nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2017‒03‒05
fourteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Mentoring disadvantaged youths during school-to-work transition: evidence from Germany By Boockmann, Bernhard; Nielen, Sebastian
  2. Peer Effects in Computer Assisted Learning: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment By Marcel Fafchamps; Di Mo
  3. Marriage Age Affects Educational Gender Inequality: International Evidence By Stimpfle, Alexander; Stadelmann, David
  4. The Effect of Teacher Performance Pay on Adult Outcomes in the United States By Timothy Bond; Kevin Mumford
  5. Selection Mechanism and Variation of Years of Schooling across Birth Months in Malawi By Tom Mtenje; Hisahiro Naito
  6. The causal effect of age at migration on youth educational attainment By Lemmermann, Dominique; Riphahn, Regina
  7. Human Capital Sorting: The ‘When’ and ‘Who’ of Sorting of Talents to Urban Regions By Ahlin, Lina; Andersson, Martin; Thulin, Per
  8. Africa's Skill Tragedy: Does Teachers' Lack of Knowledge Lead to Low Student Performance? By Piopiunik, Marc; Bietenbeck, Jan; Wiederhold, Simon
  9. PERSEPSI MAHASISWA AKUNTANSI MENGENAI FAKTOR-FAKTOR PEMILIHAN PROFESI (Studi PERSEPSI MAHASISWA AKUNTANSI MENGENAI FAKTOR-FAKTOR PEMILIHAN PROFESI (Studi Emperis pada Mahasiswa Akuntansi di Perguruan Tinggi di Medan-Sumatera Utara) pada Mahasiswa Akuntansi di Perguruan Tinggi di Medan-Sumatera Utara) By Hutapea, Herti Diana
  10. The Redistributive Impactive of Government Spending on Education and Health Evidence from Thirteen Developing Countries in the Commitment to Equity Project By Nora Lustig
  11. El Impacto del Sistema Tributario y el Gasto Social en la Distribución del Ingreso y la Pobreza en América Latina: Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Perú y Uruguay By Nora Lustig
  12. Soft Commitments, Reminders and Academic Performance By Himmler, Oliver; Jaeckle, Robert; Weinschenk, Philipp
  13. Pupils’ cooperatives and the acquisition of competences for sustainable development By Nicole GÖLER von RAVENSBURG
  14. The Long-Term Impacts of Violent Conflicts on Human Capital: U.S. Bombing and, Education, Earnings, Health, Fertility and Marriage in Cambodia By Chan Hang Saing; Harounan Kazianga

  1. By: Boockmann, Bernhard; Nielen, Sebastian
    Abstract: In the German school and vocational education systems, there is a wide range of support measures during school-to-work transition. We analyze a novel program providing mentoring to low-achieving school leavers as a bridge between different stages and different institutional systems in secondary and post-secondary education. Using high-quality survey and administrative data and propensity score matching, we find some positive effects on the probability of transiting into the dual vocational education system in the intermediate run. Higher program intensity leads to larger treatment effects. Contrary to the goals of the program, however, there is only weak evidence that it accelerates transitions into vocational training immediately after leaving school.
    JEL: J24 I21 I28
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Marcel Fafchamps; Di Mo
    Abstract: We conduct a large scale RCT to investigate peer effects in computer assisted learning (CAL). Identification of peer effects relies on three levels of randomization. It is already known that CAL improves math test scores in Chinese rural schools. We find that paired treatment improves the beneficial effects of treatment for poor performers when they are paired with high performers. We test whether CAL treatment reduces the dispersion in math scores relative to controls, and we find statistically significant evidence that it does. We also demonstrate that the beneficial effects of CAL could potentially be strengthened, both in terms of average effect and in terms of reduced dispersion, if weak students are systematically paired with strong students during treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a school intervention has been identified in which peer effects unambiguously help weak students catch up with the rest of the class without imposing any learning cost on other students.
    JEL: I24 I25 O15
    Date: 2017–02
  3. By: Stimpfle, Alexander; Stadelmann, David
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of female age at marriage on female education and educational gender inequality. We provide empirical evidence that early female marriage age significantly decreases female education with panel data from 1980 to 2010. Socio-cultural customs serve as an exogenous identification for female age at marriage. We also show that effects of spousal age gaps between men and women significantly affect female education relative to male education. Each additional year between husband and wife reduces the female secondary schooling completion rate by 14 percentage points, the time women spend at university by 6 weeks, and overall affects female education significantly more negatively than male education. We also document that marriage age and conventional measures of gender discrimination do not act as substitutes.
    JEL: J12 J16 I24
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Timothy Bond; Kevin Mumford
    Abstract: We estimate the effect of exposure to teacher pay-for-performance programs on adult outcomes. We construct a comprehensive data set of schools which have implemented teacher performance pay programs across the United States since 1986, and use our data to calculate the fraction of students in each grade in each state who are affected by a teacher performance pay program in a given year. We then calculate the expected years of exposure for each birth state-grade cohort in the American Community Survey. Cohorts with more exposure earn lower wages as adults. This negative effect is concentrated on women and high school graduates with no significant effect for men. We find possible positive effects for high school drop outs.
    Date: 2017–02
  5. By: Tom Mtenje; Hisahiro Naito
    Abstract: The years of schooling in Malawi varies across birth months substantially and consistently at least over thirty years. Those who were born in the second half of each year have 1.6 years longer of schooling than those who were born in the first half of each year. The difference is substantial given that the average years of schooling in Malawi is about six years. The availability of food across months and the variation of birth weight across birth months do not match the variation of years of schooling across birth months. Compulsory education law does not explain this pattern either. To explain the pattern of years of schooling across birth months, we propose a selection mechanism hypothesis that among individuals who was born in the second half of each year, only those who have high innate ability could survive the malnutrition during pregnancy and the most vulnerable periods after the birth. This implies that those who were born in the second half of each year and those who are alive now have higher innate ability on average. Because of higher innate ability, such individuals had longer years of schooling than other individuals. To prove the validity of our hypothesis, we first show that the number of individual who were born in the second half of each year and who are alive now is 50 percent lower than the number of individuals who were born in the first half and are alive now. Second, using a novel approach used by G{\o }rgens, Meng and Vaithianathan (2012), we regress each person's years of schooling on his or her parents' birth months controlling each person's birth month and parents' education. We show that the years of schooling of children whose parent were born in the second half of each year is longer than those of children whose parents were born in the first half of each year. This result shows that individuals who were born in the last half of each year survived sever malnutrition and have innate ability.
    Date: 2017–02
  6. By: Lemmermann, Dominique; Riphahn, Regina
    Abstract: We investigate the causal effect of youths' age at immigration on subsequent educational attainment in the destination country. To identify the causal effect we compare the educational attainment of siblings at age 21, exploiting the fact that they typically migrate at different ages within a given family. We consider several education outcomes conditional on family fixed effects. We take advantage of long running and detailed data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, which entails an oversample of immigrants and provides information on language skills. We find significant effects of age at migration on educational attainment and a critical age of migration around age 6. We find that the educational attainment of female immigrants responds more strongly to a high age at immigration than that of males. We can exclude that the causal effect is determined only by language abilities.
    JEL: I21 J61 C21
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Ahlin, Lina (CIRCLE); Andersson, Martin (Department of Industrial Economics); Thulin, Per (KTH Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Sorting of high-ability workers is a main source of urban-rural disparities in economic outcomes. Less is known about when such human capital sorting occurs and who it involves. Using data on 15 cohorts of university graduates in Sweden, we demonstrate significant sorting to urban regions on high school grades and education levels of parents, i.e. two attributes typically associated with latent abilities that are valued in the labor market. A large part of this sorting occurs already in the decision of where to study, because top universities are predominantly located in urban regions. Estimates from a selection model show that even after controlling for sorting prior to labor market entry, the ‘best and brightest’ are still more likely to start working in urban regions, and are also more likely to remain there over long time periods. We conclude that a) urban regions are true magnets for high-ability graduates, and that b) studies of human capital sorting need to account for selection processes to and from universities, because neglecting mobility prior to labor market entry is likely to lead to underestimation of the extent of sorting to urban regions.
    Keywords: Human capital; University graduates; Spatial sorting; Migration; Labor mobility; Ability; Geography of talent; Spatial selection
    JEL: I23 J24 J61 R12
    Date: 2017–02–23
  8. By: Piopiunik, Marc; Bietenbeck, Jan; Wiederhold, Simon
    Abstract: Student performance in Sub-Saharan Africa is tragically low. We study the importance of teacher subject knowledge for student performance in this region using unique international assessment data for sixth-grade students and their teachers. To circumvent bias due to unobserved student heterogeneity, we exploit variation within students across math and reading. We find that teacher subject knowledge has a modest impact on student performance on average. However, this effect is substantially larger for students with access to textbooks, which indicates important complementarities between teacher knowledge and school resources. Results are robust to adding teacher fixed effects and not driven by sorting.
    JEL: I21 J24 O15
    Date: 2016
  9. By: Hutapea, Herti Diana
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to identify the perception of accounting students about the factors which differentiate of career selection as public accountant, company accountant, government accountant, teachers accountant. The factors used as variabel is financial reward (salary), professional training, professional recognition, social values, work environment, labor market considerations, personality, family and friends and to know what types of careers are much in demand by accounting students in North Sumatra, Medan. Samples criteria were universities in North Sumatra accounting study program are accredited minimum B are HKBP Nommensen University (UHN), North Sumatra University (USU), Medan State University (UNIMED), Methodis University, Muhammadyah North Sumatra University (UMSU), Dharmawangsa University, Panca Budi University, Medan Area University (UMA). With this method of sampling is sampling quotas, the quota by the amount of 20 respondents in each university and the total respondents were 160 respondents. Analysis using Kruskal-Wallis method. The results showed that differences between accounting student at Medan, North Sumatra in terms of financial reward (salary), professional training, , social values and personality. On the other no differences between accounting student in terms of professional training, work environment, labor market considerations, family and friends and the profession's favorite choice of student for the overall university is a government accountant is because the future is more assured. Followed by the company's accountants and the next public accountants and the last one is an accountant educators.
    Keywords: Keywords: Financial reward (salary), professional training, professional recognition, social values, work environment, labor market considerations, personality, family and friends.
    JEL: G00
    Date: 2016–10–14
  10. By: Nora Lustig (Stone Center for Latin American Studies, Department of Economics, Tulane University.)
    Abstract: Here, I examine the level, redistributive impact and pro-poorness of government spending on education and health for thirteen developing countries from the Commitment to Equity project. Social spending as a share of total income is high by historical standards, and it rises with income per capita and income inequality. Spending on education and health lowers inequality and its marginal contribution to the overall decline in inequality is, on average, 69 percent. There appears to be no “Robin Hood Paradox:” redistribution increases with income inequality, even if one controls for per capita income. Concentration coefficients indicate that spending on pre-school, primary and secondary education is pro-poor in twelve countries. Spending on tertiary education is regressive and unequalizing in three countries, and progressive and equalizing (but not pro-poor) in ten. Health spending is pro-poor in five countries. Of the remaining eight, health spending per capita is roughly equal across the income distribution in three, and progressive and equalizing (but not pro-poor) in five.
    Keywords: fiscal incidence, social spending, inequality, developing countries
    JEL: H22 D31 I3
    Date: 2015–03
  11. By: Nora Lustig (Stone Center for Latin American Studies, Department of Economics, Tulane University. Commitment to Equity Institute (CEQI).)
    Abstract: Using standard fiscal incidence analysis, this paper estimates the impact of fiscal policy on inequality and poverty in thirteen countries in Latin America around 2010.Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica and Uruguay are the countries which redistribute the most and El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras redistribute the least. Contributory pensions are significantly equalizing in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay and also in Chile, Costa Rica and Ecuador but, in the latter, their effect is small. In the rest of the countries, contributory pensions are unequalizing but their effect is also small. More unequal countries tend to redistribute more. Bolivia, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Peru redistribute below the trend; Chile, Ecuador and Mexico are on trend; and, Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica and Uruguay redistribute above the trend. Fiscal policy reduces poverty in nine countries. However, in Brazil, Bolivia, Guatemala and Honduras, the incidence of poverty after taxes, subsidies and transfers (excluding spending on education and health) is higher than market income poverty, even though fiscal policy is equalizing. In Brazil and Mexico, a third of the post-fiscal poor were impoverished by fiscal policy and, in Bolivia and Guatemala, two thirds were. Public spending on pre-school and primary education is always equalizing and also pro-poor (i.e., per capita spending falls with per capita income). Spending on secondary education is always equalizing but pro-poor only in some countries. Spending on tertiary education is never pro-poor; however, it is always equalizing except for Guatemala. Government spending on public health is always progressive in relative terms and equalizing. Resumen. Este artículo presenta resultados sobre el impacto de la política fiscal en la desigualdad y la pobreza en trece países de América Latina para alrededor del año 2010. Los países que más redistribuyen son Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica y Uruguay, y los que menos, El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras. Las pensiones contributivas tienen un efecto igualador, de magnitud significativa, en Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay. En Chile, Costa Rica y Ecuador el efecto es igualador pero pequeño. En el resto de los países, el efecto es desigualador pero también pequeño. Estos resultados son importantes porque indican que no se puede afirmar de manera general que las pensiones contributivas en América Latina son regresivas y desigualadoras. Si las pensiones contributivas se consideran un ingreso diferido, el efecto redistributivo es 4.1 puntos porcentuales mayor en la Unión Europea pero 15.4 puntos porcentuales mayor cuando las pensiones contributivas se consideran una transferencia. Los resultados para los trece países latinoamericanos muestran que los países más desiguales tienden a dedicar una proporción mayor del PIB al gasto social y que a mayor gasto social, mayor redistribución. Los países más desiguales también tienden a redistribuir más. Entre los países que redistribuyen por debajo de lo que predice la tendencia, se encuentran Bolivia, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras y Perú.Chile, Ecuador y México prácticamente se encuentran sobre la línea de tendencia.Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica y Uruguay lo hacen por encima de la tendencia. Países con un nivel de gasto social similar muestran diferentes niveles de redistribución lo cual sugiere que otros factores tales como la composición y focalización del gasto intervienen en determinar el efecto redistributivo más alla del tamaño. La política fiscal reduce la pobreza extrema en nueve países: Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, México, Perú y Uruguay. Sin embargo, la incidencia de la pobreza después de impuestos, subsidios y transferencias monetarias es mayor que la incidencia para el ingreso de mercado en Bolivia, Brasil, Guatemala y Honduras, aun cuando la política fiscal reduce la desigualdad. Además, aun cuando la incidencia de la pobreza y la desigualdad se reducen, con la nueva medida de Empobrecimiento Fiscal se puede observar que en Brasil y México un tercio y en Bolivia y Guatemala dos tercios de la población pobre medida con el ingreso consumible fue empobrecida: es decir, pasó de pobre a ser más pobre o de no pobre a ser pobre. El gasto en educación pre-escolar y primaria es igualador y pro-pobre en todos los países. El gasto en educación secundaria es igualador en todos los países y también pro-pobre en algunos pero no en todos. El gasto en educación terciaria nunca es pro-pobre pero es igualador a excepción de Guatemala. El gasto en salud siempre es igualador pero es pro-pobre solamente en Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador y Uruguay.
    Keywords: incidencia fiscal, desigualdad, pobreza, impuestos, transferencias, América Latina
    JEL: D31 H22 I38
    Date: 2016
  12. By: Himmler, Oliver; Jaeckle, Robert; Weinschenk, Philipp
    Abstract: A large share of students in higher education graduates with delay or fails to obtain a degree at all. In our field experiment, students can sign a non-binding agreement and self-commit to staying on track for graduation. We provide first evidence that soft commitment devices can enhance educational progress and -- more generally -- improve the completion of complex tasks such as passing exams. A pure reminder treatment does not change behavior, suggesting that the effects are not driven by increased salience. As predicted by a simple decision model, we show that procrastinators benefit most from the soft commitment device.
    Keywords: Commitment Device; Reminder; Procrastination; Education; Field Experiment
    JEL: C93 D03 I20
    Date: 2017–01–23
  13. By: Nicole GÖLER von RAVENSBURG (Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Germany)
    Abstract: About 20 years ago Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) became a new educational aim for secondary school education in Germany (Programm Transfer 21). 14 different ESD learning arrangements were experimentally tested from 2002 to 2005 in secondary schools. School firms ranked highest (BLK Transfer 21 (Eds.) 2005). However, school firms for ESD for some time only developed in Niedersachsen, where they had originally been tested in said experiment. Work in these centred on ethical and resource efficient interactions with the social, economic and ecological environment (de Haan/Grundmann/Plesse 2009: 64-65). Pupils’ cooperatives (PC) are special school firms, modelled on the German real world cooperative modus including quasi-registration, annual audit, partnership with realworld coops etc. Some ESD school firms have existed before transforming into pupils cooperatives, while others have been started in a cooperative manner right away. The waiting list of ESD School firms wanting to become PC is long, but the promoting cooperative federations usually limit the numbers newly accepted each year. Examples of PC’s business ideas are making string puppets and performing with them, felting sheep wool, bee keeping, the making of apple juice, breeding of mushrooms, building steel barbecues, running computer courses for senior citizens, catering, event management and so forth. Business ideas thus are not much different to those of other school firms focused on ESD. The attractiveness of the cooperative form seems to be linked to initiators believing that the cooperative way of organizing is particularly conducive to ESD. The objective of this paper is to screen the results of three rounds of scientific project evaluation so far undertaken in Niedersachsen and Nordrhein-Westfalen in regard to this belief. Using a mixed method approach these evaluations identify the most significant factors driving this belief. Furthermore they detail the self-assessment of pupils and teachers in regard to the acquisition of competencies, verify the degree to which PCs work cooperatively and shed light on the interactions between PCs and “grown-up” partner coops. The paper discusses the relevance of these aspects and outlines further (comparative) research needs.
    Keywords: school firm, mini company, education, social entrepreneurship, community of practice, learning outcome, Gestaltungskompetenz.
    JEL: P O A I
    Date: 2017–01
  14. By: Chan Hang Saing; Harounan Kazianga
    Abstract: We combined household surveys and the intensity of bombing to investigate the long-term impact of U.S. bombing during the 1969-1973 period on education, earnings, health, fertility and marriage in Cambodia. The novelty of this paper consists of the use of the quantity of bombs dropped in each geographic district, which allows the estimation of the effects of the intensity of bombing. Taking into account this intensive margin adds significant insights to using a binary exposure to bombing that has been reported in previous research. We find that one standard deviation increase in the intensity of bombing during 1969-1973 reduced years of schooling by about 0.11-0.23. The e ects for men are larger than those for women. Fertility (total births) increased by 0.20 and age at rst marriage for girls declined by 0.32 year. The reduction in years of education completed do not seem to have a ected earnings, however. Similarly, we did not detect any signi cant e ect on health.
    Date: 2017

This nep-edu issue is ©2017 by João Carlos Correia Leitão. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.