nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒11‒27
34 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Skilled or educated? Educational reforms, human capital and earnings. By Lorenzo Cappellari; Paolo Castelnovo; Daniele Checchi; Marco Leonardi
  2. Learning about Oneself: The Effects of Performance Feedback on School Choice By Bobba, Matteo; Frisancho, Veronica
  3. Children Left Behind: Self-confidence of Pupils in Competitive Environments By Miroslava Federicova; Filip Pertold; Michael L. Smith
  4. How Much Is That Star in the Window? Professorial Salaries and Research Performance in UK Universities By De Fraja, Gianni; Facchini, Giovanni; Gathergood, John
  5. I care about my job, but I am not inspired. Exploring workplace bullying of talented academics. By Nicolene Barkhuizen; Nico Schutte
  6. Teaching Strategies for Instructional Quality: Insights from the TALIS-PISA Link Data By Noémie Le Donné; Pablo Fraser; Guillaume Bousquet
  7. Subjective completion beliefs and the demand for post-secondary education By Johannes S. Kunz; Kevin E. Staub
  8. Government per pupil expenditure in Uttar Pradesh: Implications for the reimbursement of private schools under the RTE Act By Geeta Kingdon; Mohd Muzammil
  9. The quality of teaching and its impact on university students' motivation By Jana Marie Å afránková; Martin Å ikıÅ™
  10. Heterogeneous Treatment Effects in the Low Track: Revisiting the Kenyan Primary School Experiment By Joseph Cummins
  11. Shifting College Majors in Response to Advanced Placement Exam Scores By Christopher Avery; Oded Gurantz; Michael Hurwitz; Jonathan Smith
  12. Educational Management and Educational Needs of Teaching Staff By Michaela Tureckiová
  14. The Effect of the Availabilty of Student Credit on Tuitions: Testing the Bennet Hypothesis using Evidence from a Large-Scale Student Loan Program in Brazil By Isabela Duarte; Joao de Mello
  15. Remittances and the Brain Drain: Evidence from Microdata for Sub-Saharan Africa By Bredtmann, Julia; Martínez Flores, Fernanda; Otten, Sebastian
  16. Possibilities of Using Narrations in Adult Education By Miroslava DvoÅ™áková
  17. Tuition Fees and Student Effort at University By P. Beneito; J.E. BoscaÌ; J. Ferri
  18. Student Victimization in U.S. Schools: Results from the 2013 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey By Deborah Lessne; Melissa Cidade; Amy Gerke; Karlesha Roland; Michael Sinclair
  19. Lower in rank, but happier: the complex relationship between status and happiness By Bert Van Landeghem; Anneleen Vandeplas
  20. Channels of inequality of opportunity: The role of education and occupation in Europe By Juan C. Palomino; Gustavo A. Marrero; Juan G. Rodriguez
  21. Intergenerational transmission of education in China: Pattern, mechanism, and policies By Jingyi Huang; Yumei Guo; Yang Song
  22. Divergent Paths: Structural Change, Economic Rank, and the Evolution of Black-White Earnings Differences, 1940-2014 By Patrick Bayer; Kerwin Kofi Charles
  23. Nation Building: The Role of Central Spending in Education By Cinnirella, Francesco; Schueler, Ruth M.
  24. "A" is the aim? By Danilowicz-Gösele, Kamila
  25. Closing down schools and joining them together as experienced by teachers, pupils and students By Pekka Räihä; Antti Juvonen; Kristiina Samppala
  26. Long-Term Outcomes from Australian Vocational Education By Cain Polidano; Chris Ryan
  27. Decomposing the Racial Gap in STEM Major Attrition: A Course-Level Investigation By Baird, Matthew D.; Buchinsky, Moshe; Sovero, Veronica
  28. How Does Pension Eligibility Affect Labor Supply in Couples? By Lalive, Rafael; Parrotta, Pierpaolo
  29. Do Friends Improve Female Education? The Case of Bangladesh By Hahn, Youjin; Hassani Mahmooei, Behrooz; Islam, Asadul; Patacchini, Eleonora; Zenou, Yves
  30. Increasing Support and Job Satisfaction for Program Administrators at the Postgraduate Medical Education Off By Colla J. MacDonald; Derek Puddester; Lorne Wiesenfeld; Alan Chaput; Heather Summers
  31. Better Teachers, Better Results? Evidence from Rural Pakistan By Marine De Talancé
  32. Impact of the city environment on human health: the case of the city of Beni Mellal in Morocco By Sanaa SABOUR ALAOUI; Barge Nadia
  33. The Effect of 10 Week Exercise Program on the Depression Level of the Adolescents By Neslihan LOK; Erdal TASGIN; Muammer CANBAZ; Sefa LOK
  34. Temptation and the efficient taxation of education and labor By Bethencourt, Carlos; Kunze, Lars

  1. By: Lorenzo Cappellari (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore; Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore); Paolo Castelnovo; Daniele Checchi; Marco Leonardi
    Abstract: We use OECD-PIAAC data to estimate the earnings effects of both years of education and of numerical skills. Our identification strategy exploits differential exposure to educational reforms across birth cohorts and countries. We find that education has the strongest earnings effect. A one standard deviation increase in years of education raises earnings by almost 22 percentage points (corresponding to a return to education above 7 percentage points), which compares with a lower percentage points return to an equivalent increase in numerical skills. Our results suggest that the same set of unobservables drives the accumulation of both formal years of education and numeracy skills. OLS estimates underestimate returns to human capital, consistently with the idea that educational reforms favour the human capital acquisition of abler children from disadvantaged parental backgrounds. When we consider numerical skills alone education reforms cannot identify any significant effect of skills on wages, however, when we jointly consider schooling and skills as endogenous factors in a recursive structure we find a significant role for skills in determining wages.
    Keywords: Returns to human capital, cognitive skills, educational reforms, PIAAC.
    JEL: I21 I24 I26 J24 J31
    Date: 2016–11
  2. By: Bobba, Matteo (Toulouse School of Economics); Frisancho, Veronica (Inter-American Development Bank)
    Abstract: We design and implement a field experiment that provides students from less advantaged backgrounds with individualized feedback on academic performance during the transition from middle to high school. The intervention reduces the gap between expected and actual performance, as well as shrinks the variance of the individual belief distributions. Guided by a simple Bayesian model, we empirically document the interplay between variance reductions and mean changes of beliefs about students' own academic ability in shaping curricular choices. The shift in revealed preferences over high school tracks enabled by the intervention affects schooling trajectories, with better performing students being assigned into more academically oriented options.
    Keywords: information, Bayesian updating, biased beliefs, school choice
    JEL: D83 I21 I24 J24
    Date: 2016–11
  3. By: Miroslava Federicova; Filip Pertold; Michael L. Smith
    Abstract: Early-tracking systems naturally divide many classes of 11 years old students into two groups: students preparing for exams to enter better schools and everyone else, who decide not to compete for selective schools. Utilizing TIMSS data and a follow-up study in the Czech Republic, which has an early-tracking system similar to other European states following the German model, we show that this environment has a detrimental effect on the self-confidence of pupils in mathematics who do not apply for selective schools but have peers in their classroom who do apply. In particular, we show that girls who do not apply for selective schools experience a 11% drop in confidence in mathematics if they have four applicants among classmates and this effect is even larger if the applicants are successful in the admission process. We focus on self-confidence in mathematics as an outcome variable because the literature suggests it is directly linked to pupils' motivation to study STEM fields as well as subsequent educational achievement. Our results suggest that the decrease in selfconfidence among girls is long lasting and implies that gender gaps in self-confidence can be a result of the competitive environment of the educational system.
    Keywords: early tracking; gender differences; self-confidence; inequality aversion;
    JEL: I21 I24 J16 Z13
    Date: 2016–11
  4. By: De Fraja, Gianni; Facchini, Giovanni; Gathergood, John
    Abstract: We study the relationship between academic salaries and research performance. To this end, we use individual level data on the salary of all UK university professors, matched to results on the performance of academic departments from the 2014 government evaluation of research. The UK higher education sector is particularly interesting because professorial salaries are unregulated and the outcome of the official research evaluation of universities is one of their key financial and academic concerns. We first present a simple model of university pay determination, which shows that pay level and pay inequality in a department are positively related to performance. Our empirical results confirm these theoretical predictions; we also find that the pay-performance relationship is weaker for the more established and better paying universities. Our findings are also consistent with the idea that higher salaries have been used by departments to recruit academics more likely to improve their performance.
    Keywords: Higher education competition; Research Excellence Framework; Research funding; Salary inequality; University sector
    JEL: D47 H42 I28 L30
    Date: 2016–11
  5. By: Nicolene Barkhuizen (North-West University); Nico Schutte (North-West University)
    Abstract: The importance of talent and talent management in higher education institutions is well documented. Some research evidence suggest that talent management, when effectively applied, can lead to positive work related outcomes for academic staff such as work engagement, job satisfaction, motivation and productive organisational energy. For the institution, effective talent management can result in increased quality service delivery and organisational performance. What has not been researched is the subtle psychological underpinnings and work relationship experiences of talented academic staff in the South African higher educational context. The main objective of this research was to explore incidences of workplace bullying that affect talented academic staff members in higher education institutions and the consequences thereof.A qualitative research approach was followed. Data was gathered by means of semi-structured interviews with talented academics from selected South African higher education institutions (N=12). The sample group was representative of various ethnic groups, gender groups, age groups and job levels. The data was analysed using theme (content) analyses.The findings revealed many themes relating to the type of bullying that academic staff members were experiencing. Some of the most prominent themes included unfair discrimination, victimisation, disregard for academic position, unfair promotion, sexual harassment, racism, bullying from students and bullying from administrative staff. The participants in particular indicated feelings of helplessness as higher educational policies do not protect them against workplace bullying. Other participants also highlighted that the power play in their institutions and fear for victimisation prevent them from reporting incidences of bullying. The findings further showed that academics experience high levels of work stress, burnout and depression as a result of their bullying experiences. Academic staff also indicated suicide ideation as a result of the helplessness and powerlessness to cope with unfair discrimination and victimisation practices. All the participants in this study indicated that they strongly considered quitting their job as a result of workplace bullying.This study presented an in-depth analyses of the type of workplace bullying that occurs in higher education institutions and its consequences. The competitiveness and sustainability of higher education institutions depend of well-qualified and talented academic staff. Without key and competent academic staff, no higher education institution will be sustainable over the long term. Therefore it is strongly advised that higher education institutions implement policies and practices that will prevent incidences of workplace bullying among talented academic staff.
    Keywords: Academic staff, Higher education Institutions, Talent Management, Workplace Bullying
    JEL: J24
  6. By: Noémie Le Donné; Pablo Fraser; Guillaume Bousquet
    Abstract: This report explores the relationships between mathematics teachers’ teaching strategies and student learning outcomes in eight countries, using information from the TALIS-PISA link database. First, the study seeks to understand the shaping of teaching strategies by examining the way teachers use different classroom practices and the prevalence of these strategies among teachers across schools and countries. As a result of this exploration, three teaching strategies are put forward: active learning, cognitive activation and teacher-directed instruction. Second, the report aims at identifying the teaching strategies that are positively associated with student skill acquisition. Third and finally, it analyses the contributions of the school and the classroom settings, the teacher background and beliefs, to the implementation of the teaching strategies found to be positively related to student learning outcomes. Results show that cognitive activation strategies and, to a lesser extent, active learning strategies, have a strong association with students’ achievement in mathematics. However, this association seems to be weaker in schools with socio-economically disadvantaged students. Also, teachers from the same school tend to share the same approach to teaching, which indicates that these teaching strategies are part of a “teaching culture” within the school. Teacher self-efficacy and teacher collaboration are shown to be the factors more often associated with the implementation of cognitive activation strategies and active learning. Following on from these findings, the paper concludes with a series of policy recommendations. Ce rapport explore les relations entre les stratégies pédagogiques des enseignants de mathématique et les résultats d’apprentissage des élèves à partir d’information de la base de données de l’option « lien TALIS-PISA » dans 8 pays. Tout d’abord, l’enquête cherche à comprendre comment s'élaborent les stratégies pédagogiques en examinant la façon dont les enseignants emploient des pratiques scolaires différentes et la prévalence de ces stratégies parmi les enseignants, dans les établissements et les pays. Trois stratégies pédagogiques en sont ressorties : l’apprentissage actif, l’activation cognitive et l’enseignement direct. Le rapport a pour but d’identifier les stratégies qui sont associées de manière positive à l’acquisition de compétences chez l’élève. Finalement, il analyse les contributions des établissements et des caractéristiques des classes, de la formation et des croyances de l’enseignant, à la mise en oeuvre de stratégies pédagogiques considérées comme participant de manière positive aux résultats d’apprentissage de l’élève. Les résultats montrent que les stratégies d’activation cognitives et, dans une moindre proportion, les stratégies d’apprentissage actif, sont très fortement associées à la réussite de l’étudiant en mathématiques. Cependant, cette corrélation semble être plus faible dans les établissements où se trouvent des élèves désavantagés sur les plans économique et social. En outre, les enseignants provenant de la même école ont tendance à utiliser la même approche, ce qui indique que ces stratégies font partie d’une « culture d’enseignement » au sein de l’établissement. L’efficacité personnelle et la collaboration entre enseignants sont les facteurs qui sont le plus souvent associés à la mise en oeuvre de stratégies d’activation cognitive et d’apprentissage actif. Sur la base de ces résultats, le rapport présente une série de recommandations.
    Date: 2016–11–22
  7. By: Johannes S. Kunz (Department of Economics, University of Zurich); Kevin E. Staub (University of Melbourne and IZA)
    Abstract: The outcome of pursuing an upper or post-secondary education degree is uncertain. A student might not complete a chosen degree for a number of reasons, such as insufficient academic preparation or financial constraints. Thus, when considering whether to invest in post-secondary education, students must factor their probability of completing the degree into their decision. We study the role of this uncertainty in education choices using representative survey data from Germany. Students' subjective beliefs about the probability of completing a post-secondary education were elicited prior to them finishing their secondary education. We relate these subjective completion probabilities to students' subsequent education choices and outcomes. We find that these early beliefs are predictive of intentions to invest in education, actual subsequent investments in education, and degree completion. A structural choice model of sequential investment further reveals that the association between completion beliefs and investment choices is strongest for students with low academic skills and low preferences for post-secondary education.
    Keywords: Subjective beliefs, Subjective probabilities, Completion uncertainty, Post-secondary education, Human capital investment
    JEL: I21 I26 J24
    Date: 2016–11
  8. By: Geeta Kingdon; Mohd Muzammil
    Abstract: The Right to Education (RTE) Act was enacted in August 2009 to guarantee free and compulsory education to all children aged 6-14 years old in India. It is a powerful piece of legislation that specifies the duties of the government in the provision of schooling, lays down some norms and standards for the recognition of private schools, and makes provision for the inclusion of disadvantaged children in all types of schools. This short note seeks to estimate the per pupil expenditure in government elementary schools in Uttar Pradesh using the government’s own expenditure and enrolment data.
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Jana Marie Å afránková (Charles University, Faculty of Education, Education Management Centre); Martin Å ikıÅ™ (Czech Technical University in Prague, Masaryk Institute of Advanced Studies)
    Abstract: The goal of the paper is to discuss the impact of the quality of teaching on university students' motivation to learn and study at university. The paper is based on the analysis of available scientific literature and the results of the authors' questionnaire survey among students of the College of Regional Development in Prague, the Masaryk Institute of Advanced Studies of the Czech Technical University in Prague and the School Management Centre of the Faculty of Education of Charles University in Prague that was focused on students' motivation to study at university and their ideas about future career. The survey was conducted from February to May 2016. The relevant data were obtained from 416 students. The results show some interesting tendencies in students' attitudes to learning and studying at university. Students often complain of the quality of teaching, particularly of theoretical subjects without obvious connections and practical applications. This dissatisfaction significantly reduces students' motivation to learn and study at university. Many students go to work rather than to school to earn money and get experience.
    Keywords: higher education, quality of teaching, motivation of students
    JEL: J24 I29 A14
  10. By: Joseph Cummins (Department of Economics, University of California Riverside)
    Abstract: I present results from a partial re-analysis of the Kenyan school tracking experiment first described in Duflo et. al (2011). My results suggest that, in a developing country school system with state-employed teachers, tracking can reduce short-run test scores of initially low-ability students with high learning potential. The highest scoring students subjected only to the tracking intervention scored well below comparable students in untracked classrooms at the end of the intervention. In contrast, students assigned to tracking under the experimental alternative teacher intervention experienced gains from tracking that increased across the outcome distribution. These alternative teachers were drawn from local areas, exhibited significantly higher effort levels and faced different incentives to produce learning. I conclude that although Pareto-improvements in test scores from tracking are possible, they are not guaranteed.
    Keywords: ability tracking, human capital, economic development
    JEL: I21 J45 O15
    Date: 2016–11
  11. By: Christopher Avery; Oded Gurantz; Michael Hurwitz; Jonathan Smith
    Abstract: Mapping continuous raw scores from millions of Advanced Placement examinations onto the 1 to 5 integer scoring scale, we apply a regression discontinuity design to understand how students’ choice of college major is impacted by receiving a higher integer score despite similar exam performance to students who earned a lower integer score. Attaining higher scores increases the probability that a student will major in that exam subject by approximately 5 percent (0.64 percentage points), with some individual exams demonstrating increases in major choice by as much as 30 percent. These direct impacts of a higher score explain approximately 11 percent of the unconditional 64 percent (5.7 percentage points) gap in the probability of majoring in the same subject as the AP exam when attaining a 5 versus a 4. We estimate that a substantial portion of the overall effect is driven by behavioral responses to the positive signal of receiving a higher score.
    JEL: I2 I23 J24
    Date: 2016–11
  12. By: Michaela Tureckiová (Charles University, Centre of School Management)
    Abstract: Educational Management is a relatively new field of educational practice and a new empirical science and educational program in the Czech Republic. The paper deals with the introduction of aims and subject of educational management, its structure and problems with definition of and roles and possibilities of continuing training and education of educational and/or school managers especially in the context of curriculum reform in the Czech Republic. The paper at its final part introduces the major results of the research, conducting within formal re-training educational program. This research was focused on intentions and perspective effects of continuing education of employees of educational organizations from their point of view and from the point of view of management of educational organization.
    Keywords: educational management, continuing education, needs and effects of education
    JEL: I29
  13. By: Jacqueline Musabende (ISM); Frank Cotae (Mount Royal University)
    Abstract: The use of simulations in business education started in 1957, since then, hundreds of simulations have been developed and/or introduced in the classroom. In this paper, we present a literature review of the impact that business simulations have in developing decision-making skills, integrative, experiential learning, and teamwork skills. Building on the generative learning theory, experiential learning theory and bloom’s taxonomy, we tested the simulation GlobalDNA with a sample of undergraduate students divided into 4 groups. The objective was to obtain feedback of the applicability and benefit of using this software to teach decision-making in international business courses from a student and instructor experience perspectives. Results showed GlobalDNA being applicable to senior level or capstone international business strategy courses and appropriate as an experiential learning tool. Students we asked, at the end of the class to submit introspective summaries regarding the software program. We found supporting evidence and student perceived benefits for implementing simulations into the international business curricula to represent the experiential learning prong, and GlobalDNA provided a relevant backdrop for it.
    Keywords: Simulation, Taxonomy, Experiential Learning, Theory, Pedagogy, Benchmark Competition
    JEL: I29
  14. By: Isabela Duarte (PUC - Rio); Joao de Mello (Insper)
    Abstract: We test whether the availability of student loans increases tuition costs, the Bennet Hypothesis. Starting in 2010, there was a major ramp-up in the FIES, a student loan program funded by the Brazilian federal government. FIES’s rules for eligibility produce a marked heterogeneity in the access to funding in different higher education institutions. We take advantage of these rules and of an unique dataset with information on tuition costs at the major-college level, and document two facts. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we show that relaxing access to student loans caused an increase in tuition fees. We also estimate a structural model of demand, and show that relaxing credit constraints reduces the demand price elasticity. Thus the mechanism behind the increase in tuition costs is an increased tuition insensitivity, at least in part.
    Date: 2016
  15. By: Bredtmann, Julia (RWI); Martínez Flores, Fernanda (RWI); Otten, Sebastian (RWI)
    Abstract: Research on the relationship between high-skilled migration and remittances has been limited by the lack of suitable microdata. We create a unique cross-country dataset by combining household surveys from five Sub-Saharan African countries that enables us to analyze the effect of migrants' education on their remittance behavior. Having comprehensive information on both ends of the migrant-origin household relationship and employing household fixed effects specifications that only use within-household variation for identification allows us to address the problem of unobserved heterogeneity across migrants' origin households. Our results reveal that migrants' education has no significant impact on the likelihood of sending remittances. Conditional on sending remittances, however, high-skilled migrants send significantly higher amounts of money to their households left behind. This effect holds for the sub-groups of internal migrants and migrants in non-OECD countries, while it vanishes for migrants in OECD destination countries once characteristics of the origin household are controlled for.
    Keywords: migration, remittances, skill level, brain drain, Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: F22 F24 O15
    Date: 2016–11
  16. By: Miroslava DvoÅ™áková (Charles University, Faculty of Education)
    Abstract: The paper deals with possibilities of using narrations as education and learning tools in the process of education of adults. We present various types of narrations (e.g. cultural, familial, individual and organizational) and perspectives of narrative education (particulary understanding learning and education through narratives, learning and education as narrative process) and possibilities of using them in the process of adult learning and education. We also set advantages and possible disadvantages of narrative learning and education. The outcomes of empirical survey of using narrations and narrative learning and education by teachers of adults in the Czech Republic are submit and argue.
    Keywords: narration, narrative education, adult education, methods of education
  17. By: P. Beneito; J.E. BoscaÌ; J. Ferri
    Abstract: This paper presents theoretical and empirical evidence that an increase in tuition fees may boost university students’ academic effort. We examine the tuition fee rise introduced in 2012 by Spanish universities, where students reg- ister and pay for their chosen modules and fees increase each time students retake a module until they pass it. Data refer to students of economics, busi- ness and medicine at the University of Valencia during 2010-2014. The fact that some students pay fees in full while others are exempt from payment provides an identifying source of variation that we exploit using a flexible difference-in-differences methodology.
    Date: 2016–11
  18. By: Deborah Lessne; Melissa Cidade; Amy Gerke; Karlesha Roland; Michael Sinclair
    Abstract: This report uses data from the 2013 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to examine student criminal victimization and the characteristics of crime victims and nonvictims.
    Keywords: student victimization, school, crime
    JEL: I
  19. By: Bert Van Landeghem; Anneleen Vandeplas
    Abstract: Case studies across the social sciences have established a positive relationship between social status and happiness. In observational data, however, identification challenges remain severe. This study exploits the fact that in India people are assigned a caste from birth. In data on 1000 individuals living in the Punjab, a state with a large income gap between middle and high castes in spite of similar education levels, we find that those in the middle are the least happy. Our findings resemble those described by the famous paradox of unhappy Olympic silver medal winners, which finds a V-shaped relation between status and happiness. The same trend is much less pronounced in data on 1000 individuals living in the state of Andhra Pradesh with much smaller economic differences between castes. We hypothesize that these patterns reflect the relatively high weight of upward comparisons for middle caste groups in Punjab, based on their stronger similarity in ability attributes with castes higher up in the hierarchy.
    Keywords: subjective well-bejing, happiness, social status, social comparison
    Date: 2016–09–29
  20. By: Juan C. Palomino (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, EQUALITAS and CEDESOG, Spain); Gustavo A. Marrero (Universidad de la Laguna, EQUALITAS and CEDESOG, Spain); Juan G. Rodriguez (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, EQUALITAS and CEDESOG, Spain)
    Abstract: This paper studies the contribution of individual education and occupation to individual opportunity in Europe. Although the differences in inequality of opportunity (IO) among European countries are significant, no systematic approach has yet been proposed to analyse the channels through which different individual circumstances turn into different income levels. Here, we propose a simple two-step method to quantify the contribution to IO of individual education and occupation across Europe in 2004 and 2010. We find that the level of education channels up to 30\% of total IO, with important differences across Europe but no clear patterns of change over time. Moreover, we observe a negative correlation between the share of IO channelled through education and the share of the population with tertiary education. Once education is taken into account, the occupational category of individuals explains less than 5\% of total IO in most European countries.
    Keywords: Inequality of opportunity, education, occupation, Europe.
    JEL: D63 I24 J24
    Date: 2016–10
  21. By: Jingyi Huang (University of Michigan, U.S.A.); Yumei Guo (Central University of Finance and Economics, China); Yang Song (Renmin University of China)
    Abstract: This paper has three objectives. First, we present the mobility pattern for intergenerational education persistence. Second, we estimate the effect of parental education on children education by using instruments generated by the Chinese Cultural Revolution, and further explore the mechanisms of this causal relationship. Third, this study aims to investigate the impact of two education reforms on intergenerational transmission of education, including the Compulsory Education Law and college expansion reform. Although mobility seems increasing for the newer generation, the lowest mobility is found in rural areas for the lowest-educated group. Fathers' education has a significant impact on children education through the nurture effect, which is almost entirely driven by father's income. Finally, we find that popularizing compulsory education did not have a expected effect on increasing mobility. Moreover, the college expansion policy indeed reduces the intergenerational education mobility in urban areas, but this effect is not found in rural areas.
    Keywords: intergenerational education mobility, nurture effect, education reforms, China.
    JEL: H5 I2 O1
    Date: 2016–10
  22. By: Patrick Bayer; Kerwin Kofi Charles
    Abstract: Studying working and non-working men, we find that, after closing substantially from 1940 to the mid-1970s, the median black-white earnings gap has since returned to its 1950 level, while the positional rank the median black man would hold in the white distribution has remained little changed since 1940. By contrast, higher quantile black men have experienced substantial gains in both relative earnings levels and their positional rank in the white earnings distribution. Using a new decomposition method that extends existing approaches to account for non-participation, we show that the gains of black men at higher quantiles have been driven primarily by positional gains within education level due to forces like improved access to quality schools and declining occupational exclusion. At the median and below, strong racial convergence in educational attainment has been counteracted by the rising returns to education in the labor market, which have disproportionately disadvantaged the shrinking but still substantial share of blacks with lower education.
    JEL: J15 J31 J71 K42 N32 N92
    Date: 2016–11
  23. By: Cinnirella, Francesco; Schueler, Ruth M.
    Abstract: It is generally argued that, in the context of Imperial Germany, public primary education was used to form "loyal citizen" and to build a nation. In this paper we analyze to what extent central spending on primary education affected participation at general elections and votes for pro-nationalist parties. We combine census data on the sources of school funding with federal election data at the level of 199 constituencies in five-year intervals from 1886 to 1911. Panel estimates of models with constituency and time-fixed effects show that an increase in the share of central spending is positively related to the vote share of pro-nationalist parties and voter turnout. Results from models with lagged central spending by category of expenditure are consistent with the role of indoctrination of public primary education.
    Keywords: indoctrination; Nation building; primary education; Prussian Economic History
    JEL: H72 I28 N33 N43
    Date: 2016–11
  24. By: Danilowicz-Gösele, Kamila
    Abstract: This paper analyzes professors' effect from a fundamental first-year course in Economics on students' later performance in follow-on courses with a special attention given to the problem of self-selection bias of students toward certain professors. Based on an extensive dataset consisting of administrative data on more than 2, 900 students from the university of Göttingen, an instrumental variable (IV) strategy is used. The obtained results indicate that professors have powerful effects on students' achievement. However, the sign of this effect is ambiguous, and depends on the mathematical rigor of the course and the examination style.
    Keywords: university,education,grade inflation
    JEL: I23 I21 I28
    Date: 2016
  25. By: Pekka Räihä (Unit of Education, University of Tampere); Antti Juvonen (University of Eastern Finland, Philosophical Faculty); Kristiina Samppala (School of Education, University of Tampere)
    Abstract: Many Finnish country schools were closed down since 1960s when the industrialization drew people in cities to work. Today, also big schools are closed down, building bigger units in hope of economic savings. (Autti & Hyry-Beihammer 2009; Korpinen 2010). Driving down schools have also become more common all over the world. (f. i. Kretchmar 2011; Jones 2005). The practice schools of the Finnish Universities have also ended up in closing and moving. The New legislation concerning universities (2010) made the funding worse, and the universities save by closing their filial units separate from the mother universities. In 2012 both Oulu and Tampere Universities closed their filial units moving the action to main campuses. In 2016 the University of Eastern Finland decided to move the Savonlinna campus to Joensuu in 2018. Our research explores the consequences of the decision. We focus on experiences of teachers, students and other personnel about the decision. The decision took months to make and that’s why the respondents were asked to write about their feelings before and after the decision making by an electronic questionnaire.We got altogether 108 answers (76 teacher students, 28 lecturers and professors, 4 other personnel). The length of the answers was between a few lines to long essays. The data was analyzed using content analyzes. (Attride-Stirling 2001). The analyzing is still going on but the preliminary results show strong emotions. During the decision making, a strong hope and belief about the campus remaining in Savonlinna was evident. After the decision the emotions went from grief to despair and rage.The personnel felt overtaken in the decision making processes. Moving to the main campus felt oppressive. The students felt being betrayed because they had especially wanted to study in Savonlinna. Those whose studies were in the end can finish them in Savonlinna, but the new students have to start their studies twice; first in Savonlinna and later in Joensuu.Because the decision cannot be changed, it is resisted in other ways. The personnel try to do only the most necessary and students aim in speeding their studies to avoid moving. The research was seen therapeutic as it offered a possibility to reflect what had been experienced. It was kind of saying goodbye to a difficult matter.
    Keywords: teacher educationeconomic savingcontent analyzeexperiences of staff and students
  26. By: Cain Polidano (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Chris Ryan (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: This study uses longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey to study the long-run effects of completing vocational education and training (VET) on a set of labour market outcomes (employment, wages, earnings, hours and occupational status). It uses two novel approaches. First, it uses fixed effects regression methods to estimate effects from acquiring new qualifications. Second, it measures effects of acquiring qualifications at lower, the same and at higher levels than previously attained. This is important, since one half of the VET qualifications observed being completed in the HILDA data are at the same or lower levels. The use of fixed effects generates estimates that differ from those found previously in the literature, at least by gender. Here, the estimated improvements in outcomes for females following the completion of a VET qualification are often larger than they are for males. In the longer term, these results point to considerable stability in estimated effects – significant effects apparent in the first year after course completion tend to remain evident up to five years later. Completed qualifications that are not higher than those already held by individuals do not consistently improve the labour market outcomes studied here, but may provide other benefits.
    Keywords: Vocational education, qualification outcomes, all qualifications
    JEL: I21 I26 J21
    Date: 2016–11
  27. By: Baird, Matthew D.; Buchinsky, Moshe; Sovero, Veronica
    Abstract: This paper examines differences in STEM retention between minority and non-minority undergraduate students. To do so, we use detailed student records of a student's courses, grades, and current major for every term the student was enrolled in a large public university. To examine the role of ability in the switching decision and timing, we estimate STEM and non-STEM ability, and then compare the joint distribution of students who switch out of STEM versus STEM stayers. Students with relatively greater non-STEM ability are more likely to switch out of STEM, but ability cannot completely account for the differences in switching patterns for Hispanic and Black students. In fact, Black and Hispanic students are more likely to persist in STEM after ability is taken into account. We also find evidence of switching behavior that appears motivated by a preference for graduation within four years.
    Date: 2016–11
  28. By: Lalive, Rafael (University of Lausanne); Parrotta, Pierpaolo (ICN Business School)
    Abstract: Many OECD countries are reforming their pension systems. We investigate how pension eligibility affects labor supply in couples. Inspired by a theoretical framework, we measure how the sharp change in the pension eligibility of both partners affects labor force participation. We find that both partners leave the labor force as they become eligible for a pension. The effect of their own pension eligibility is 12 percentage points for women and 28 percentage points for men. Women also reduce their labor force participation by 2 to 3 percentage points as their partner reaches pension eligibility. For men, the effect of their partner's eligibility is smaller and not significantly different from zero. For women and men with low education, the effect of their own eligibility is strong. Regardless of education level, the partner eligibility effect is strong in homogamous couples. Studying joint labor supply, we find that pension eligibility reduces labor supply in couples by 44 percentage points, approximately 4 percentage points more than in a model that ignores partner eligibility effects.
    Keywords: couple labor supply, pension eligibility, full retirement age, household decisions
    JEL: J26 J14 C40 D10
    Date: 2016–11
  29. By: Hahn, Youjin; Hassani Mahmooei, Behrooz; Islam, Asadul; Patacchini, Eleonora; Zenou, Yves
    Abstract: We randomly assign more than 6,000 students to work on math tests in one of three settings: individually, in groups with random mates, or in groups with friends. The groups consist of four people and are balanced by average cognitive ability and ability distribution. While the achievement of male students is not affected by the group assignment, low-ability females assigned to groups outperform low-ability females working individually. The treatment is particularly effective when low-ability females study with friends. To rule out sorting effects, we show that random groups with identical composition to that of friendship groups do not produce similar effects. Our study thus documents that there are teaching practices where mixing students by ability may improve learning, especially for low-ability female students.
    Keywords: ability; education; Gender; learning; Social interactions
    JEL: E21 I25 J16 O12
    Date: 2016–11
  30. By: Colla J. MacDonald (Univerity of Ottawa); Derek Puddester (University of Ottawa); Lorne Wiesenfeld (University of Ottawa); Alan Chaput (University of Ottawa, Faculty of Medicine); Heather Summers (University of Ottawa)
    Abstract: Background: Realizing Program Administrators (PAs) are crucial to the success of the postgraduate medical education (PGME) program, the postgraduate medical education office at the University of Ottawa conducted a needs analysis to; (a) identify training opportunities PAs felt would support them in being effective at meeting role expectations including supporting Program Directors (PDs); and (b) gather information from PAs to guide the PGME office in taking positive action toward increasing satisfaction with services and resources. Methods: A mixed methods approach, involved collecting and analyzing data from online surveys and follow-up qualitative interviews. The constructs of the W(e)Learn framework (content, media (delivery), service, structure and outcomes) guided the data analysis. Results: PAs identified the following professional development topics they said would benefit them: Human Resources; Communication and Conflict Management Courses; Career Development; Evaluation, Policy, Multigenerational Workforces; and Best Technological Practices of Relevance to PAs. The PAs also identified several recommendations for how the PGME office could facilitate them effectively carrying out their roles and responsibilities. Conclusions: An effective form of support is offering convenient, relevant professional development to help employees meet role expectations. A well-designed professional development program should begin with a needs analysis to determine stakeholder needs with regard to relevant content, preferred delivery methods, service issues and course structure, in order to ensure desired learner outcomes.
    Keywords: Post graduate medical educationProgram administratorsresidentsNeeds analysisProgram evaluation
    JEL: I20 I23 O29
  31. By: Marine De Talancé (IRD - Institut de recherche pour le développement - Aucune, LEDa - DIAL - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - Economie de la mondialisation et du développement - Université Paris-Dauphine)
    Abstract: Using a gain model with three different levels of fixed effects, this paper empirically esti-mates the impacts of teachers on students' achievement in three districts in the rural province ofPunjab in Pakistan. The model-based results suggest that teachers' factors do explain students'achievement. Increasing teachers' wages could improve schooling quality along with recruitinglocal teachers with non-permanent contracts. Recruiting local teachers has an important posi-tive impact on students' achievement especially for girls. It could therefore reduce gender basedinequalities of academic achievement. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that policy reforms con-cerning training programs and re-thinking wage policies should be on the agenda of future research.
    Abstract: Ce papier évalue l'impact des professeurs sur les résultats scolaires des élèves dans trois districtsde Punjab au Pakistan. Les résultats de cette étude indiquent que les différences d'enseignants ex-pliquent partiellement la réussite scolaire des élèves. Les élèves qui ont un professeur mieux payé,engagé avec un contrat temporaire et originaire de la même région que l'école ont de meilleursrésultats. Recruter des professeurs locaux est associé à un gain de connaissances supérieur pourles filles par rapport aux garçons. De plus, notre analyse suggère que des réformes concernant lesprogrammes de formation des professeurs devraient être mises en place.
    Keywords: Punjab,Temporary contract,Education, Pakistan,Primary Schooling, Quality,Skills,Teachers,Qualité de l'éducation,Pakistan,Enseignement primaire,Connaissances cognitives,Professeurs,Contrat temporaire
    Date: 2016–11–10
  32. By: Sanaa SABOUR ALAOUI (Polydisciplinary Faculty Beni-Mellal); Barge Nadia (polydisciplinqry faculty of beni mellal)
    Abstract: BACKGROUNDToday, the number of allergy is increasing in industrialized countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies allergic diseases to be the fourth in the world of affections. WHO considers that these diseases are a major public health problem in terms of quality of life, loss of work days, teaching, drug and even mortality cost.The frequency of respiratory allergies including asthma and allergic rhinitis due to pollens is increasing in the young and urban dwellers in developed countries. METHODS: For this project, we chose Polydisciplinary Faculty of Beni-Mellal (FPBM) located in the center of Morocco as a place for the study of pollen allergy. It is a public institution of higher education, that receives thousands of students from different parts of the region which is characterized by its vegetation richness. The project was to study pollen allergy in FPBM in an effective sample of 529 randomly chosen within a range of about 7,000 students. A survey was made for a descriptive studies. Results: The percentage of students allergic to pollen surveyed in the FPBM was 39%. This percentage was within the confidence interval of all students in the allergic FPBM [35%; 44%] estimated 5% error risk. This results prove that our sample was representative. We also found that the allergic to pollen presents a significant percentage of 40.5% for female compared to 36.6% for male. Our study shows that the olive tree is the main allergen causing pollen allergy. The majority of the surveyed students are allergic to one or two types of plants. The most common symptoms of pollen allergy among its students are the nasal symptoms (sneezing and nasal itching).This study shows that most students have allergies in the spring season. Our study shows also that the cross-reactivity between pollen and food was the most dominant CONCLUSIONS: The high percentage of students allergic to pollen surveyed in the FPBM might be explained by the wealth of the region in vegetation. We suggested that the difference seen beteween female and male is due to physiological and hormonal differences between the sexes. Olive tree was the main allergen ,this can be explained by the richness of the region of Beni-Mellal-Khénifra with this plant.
    Keywords: Survey, Pollen allergy, symptoms, FPBM, Olive tree, cross-reactivity
    JEL: I10
  33. By: Neslihan LOK (Selçuk University Faculty of Health Sciences); Erdal TASGIN (Selçuk University Faculty of Sport Sciences); Muammer CANBAZ (Selçuklu Anatolian School); Sefa LOK (Selçuk University Faculty of Sport Sciences)
    Abstract: Introduction And Objective: Depression is the most common disease of our century which is a very serious individual and social mental disease due to its recurrence and chronicity rate, significant suicidal risk and its creating failure. The influences of exercise has been examined in several studies. This research is conducted in order to examine the influence of exercise on the depression level of adolescents. Method: This is a control group study with a pretest posttest design in which the adolescents perform regular exercises. The study is conducted with 40 high school senior students - 20 initiative and 20 control group subjects - who are studying in a high school in Antalya city. The initiative group is taken into a weekly ‘5 day 50 minute’ exercise program for 10 weeks. Beck depression scale is applied on the participants before ( week 0) and after (at the end of week 10) the exercise program. For the evaluation of the data, chi square, Mann Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests are utilized. Findings: The age average of the participant students is 17.04±1.17; also it is detected that 57% of them are female students and 24.2% of them are slightly overweight. While the depression level score average of the initiative group before the exercise program is 22.12±3.42, this score decreases to 15.32±2.47 after the program and this difference is found to be statistically significant (p 0.05).Conclusion: According to the results obtained, it is seen that the 10 week exercise program which is applied on the initiative group is influential on decreasing the depression level score averages of the adolescents. These findings might be a base for encouraging the students towards regular exercise to be able to have a better mental health.
    Keywords: Adolescent, exercise, depression level
  34. By: Bethencourt, Carlos; Kunze, Lars
    Abstract: This paper studies efficient tax policies in Ramsey’s tradition when consumers face temptation and self control problems in inter-temporal decision making. We embed the class of preferences developed by Gul and Pesendorfer into a simple two-period life-cycle model and show that education should be effectively subsidized if the elasticity of the earnings function is increasing in education and if temptation problems are sufficiently severe. By contrast, if temptation problems are not sufficiently severe, efficient education policy calls for taxing education. Moreover, efficient labor taxation calls for subsidizing qualified labor if the strength of temptation is sufficiently large.
    Keywords: temptation, self control, second-best efficient taxation, inverse elasticity rule, education policy
    JEL: D91 H21 I28 J24
    Date: 2016–11–18

This nep-edu issue is ©2016 by João Carlos Correia Leitão. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.