the whole life course as well as the observation of non-formal or informal further education for a period of several years." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en)) Additional Information Hier finden Sie weitere Informationen zu den verwendeten Daten.
    Keywords: Bildungsforschung, Nationales Bildungspanel, Bildungsverlauf, Weiterbildungsbeteiligung, Erwachsenenbildung, lebenslanges Lernen, Kohortenanalyse, Bildungsungleichheit, Kompetenzentwicklung, Bildungsmotivation, Niedrigqualifizierte
    JEL: J24 I21
    Date: 2017–05–04
  24. By: Fenella Carpena; Shawn Cole; Jeremy Shapiro; Bilal Zia
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development - Access to Finance Finance and Financial Sector Development - Finance and Development Finance and Financial Sector Development - Financial Literacy
    Date: 2017–02
  25. By: Gianna Barbieri (MIUR); Paolo Sestito (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: The paper illustrates the recent trends in the use of contract staff and in staff turnover in the Italian education system, traditionally plagued by high levels of job insecurity and turnover. The system has been affected by the extraordinary scheme for hiring permanent teachers in 2015 and a mobility and reallocation plan the following year. The number of people on the national list of untenured teachers (frozen about 10 years ago) shrank from 124,000 to 47,000 (to which we should, however, add another 34,000 teachers added to a reserve list following a judgment by the State Council). The use of contract staff remained largely unchanged: the number of annual job contracts rose from 118,000 to 126,000, and fell from 14.6 to 14.4% as a share of total staff, the numbers of which have grown in the meantime. The share of those on the local lists of supply teachers (yet not required to follow a postgraduate internship program) increased among teachers with a yearly contract, who are on average younger than before. Staff mobility and turnover rose sharply, regardless of problems with implementation which led to a considerable rise in staff reassignment in the last school year.
    Keywords: teacher mobility, teacher turnover JEL Classification: H52, J45, J62
    Date: 2017–04
  26. By: Falavigna Falavigna (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth,Turin, Italy); Elena Ragazzi (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth,Turin, Italy); Lisa Sella (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth,Turin, Italy)
    Abstract: Considering the multidimensional nature of employability, which is a latent notion, and its intrinsic connection with education and training policies, this paper uses a mix of quantitative methods to explore the integration of migrants into the Piedmont VET system (North-West Italy), and their subsequent transition into the labour market. In particular, four different approaches are developed: a macro one, investigating gross placement indicators; a micro one, investigating individual scores of integration into the labour market; a multivariate one, estimating a probit model that controls for individual characteristics; and a duration approach, analysing migrants’ survival on the labour market. The counterfactual design allows to estimate the net impact of training. Generally, migrants appear to be disadvantaged with respect to EU nationals, but their gap is filled whenever considering foreign trainees. However, the duration analysis does not detect different paths for the treated migrants, but only different paths for migrants on equal integration levels. Hence, data fully confirm the role of Piedmont training policies to contrast and re-cover the disadvantage of target groups which appear weak on the labour market.
    Keywords: migration, work, vocational training policy, counterfactual evaluation, net impact labour market integration
    JEL: J15 J61 I24
  27. By: Brollo, Fernanda; Kaufmann, Katja; La Ferrara, Eliana
    Abstract: Do politicians manipulate the enforcement of conditional welfare programs to influence electoral outcomes? We study the Bolsa Familia Program (BFP) in Brazil, which provides a monthly stipend to poor families conditional on school attendance. Repeated failure to comply with this requirement results in increasing penalties. First, we exploit random variation in the timing when beneficiaries learn about penalties for noncompliance around the 2008 municipal elections. We find that the vote share of candidates aligned with the President is lower in zip codes where more beneficiaries received penalties shortly before (as opposed to shortly after) the elections. Second, we show that politicians strategically manipulate enforcement. Using a regression discontinuity design, we find weaker enforcement before elections in municipalities where mayors from the presidential coalition can run for reelection. Finally, we provide evidence that manipulation occurs through misreporting school attendance, particularly in municipalities with a higher fraction of students in schools with politically connected principals.
    Date: 2017–04
  28. By: Santiago Acerenza; Néstor Gandelman
    Abstract: This paper characterizes household spending in education using microdata from income and expenditure surveys for 12 Latin American and Caribbean countries and the United States. Bahamas, Chile and Mexico have the highest household spending in education while Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay have the lowest. Tertiary education is the most important form of spending, and most educational spending is performed for individuals 18-23 years old. More educated and richer household heads spend more in the education of household members. Households with both parents present and those with a female main income provider spend more than their counterparts. Urban households also spend more than rural households. On average, education in Latin America and the Caribbean is a luxury good, while it may be a necessity in the United States. No gender bias is found in primary education, but households invest more in females of secondary age and up than same-age males.
    Keywords: Household Expenditure, Household Income, Education Expenditure, Primary & Secondary Education, Children, School Attendance, gender bias, Educational Level, Household Expenditure, Household Income, Household Education Spending
    JEL: D12 I2 E21
    Date: 2017–03
  29. By: Miguel Székely; Pamela Mendoza
    Abstract: This paper explores families' investment in skills development through education in a high-inequality, low-education quality country such as Mexico, comparing it to a lower-inequality, higher-quality education country such as the United States. The paper uses a series of high-quality Household Income and Expenditure Surveys for both countries spanning around 20 years and different methodological approaches. Of particular interest is the analysis of education expenditure patterns along the income distribution. Policy implications for both cases are discussed. While in Mexico stimulating private spending in education through public resources might be regressive, the opposite might be the case in the United States.
    Keywords: Education Expenditure, Household Expenditure, School Attendance, Children, Private Investment, High School, Household Income, Labor markets, Higher Education, Human Capital Investment, School Enrollment, Private Investment, Household Expenditure, Household Income
    JEL: D11 J21 I2
    Date: 2017–03
  30. By: Leonardo Costa Ribeiro (Inmetro-RJ); Márcia Siqueira Rapini (Cedeplar-UFMG); Leandro Alves Silva (Cedeplar-UFMG); Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: Size matters: the total of internationally co-authored scientific articles in 2015 corresponds to the global scientific production in 1993. The steady and systematic growth in international collaboration in science provides a strong basis for an emerging GIS. Therefore, it is important to map international flows that connect different national systems of innovation. This paper tracks knowledge flows through cross-border co-authorships in scientific publications, through a database with 10 million papers published in 2000, 2003, 2006 2009, 2012 and 2015. The data show an increase in international co-authorships from 10.7% in 2000 to 21.3% in 2015. However, this growth has network properties, since the number of international flows has grown from 545,372 in 2000 to 7,083,075 in 2015. Those international co-authorships signal networks of universities and research institutes, providing international connections to firms that eventually interact only locally with those universities and research institutes. The growth in the size, dimension and quality of those scientific flows strengthens a broad and variegated mosaic of interconnections can be grasped by the size of the network of cross-border co-authorships, a network that might be supporting an emerging and rudimentary global system of innovation.
    Keywords: Knowledge flows, International co-authorships, Science, Innovation systems
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2017–05
  31. By: Boyd-Swan, Casey (Kent State University); Herbst, Chris M. (Arizona State University)
    Abstract: Many preschool-age children in the U.S. attend center-based child care programs that are of low quality. This paper examines the extent to which teacher qualifications – widely considered important inputs to classroom quality – are valued by providers during the hiring process. To do so, we administered a resume audit study in which job-seeker characteristics were randomly assigned to a large number of resumes that were submitted in response to real child care job postings in 14 cities. Our results indicate that center-based providers may not hire the most qualified applicants. For example, we find that although providers have a strong preference for individuals with previous work experience in early childhood education (ECE), those with more ECE experience are less likely to receive an interview than those with less experience. We also find that individuals with bachelor's degrees in ECE are no more likely to receive an interview than their counterparts at the associate's level, even in the market for lead preschool-age teachers. Furthermore, those revealing high levels of academic performance, as measured by grade point average, are generally not preferred by child care providers. Finally, it appears that some non-quality attributes do not influence hiring decisions (e.g., signaling car ownership), while others have large effects on teacher hiring (e.g., applicant race/ethnicity). Together, our findings shed light on the complex trade-offs made by center-based providers attempting to offer high-quality programs while earning sufficient revenue to stay in business.
    Keywords: child care quality, teacher qualifications, resume audit study, field experiment
    JEL: I20 J23 J24 J71
    Date: 2017–04

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