nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2017‒04‒23
twelve papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Negative Peer Effect: Why do peers' success have a negative effect? (Japanese) By TOYAMA Risako; ITO Hirotake; TABATA Shin; ISHIKAWA Yoshiki; NAKAMURO Makiko
  2. Gender and Birth Order Effects on Intra-household Schooling Choices and Education Attainments in Kenya By Fredrick M. Wamalwa; Justine Burns
  3. The Private Schooling Phenomenon in India: A Review By Kingdon, Geeta G.
  4. Occupational mismatch of immigrants in Europe: The role of education and cognitive skills By Cim, Merve; Kind, Michael Sebastian; Kleibrink, Jan
  5. Improving Algebraic Thinking Skill, Beliefs And Attitude For Mathematics Throught Learning Cycle Based On Beliefs By Toheri, Toheri; winarso, widodo
  6. Education for Sustainable Development By Dzintra Atstaja
  7. Earnings over the Life Course: General versus Vocational Education By Bart Golsteyn; Anders Stenberg
  8. Exploring regional and gender disparities in Beninese primary school attendance: A multilevel approach By Kyle McNabb
  9. The Impact of the Tax System and Social Expenditure on the Distribution of Income and Poverty in Latin America (Spanish) - Working Paper 450 By Nora Lustig
  10. Educational differences in smoking: selection versus causation By Hendrik Jürges; Sophie-Charlotte Meyer
  11. Scrambled Questions Penalty in Multiple Choice Tests: New Evidence from French Undergraduate Students By Morgan Raux; Marc Sangnier; Tanguy Van Ypersele
  12. Evaluation Design Report for the Georgia Improving General Education Quality Project's Training Educators for Excellence Activity By Ira Nichols-Barrer; Nicholas Ingwersen; Elena Moroz; Matt Sloan

  1. By: TOYAMA Risako; ITO Hirotake; TABATA Shin; ISHIKAWA Yoshiki; NAKAMURO Makiko
    Abstract: Recent research in the field of economics has placed more emphasis on the importance of the "peer effect," which is as defined as the influence from peers within the same class/cohort, as a determinant of student achievements. However, in previous literature, there is no consistent result about the peer effect, especially in Japan, in part due to data limitation. This study thus takes advantage of using a micro dataset of a representative survey that tracks students in primary and secondary schools in Saitama prefecture from 2015-2016, exploits year-on-year changes in the cohort composition within the same school, and identifies a causal peer effect in the framework of value-added educational production function. We find that the peer effects are negative and statistically significant, regardless of grade, gender, and subjects examined. Conditional on individual, class, and school characteristics, if the mean score of the class (measured by the item response theory (IRT)) increased by 1, the student's score decreased by a range of 0.09 to 0.23 in Japanese, and 0.16 to 0.27 in math. It is possible to point out that having a high-achieving classmate in the same class provides a self-awareness to the student suggesting that his/her rank within the class is low and could lose motivation for further learning. It is important to encourage them to have high level of expected return to education.
    Date: 2017–03
  2. By: Fredrick M. Wamalwa (School of Economics, University of Cape Town); Justine Burns (School of Economics, University of Cape Town)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the effect of two important family characteristics - gender and birth order- on intra-household investments in, and educational outcomes of, children in Kenya. We measure intra-household education investments in children by household's decision to enrol children in private schools and educational outcomes by two variables, completed years of education and relative grade attainment. We use a large household survey data that allows us to apply the family fixed effects models that address the potential endogeneity of children's gender and family size as well as factors that are unobservable at the household level. Although we do not find an intra-household gender preference in terms of investments in children's education, there is a female advantage in terms of the two measured education outcomes. Such female advantage is in contrast with literature generally reported from developing countries. It is, however, in line with global trends which show that more girls are getting educated and the gender gap in education has narrowed considerably. Regarding birth order effects, we find significant negative birth order effects on private enrolment, completed years of education and relative grade attainment. The negative birth order effects are not in line with the evidence from many other developing countries but are in line with results from developed countries. Our results are robust to different sample restrictions. We find that household wealth plays a significant role in propagating the birth order but not the gender effects we observe.
    Keywords: Birth order, gender, household fixed effects, fully interacted models, Kenya
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Kingdon, Geeta G. (University College London)
    Abstract: This paper examines the size, growth, salaries, per-pupil-costs, pupil achievement levels and cost-effectiveness of private schools, and compares these with the government school sector. Official data show a steep growth of private schooling and a corresponding rapid shrinkage in the size of the government school sector in India, suggesting parental abandonment of government schools. Data show that a very large majority of private schools in most states are 'low-fee' when judged in relation to: state per capita income, per-pupil expenditure in the government schools, and the officially-stipulated rural minimum wage rate for daily-wage-labour. This suggests that affordability is an important factor behind the migration towards and growth of private schools. The main reason for the very low fee levels in private schools is their lower teacher salaries, which the data show to be a small fraction of the salaries paid in government schools; this is possible because private schools pay the market-clearing wage, which is depressed by a large supply of unemployed graduates in the country, whereas government schools pay bureaucratically determined minimum-wages. Private schools' substantially lower per-student-cost combined with their students' modestly higher learning achievement levels, means that they are significantly more cost-effective than government schools. The paper shows how education policies relating to private schools are harmful when formulated without seeking the evidence.
    Keywords: private schooling, learning achievement, value for money, India
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2017–03
  4. By: Cim, Merve; Kind, Michael Sebastian; Kleibrink, Jan
    Abstract: Occupational mismatch is a wide-spread phenomenon among immigrants in many European countries. Mismatch, predominantly measured in terms of education, is often regarded as a waste of human capital. Such discussions, however, ignore the imperfect comparability of international educational degrees when comparing immigrants to natives. An accurate analysis of occupational mismatch requires looking beyond internationally incomparable educational degrees and considering more comparable skill measures. Using PIAAC data, it is possible to exploit internationally comparable cognitive skill measures to analyze the presence of mismatch disparities between immigrants and natives. This allows us to examine whether overeducation implies only an apparent phenomenon or rather a genuine overqualification observed also in the form of cognitive overskilling. In this study, we analyze differences in the incidence of being overeducated and being cognitively overskilled between immigrants and natives in 11 European countries. Results show that immigrants are more likely to be overeducated than natives, while the opposite is true for being cognitively overskilled. Furthermore, significant heterogeneity among immigrants in the incidence of overeducation and cognitive overskilling can be detected.
    Keywords: Occupational mismatch,migration,education,cognitive skills
    JEL: I21 J15 J24 J71
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Toheri, Toheri; winarso, widodo
    Abstract: In the recent years, problem-solving become a central topic that discussed by educators or researchers in mathematics education. it’s not only as the ability or as a method of teaching. but also, it is a little in reviewing about the components of the support to succeed in problem-solving, such as student's belief and attitude towards mathematics, algebraic thinking skills, resources and teaching materials. In this paper, examines the algebraic thinking skills as a foundation for problem-solving, and learning cycle as a breath of continuous learning. In this paper, learning cycle to be used is a modified type of 5E based on beliefs.
    Keywords: Algebraic thinking, Belief and attitudes, Learning Cycle, 5E
    JEL: C0 C60 I2 I21 I23 I26 Z0
    Date: 2017–04–17
  6. By: Dzintra Atstaja (BA School of Business and Finance)
    Abstract: Traditional education has conditioned us to believe that the world and the universe comprises distinct, isolated, material objects ? all separated from one another and collectively operating according to rational, deterministic, mechanistic laws. It has become conventional to describe sustainable development in terms of three overarching themes: economic, social, and ecological (sometimes called environmental). These are considered to be the fundamental areas of human experience that need to be addressed in any sustainable development scenario. This realisation that we are pushing the planet to its limits will require a more holistic view of education.It implies more of an inter-disciplinary approach and better links among the different school subjects, as well as a growing need for more thematic teaching. The education system will also have to set new goals, both at the level of complexity that the learners have to embrace and on producing learners with increased capacity to act. By combining a deeper and more integrated understanding with social and collaborative learning, students will explore making sustainable choices and decisions about their own lives, the lives of others, and their common environment. Social and collaborative problem-solving, decision-making, and capacity to make informed choices are central characteristics of combining interests and the ability to act. The interconnected environmental, economic, social and political challenges facing humanity demand capable and responsible citizens who can make informed choices and take appropriate action to create the conditions for social, economic, and environmental sustainability ? locally and globally.Education and lifelong learning are essential requisites for making those choices and taking such action.The report will present the Latvian experience and results in the education for Sustainable Development. The author of the article will share her teaching experience, will present her conclusions and provide practical examples for perfecting one?s knowledge and hope that this experience will be of use to her colleagues.
    Keywords: teaching methods, projects, sustainability, Europe, Baltic States
    JEL: A29
  7. By: Bart Golsteyn (Maastricht University and SOFI); Anders Stenberg (Stockholm University)
    Abstract: Two common hypotheses regarding the relative benefits of vocational versus general education are (1) that vocational skills enhance relative short-term earnings and (2) that general skills enhance relative long-term earnings. Empirical evidence for these hypotheses has remained limited. Based on Swedish registry data of individuals in short (2-year) upper secondary school programs, this study provides a first exploration of individuals’ earnings across nearly complete careers. The descriptive earnings patterns indicate support for both hypotheses (1) and (2). The support holds when controlling for GPA and family fixed effects and also when taking into account enrollment in further education and fertility decisions.
    Keywords: human capital, vocational education, life cycle, tracking
    JEL: J24 J64 J31 I20
    Date: 2017–04
  8. By: Kyle McNabb
    Abstract: This study combines household survey data from the Beninese Demographic and Health Survey with school supply statistics in order to investigate regional and gender disparities in primary school attendance rates in Benin. Despite almost unparalleled increases in enrolment since the 1990s, Benin remains virtually ignored in the literature surveying school attendance. Results of a logistic regression model highlight the important role played by factors such as household wealth and religion and show that, despite progress, gender disparities in education persist in Benin. The opportunity cost of attending school is also investigated and, in order to account for regional disparities in attendance, a multilevel model is estimated; results from a random slopes model highlight those communes where reductions in the cost of schooling could see the greatest improvements in attendance rates.
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Nora Lustig
    Abstract: This paper presents results on the impact of fiscal policy on inequality and poverty in sixteen Latin American countries around 2010. The countries that redistribute the most are Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica and Uruguay, and the least, Guatemala, Honduras and Peru. At higher social spending, greater redistribution is achieved, but countries with a similar level of social spending show different levels of redistribution which suggests that other factors such as the composition and targeting of the expenditures are involved in determining the redistributive effect beyond its size. Fiscal policy reduces extreme poverty in twelve countries. However, the incidence of poverty after taxes, subsidies and monetary transfers is higher than the pre-fisc poverty rate in Bolivia, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, even when fiscal policy does reduce inequality. Expenditure on pre-school and primary education is equalizing and pro-poor in all countries. Spending on secondary education is equalizing in all countries and also pro-poor in some countries but not all. Expenditure on tertiary education is never pro-poor, but it is equalizing, with the exception of Guatemala, where it is regressive and unequalizing and in Venezuela, where its redistributive effect is zero. Health spending is always equalizing but it is pro-poor only in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, the Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela.
    Keywords: fiscal incidence, inequality, poverty, taxes, transfers, Latin America
    JEL: D31 H22 I38
    Date: 2017–03
  10. By: Hendrik Jürges (Schumpeter School of Business and Economics, University of Wuppertal); Sophie-Charlotte Meyer (Schumpeter School of Business and Economics, University of Wuppertal)
    Abstract: We investigate sources of educational differences in smoking. Using a large German data set containing retrospective information on the age at smoking onset, we compare age-specific hazard rates of starting smoking between (future) low and high educated individuals. We find that up to 90% of the educational differences in smoking develop before the age of 16, i.e. before compulsory schooling is completed. This education gap persists into adulthood. Further, we examine the role of health-related knowledge (proxied by working in health-related occupations) and find it hardly explains smoking decisions. Our findings suggest that (unobserved) factors determining both the selection into smoking and education are almost exclusively responsible for educational differences in smoking. Only small parts of the education gap seem to be caused by general or health-specific education. The effectiveness of education policy to combat smoking is thus likely limited.
    Keywords: education, smoking initiation, health-related knowledge
    JEL: I12 J22 J13
    Date: 2017–02
  11. By: Morgan Raux (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille 2 - Université Paul Cézanne - Aix-Marseille 3 - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marc Sangnier (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille 2 - Université Paul Cézanne - Aix-Marseille 3 - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Tanguy Van Ypersele (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille 2 - Université Paul Cézanne - Aix-Marseille 3 - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This note evaluates the scrambled questions penalty using multiple choice tests taken by first-year undergraduate students who follow a microeconomics introductory course. We provide new evidence that students perform worse at scrambled questionnaires than at logically ordered ones. We improve on previous studies by explicitly modeling students individual skills thanks to a fixed effects regression. We further show that the scrambled questions penalty does not differ along gender but varies along the distribution of students’ skills and mostly affects students with lower-intermediate skills.
    Keywords: multiple choice tests,scrambled questions,student performance
    Date: 2016–12
  12. By: Ira Nichols-Barrer; Nicholas Ingwersen; Elena Moroz; Matt Sloan
    Abstract: Design report for the evaluation of MCC’s Training Educators for Excellence activity of MCC’s in the Republic of Georgia. The proposed evaluation includes an evaluation of the performance of teacher and school director training and the impact on teacher and school director practices.
    Keywords: primary education, teacher training, school director training, propensity score matching, student-centered learning, formative assessment
    JEL: F Z I

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