nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2017‒03‒26
eighteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Role of Fees in Foreign Education: Evidence From Italy and the United Kingdom By Michel Beine; Marco Delogu; Lionel Ragot
  2. The role of the education systems and the labour market institutions in enhancing youth employment: a cross-country analysis By Floro Ernesto Caroleo; Elvira Ciociano; Sergio Destefanis
  3. How Does Reducing Years of Compulsory Schooling Affect Education and Labor Market Outcomes in a Developing Country? By Ahmed Elsayed; Olivier Marie
  4. The Effect of Class Size Reduction on Bullying, Violent Behavior, and Truancy (Japanese) By NAKAMURO Makiko
  5. Much ado about nothing? The wage penalty of holding a Ph.D. degree but not a Ph.D. job position By Giuseppe Lucio Gaeta; Giuseppe Lubrano Lavadera; Francesco Pastore
  6. Who Makes It Into PISA?: Understanding the Impact of PISA Sample Eligibility Using Turkey as a Case Study (PISA 2003 - PISA 2012) By Nicholas Spaull
  7. School Accountability and Residential Location Patterns: Evaluating the Unintended Consequences of No Child Left Behind By Keren Mertens Horn
  8. A Teenager in Love: Multidimensional Human Capital and Teenage Pregnancy in Ghana By Blunch, Niels-Hugo
  9. The Unfolding of Gender Gap in Education By Nadir Altinok; Abdurrahman Aydemir
  10. Modern universities in a digital environment By Lukovics, Miklós; Zuti, Bence
  11. Manufacturing pluralism in brazilian economics: the role of ANPEC as institutional mediator and stabilizer By Ramón García Fernández; Carlos Eduardo Suprinyak
  12. Inequality of Opportunities of Educational Achievement in Turkey Over Time By Aysit Tansel
  13. How Information Affects Support for Education Spending: Evidence from Survey Experiments in Germany and the United States By West, Martin R.; Woessmann, Ludger; Lergetporer, Philipp; Werner, Katharina
  14. Inequality of Opportunity in the Labor Market for Higher Education Graduates in Egypt and Jordan By Caroline Krafft; Ragui Assaad
  15. The Evolution Of Triple Helix Dynamics: The Case Of English Higher Education Institutions By Mabel Sánchez Barrioluengo; Elvira Uyarra; Fumi Kitagawa
  16. What do we know about teachers’ selection and professional development in high-performing countries? By OECD
  17. The Impact of College Education on Old-Age Mortality: A Study of Marginal Treatment Effects By Evan Taylor
  18. Veraenderungen in der gruppenspezifischen Nutzung von ganztaegigen Schulangeboten - Laengsschnittanalysen fuer den Primarbereich By Jan Marcus; Janina Nemitz; C. Katharina Spiess

  1. By: Michel Beine; Marco Delogu; Lionel Ragot
    Abstract: This working paper studies the determinants of international students’ mobility at the university level, focusing specifically on the role of tuition fees. We derive a gravity model based on a Random Utility Maximization model of location choice for international students in the presence of capacity constraints of the hosting institutions. The last layer of the model is estimated using new data on student migration flows at the university level for Italy and the United Kingdom. The particular institutional setting of the two destination countries allows us to control for the potential endogeneity of tuition fees. We obtain evidence for a clear and negative effect of fees on international student mobility and confirm the positive impact of the quality of the education. The estimations also support the important role of additional destination-specific variables such as host capacity, the expected return of education and the cost of living in the vicinity of the university.
    Keywords: Foreign Students;Tuition Fees;Location Choice;University Quality
    JEL: F22 H52 I23 O15
    Date: 2017–03
  2. By: Floro Ernesto Caroleo; Elvira Ciociano; Sergio Destefanis (-)
    Abstract: Youth are a vulnerable category of workers, since they are in a delicate phase of their working life, the first entry in the labour market. Young graduates and early school leavers are involved in the school–to–work transition process, whose duration considerably varies across countries. In this paper we explore the impact of labour-market and educational institutions on youth labour-market performance across OECD countries for the 1985-2013 period. We build from different sources (mainly the IECD and the UNESCO) a data-set including series about labour-market institutions, youth population, schooling and the vocational education and training participation rates. We estimate a dynamic panel model, building upon Bassanini and Duval (2006), and articulating the analysis upon various age groups (15-24, 20-24). Union density, the minimum wage and the level of economic activity stand out as important determinants of youth employability (educational attainment and expenditure on public education mattering to a lesser extent). VET participation also matter, although only in countries where the dual apprenticeship system is important.
    Keywords: holders
    Date: 2017–03–01
  3. By: Ahmed Elsayed (Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)); Olivier Marie
    Abstract: At the end of the 1980’s, Egypt introduced a policy change to its pre-university education system where the years of primary education decreased from six to five, reducing the overall years of compulsory education from nine to eight. Using data from the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS) in 2006 and 2012, we study the effect of this educational reform on several education and labor market outcomes. We find that the policy had positive effects on educational outcomes as it significantly increased the probability of finishing compulsory education and raised the overall years of education. However, the policy significantly postponed the age of entering the labor market, increased the time between completing education and getting the first job, and reduced the probability of the first job being paid. The effects of the policy on both education and labor market outcomes were more pronounced for males than for females.
    Date: 2015–09
  4. By: NAKAMURO Makiko
    Abstract: The "class size reduction" in compulsory education is becoming controversial in Japan with a sharp decrease in the number of school-aged children and under strong pressure to reduce fiscal deficits. The literature investigated the causal effect of the class size reduction on student achievements, while the policy circle has been interested in whether or not class size reduction helps mitigate the growing problems at school, such as bullying, violent behavior, and truancy. This paper thus empirically examines whether class size matters in reducing bullying, violent behavior, and truancy by using discontinuous changes in class size under the Japanese public compulsory education system. Using a unique school-level micro dataset provided by anonymous local governments in the Kanto metropolitan areas, our result show that class size reduction affects bullying in primary education, while there is no evidence that class size affects violent behavior and truancy in primary and secondary education.
    Date: 2017–03
  5. By: Giuseppe Lucio Gaeta; Giuseppe Lubrano Lavadera; Francesco Pastore (-)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature on overeducation by empirically investigating the wage penalty of job-education mismatch among Ph.D. holders who completed their studies in Italy; a country where the number of new doctoral recipients has dramatically increased over recent years while personnel employed in R&D activities is still below the European average. We use crosssectional micro-data collected in 2009 and rely on different definitions of education-job mismatch such as, overeducation, overskilling and dissatisfaction with the use of skills. We find that overeducation and skills dissatisfaction are associated with significantly lower wages but there is no wage penalty from overskilling. Furthermore, those who simultaneously report overeducation and skills dissatisfaction experience a particularly high wage penalty.
    Keywords: job-education mismatch, overeducation, overskilling, job satisfaction, wages, Ph.D. holders
    JEL: C26 I23 I26 J13 J24 J28
    Date: 2016–12–05
  6. By: Nicholas Spaull (Stellenbosch University)
    Abstract: Of the OECD countries that participate in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Turkey has one of the lowest levels of performance and the highest rates of improvement in PISA scores between 2003 and 2012. New evidence presented in this paper suggests that existing accounts have underestimated both progress and inequity in Turkey because they did not take into account the large proportion of 15-16 year-olds that are ineligible for the PISA sampling frame, either because they are no longer in school or because they are severely delayed. Using Turkey’s Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data for 2003, 2008 and 2013 we show that the proportion of 15-16 year-olds that were eligible for the PISA sample in Turkey has nearly doubled from 45% in PISA 2003, to 80% in PISA 2012. By combining DHS data on access/attainment and PISA survey data on learning outcomes we show that: (1) the improvement in the percentage of 15-16 year-olds reaching Level 2 in PISA (functional literacy and functional numeracy) is up to twice as large as that reflected in official PISA reports, (2) the gap in functional literacy rates between rich and poor youth in 2012 is 2.3 times as large as was previously thought, and (3) contrary to earlier research the gap between rich and poor has not declined between 2003 and 2012. The paper emphasises the importance of accounting for sample eligibility and representivity when making inter-country and inter-temporal comparisons using international assessment data, particularly for developing countries with expanding education systems.
    Date: 2017–03–24
  7. By: Keren Mertens Horn
    Abstract: The 2002 to 2015 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is often considered the most significant federal intervention into education in the United States since 1965 with the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. There is growing evidence that holding schools accountable is leading to some improved educational outcomes for students. There is in contrast very little work examining whether these sweeping reforms have unintended consequences for the communities which these schools are serving. As school attendance, particularly at the elementary school level, is closely tied to one’s residence, placing sanctions on a school could have negative repercussions for neighborhoods if it provides new information on school failure. In contrast, if these sanctions also bring new resources, including financial resources or school choice, they could spark additional demand within a neighborhood. Through the use of restricted access census data, which includes local housing values, rents and individual residential choices in combination with the use of a boundary discontinuity identification strategy, this paper seeks to examine how failure to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), the key enforcement mechanism of NCLB, is shaping local housing markets and residential choices in five diverse urban school districts: New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Detroit and Tucson.
    Date: 2017–01
  8. By: Blunch, Niels-Hugo
    Abstract: I examine teenage pregnancy in Ghana, focusing on the role and interplay of Ghanaian and English reading skills, formal educational attainment, and adult literacy program participation. Pursuing several alternative identification strategies three main results are established. First, I confirm the finding from previous studies that educational attainment is negatively related to teenage pregnancy. Second, however, once Ghanaian and English reading skills are introduced, the association between educational attainment and teenage pregnancy decreases or disappears altogether. Third, for the girls who have not completed primary school, adult literacy program participation is associated with a much lower probability of experiencing a teenage pregnancy.
    Keywords: Teenage pregnancy,human capital,literacy,adult literacy programs,Ghana
    JEL: I21 J24
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Nadir Altinok (University of Lorraine); Abdurrahman Aydemir
    Abstract: The gender gap in education against females becomes smaller as the level of development increases and turns in their favor in developed countries. Through analysis of regional variation in the gender gap within Turkey, which displays a similar pattern to the cross-country pattern, this paper studies the factors that lead to the emergence of a gender gap against females. The data for student achievement and aspirations for further education during compulsory school show that females are just as well prepared and motivated for further education as their male counterparts across regions with very different levels of development. Despite this fact, large gaps arise in high school registration and completion in less developed regions, but not in developed ones. We find that larger sibship size is the main driver of gender gaps in less developed regions. While social norms have a negative influence on female education beyond compulsory school, they play a relatively small role in the emergence of gender gaps. These results are consistent with the fact that resource-constrained families give priority to males for further education, leading to the emergence of education gender gaps.
    Date: 2015–08
  10. By: Lukovics, Miklós; Zuti, Bence
    Abstract: Nowadays the digitalization of all aspects of our lives is becoming more and more general. This pattern is also true in case of modern institutions of higher education. In case of the operation of universities, we can identify a shift towards a growingly increasing approach, which is proactive strategic thinking done by university management. Many successful examples throughout the globe prove that universities may positively affect the level of economic development in given regions. This can happen with the collective presence of three key activities carried out by these institutions. Excellent education, successful research and embedment in the local economy are all necessary activities. It is recognized that without a proper knowledge management system, universities are less competitive. They need to possess outstanding IT-infrastructures, large databases and host professional forums that can enhance knowledge transfer. Thus, knowledge management and a vision for digitalization in the everyday lives of universities should be considered as an integral and inevitable part of university strategies. The study has two goals: It attempts to identify, how digitalization can contribute to the excellence of the first mission of universities and also examines the role of modern universities in activities that can enhance knowledge-transfer.
    Keywords: knowledge management, third mission, modern universities, digitalization
    JEL: I20 I25 O30
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Ramón García Fernández (Universidade Federal do ABC-UFABC); Carlos Eduardo Suprinyak (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: Brazilian academic economics has been traditionally characterized by its openness to different strands of economic theory. In contrast to the standards prevailing in most of Europe and North America, economics in Brazil can be justly described as pluralistic, with competing schools of thought enjoying relatively secure institutional positions. One of the reasons frequently ascribed for this outcome is the role played by ANPEC, the Brazilian economics association, in mediating conflicts among graduate programs affiliated to different research traditions. A crucial episode in this respect took place in the early 1970s, when the recently born association chose to adopt an inclusive stance towards its membership, welcoming the filiation of the strongly heterodox program at the University of Campinas (Unicamp) even against threats of withdrawal from one of its most prestigious members, the Getúlio Vargas Foundation (FGV). Using a host of primary sources related to the early years of Brazilian academic economics, the paper uncovers the processthat led ANPEC, with strong support from the Ford Foundation, to adopt an inclusive and ‘pluralistic’ attitude, and how it related to the political context prevailing in Brazil during the 1970s.
    Keywords: pluralism, ANPEC, FGV, Unicamp, Ford Foundation, sociology of the economics profession.
    JEL: B20 A14 A23
    Date: 2017–03
  12. By: Aysit Tansel (Middle East Technical University, Turkey)
    Abstract: This study investigates inequality of opportunity in educational achievements in Turkey over time. For this purpose, we use test scores of PISA in mathematics, science and reading achievement of 15-year-olds over the period 2003-2012. Since the different waves of the samples cover only a fraction of the cohorts of 15-year olds, we take into account the inequality of opportunity in access to the PISA test as well as the inequality of opportunity of the academic achievement in the PISA test. This procedure enables proper over time comparisons. We estimate the effect of circumstances children are born into on their academic achievement as evidenced in their PISA test scores. The main findings are as follows. First, confirming the previous studies we find that inequality of opportunity is a large part of the inequality of educational achievement in Turkey. Second, the inequality of opportunity in educational achievement shows a slightly decreasing trend over time in Turkey. Third, the inequality of opportunity figures based on the mathematics, science and reading achievements exhibited the similar trend over time. Forth, the family background variables are the most important determinants of the inequality in educational achievement, which is a consistent pattern over time. However, there is also evidence of slight weakening of these factors over time. Policies are necessary to improve equality of opportunity in education in Turkey.
    Date: 2015–06
  13. By: West, Martin R. (Harvard Graduate School of Education, NBER, and CESifo); Woessmann, Ludger (University of Munich, Ifo Institute, CESifo, and IZA); Lergetporer, Philipp (Ifo Institute at the University of Munich and CESifo); Werner, Katharina (Ifo Institute at the University of Munich)
    Abstract: To study whether current spending levels and public knowledge of them contribute to transatlantic differences in policy preferences, we implement parallel survey experiments in Germany and the United States. In both countries, support for increased education spending and teacher salaries falls when respondents receive information about existing levels. Treatment effects vary by prior knowledge in a manner consistent with information effects rather than priming. Support for salary increases is inversely related to salary levels across American states, suggesting that salary differences could explain much of Germans’ lower support for increases. Information about the tradeoffs between specific spending categories shifts preferences from class-size reduction towards alternative purposes.
    Keywords: policy preferences, cross-country comparison, Germany, United States, education spending, information, survey experiments JEL Classification: H52, I22, D72, D83
    Date: 2017
  14. By: Caroline Krafft (University of Minnesota); Ragui Assaad (University of Minnesota)
    Abstract: In the Middle East and North Africa, unequal opportunities occur in both the education system and the labor market. The outcomes that individuals achieve in the labor market depend on circumstances beyond their control, such as gender or parents’ education, as well as the effort they expend in succeeding in the education system and in the labor market itself. The extent to which outcomes depend on circumstances outside an individual’s control is typically referred to as inequality of opportunity. It could be that unequal opportunities in the labor market are due to unequal human capital (pre-market inequality) or, alternatively, to individuals being treated unequally in the labor market even after accounting for differences in their human capital (in-market inequality). This paper tests whether there is in-market inequality of opportunity in Egypt and Jordan, focusing on the labor market experiences of higher education graduates. Specifically, the paper examines whether a number of labor market outcomes are affected by circumstances, such as family background, gender, and place of birth, after carefully controlling for the type and quality of human capital an individual possesses. We find that substantial in-market inequality exists in both settings, but more so in Egypt, suggesting that the functioning of the labor market itself is a substantial source of inequality of opportunity.
    Date: 2015–08
  15. By: Mabel Sánchez Barrioluengo (INGENIO (CSIC-UPV) Universitat Politecnica de Valencia); Elvira Uyarra (Manchester Institute of Innovation Research (MIoIR). University of Manchester); Fumi Kitagawa (University of Edinburgh Business School)
    Date: 2016–07
  16. By: OECD
    Abstract: High-performing countries use various mechanisms to select the best candidates to the teaching profession. In Finland, Hong-Kong (China), Macao (China) and Chinese Taipei, students who wish to enter teacher-training programmes must pass a competitive entry examination. In Japan, teaching graduates must pass a competitive examination to start teaching and in Singapore, they must complete a probation period. These requirements, however, are also found among some low-performing countries suggesting that early selection, while important, is not enough to ensure a highly qualified teaching force. Across OECD countries, the proportion of fully certified teachers has a positive, albeit modest association with student performance in PISA. In countries that performed above the OECD average in science, at least 80% of the students are in schools that invite specialists to conduct teacher training or organise in-service workshops for teachers or where teachers cooperate with each other. This is higher, on average, than what is observed among other countries.
    Date: 2017–03–21
  17. By: Evan Taylor
    Abstract: Using a newly constructed dataset that links 2000 U.S. Census long-form records to Social Security Administration data files, I evaluate the effect of college education on mortality. In an OLS regression, women and men who have at least some college education have 20% lower mortality rates than those with a high school degree or less. I proceed with an empirical design intended to illuminate the extent to which this relationship is causal, estimating marginal treatment effects (MTEs) using the proximity of the nearest college to individuals' birthplace as an instrument. Results indicate positive selection into college education (in terms of longevity) for both women and men. Selection drives almost all of the mortality gap for women. For men, longevity gains from college attendance are concentrated among individuals with unobserved variables that make them unlikely attend college. This suggests that men who would benefit most from receiving college education in terms of mortality reductions are those who are not attending.
    Date: 2017–01
  18. By: Jan Marcus (Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW Berlin)); Janina Nemitz (University of Zurich); C. Katharina Spiess (Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW Berlin) and Freie Universitaet Berlin (FU Berlin) and College for Interdisciplinary Educational Research (CIDER))
    Abstract: Seit Beginn des Bundes-Investitionsprogramms „Zukunft Bildung und Betreuung“ (IZBB) im Jahr 2003 hat sich der Anteil der Grundschulkinder, die ganztaegig eine Schule besuchen, mehr als vervierfacht. Vor diesem Hintergrund untersucht der vorliegende Beitrag zum einen, welche demographischen und soziooekonomischen Merkmale Kinder aufweisen, die ganztaegige Schulangebote nutzen. Zum anderen wird der Frage nachgegangen, wie sich die Zusammensetzung dieser Grundschueler im Vergleich zu Grundschuelern, die keine ganztaegigen Schulangebote nutzen, mit dem Ausbau der Ganztagsschule veraendert hat. Ist ueber die Zeit eine Konvergenz oder eine Divergenz in den gruppenspezifischen Nutzermerkmalen zu beobachten? Für diese Untersuchungen werden Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) und der Zusatzstudie „Familien in Deutschland“ (FiD) verwendet, die Vergleiche der gruppenspezifischen Teilnahme vor und nach dem Ausbau der Ganztagsschule zulassen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sich in Westdeutschland Nichtteilnehmer und Teilnehmer an ganztaegigen Schulangeboten im Hinblick auf soziooekonomische Merkmale, wie das Einkommen, annaehern, es also diesbezüglich zu einer Konvergenz kommt. In Ostdeutschland findet hingegen eine Konvergenz bei Merkmalen der Haushaltsstruktur statt. Generell gibt es wenig Evidenz für eine Divergenz. Since the launch of the public investment program `Future Education and Care´ (IZBB) in 2003, the share of primary school aged children participating in all-day schooling in Germany has more than quadrupled. Against this backdrop, this study analyzes, which demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are related to a higher probability of attendance. Moreover, it analyzes changes in the composition of students participating in all-day schooling. Has there been rather a convergence or a divergence in the characteristics of participants and non-participants over time? Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and the additional survey “Families in Germany†(FiD), our results show that in West Germany all-day school participants have become more similar according to their socioeconomic characteristics (in particular income), hence supporting the convergence hypothesis. In East Germany our findings also provide evidence for convergence. In contrast to West Germany, however, convergence applies to characteristics related to the household structure rather than to socioeconomic characteristics. Overall, there is no indication for divergence over time.
    Keywords: All-day schooling, longitudinal analyses, group-specific attendance, all-day school
    Date: 2015–05

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