nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒11‒13
28 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Profile of Educational Outcomes by Gender: An Age Cohort Analysis By Madeeha Gohar Qureshi
  2. The effect of teenage employment on character skills, expectations and occupational choice strategies By Fuchs, Benjamin
  3. The Post Matriculation Enrolment Decision: Do Public Colleges Provide Students with a Viable Alternative? Evidence from the First Four Waves of the National Income Dynamics Study By Nicola Branson; Amy Kahn
  4. Expansion and Evaluation of Social Sciences Disciplines in the Public Sector Universities of Pakistan from 1947 to 2013 By Muhammad Arslan Haider; Zulfiqar Ali
  5. Political Turnover, Bureaucratic Turnover, and the Quality of Public Services By Mitra Akhtari; Diana Moreira; Laura Trucco
  6. The Impact of Performance Ratings on Job Satisfaction for Public School Teachers By Cory Koedel; Jiaxi Li; Matthew G. Springer; Li Tan
  7. The Compositional Effect of Rigorous Teacher Evaluation on Workforce Quality By Julie Berry Cullen; Cory Koedel; Eric Parsons
  8. Regulating Publicly Funded Private Schools: A Literature Review on Equity and Effectiveness By Luka Boeskens
  9. Impact of Foreign Aid in Education on Educational Outcomes By M. Ali Kemal; Anum Jilani
  10. Student responses to the changing content of school meals in India By Farzana Afridi; Bidisha Barooah; Rohini Somanathan
  11. The return to education in terms of wealth and health By Strulik, Holger
  12. Higher education and the fall and rise of inequality By Prettner, Klaus; Schäfer, Andreas
  13. The Impact of Maternal Death on Children's Health and Education Outcomes By Cally Ardington; Megan Little
  14. How Information Affects Support for Education Spending: Evidence from Survey Experiments in Germany and the United States By Martin R. West; Ludger Woessmann; Philipp Lergetporer; Katharina Werner
  15. Impact of Training and Mentoring on Employee Performance - Empirical analysis of Public and Private Universities’ staff members of Islamabad By Tanoli, Mubashar Farooq
  16. El Impacto del Sistema Tributario y el Gasto Social en la Distribución del Ingreso y la Pobreza en América Latina: Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Perú y Uruguay By Nora Lustig
  17. Does corporate social responsibility make over-educated workers more productive? By Romina R. Giuliano; Benoît Mahy; François Rycx; Guillaume Vermeylen
  18. Investment in education under disappointment aversion By Dan Anderberg; Claudia Cerrone
  19. Which incentives to increase survey response of secondary school pupils? By Sprietsma, Maresa
  20. Educational mismatches and earnings: are the graduates more penalized for being overeducated? By Leszek Wincenciak
  21. From “Ring-a-Ring O’ Roses†….To “Coffins Full of Roses†: Impact of Exposure to Terrorism on Students’ Outcome By Afnan Nasim; Zaira Hijab
  22. Effect of Parental Job Loss on Child School Dropout: Evidence from the Palestinian Occupied Territories By Michele Di Maio; Roberto Nisticò
  23. Impact of Quality Education and Tangibles of Education system (constructs of globalization) on Literacy Improvement- An analysis of Public-Private Educational Sector of Southern Punjab Region of Pakistan By Farooq, Mubashar
  24. Access to education and teenage childbearing By Martin Foureaux Koppensteiner; Jesse Matheson
  25. Human Capital Investment under Quasi-Geometric Discounting By Karl David Boulware; Robert R. Reed; Ejindu Ume
  26. Remittances and the Brain Drain: Evidence from Microdata for Sub-Saharan Africa By Julia Bredtmann; Fernanda Martínez Flores; Sebastian Otten
  27. The impact on wages and worked hours of childbirth in France. By Bruno Rodrigues; Vincent Vergnat
  28. The Ranking of Researchers by Publications and Citations By Hausken, Kjell

  1. By: Madeeha Gohar Qureshi (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad)
    Abstract: How do we achieve target of universal primary education in Pakistan and how do we keep students that have enrolled to continue with schooling to higher levels are the most important policy questions which can only be effectively answered if one is well-informed about the trends in educational outcomes and of proportion of students indulging in continuation or discontinuation of schooling at critical transitions say from primary to secondary benchmark and higher. Hence an accurate description of patterns in educational achievements is crucial for both understanding the dynamic of low human capital stock build up and also for finding ways of getting out of such low-educational trap. In this context gender discrepancy in human capital building process plays an important role and in this paper an attempt is made to examine in-depth how gap in attained schooling measures for males and females at different levels of education have evolved in Pakistan through analysing the varying behaviour over age cohorts by gender. Further not only patterns of gender gap in achieved education are formulated for overall economy and across rural-urban divide both at national and provincial level but a rough estimate for attrition or continuation in studies as one move from lower to higher educational level for males and females within age cohort 15–19 are also evaluated so as to capture in totality the gender dynamics in education sector. Our findings show that though there is conspicuous deviations in percentage shares of population with completed grades by gender in favour of the males and against females at all levels of education from basic to higher studies within each province (only exception to this trend is at tertiary level of education within urban Punjab where females are in slightly higher proportion), however the analysis by age cohort show that as one move from oldest to youngest age group with individuals belonging to attained education from primary to tertiary level of education, there is a present a tilt towards university level of education for females within their own attainment distribution indicating that there is emerging a tendency of break in patriarchal force against female education. Further such tendencies are more apparent in urban parts of Pakistan and that too from mainly Province Punjab.
    Keywords: Schooling Attainment, Gender, Age Cohort Analysis, Pakistan
    JEL: I21 J16
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Fuchs, Benjamin
    Abstract: A growing body of research suggests that, even after controlling for cognitive abilities, personality predicts economic success in later life. The learning environment at school focuses on knowledge and cognitive skills. The transmission of character skills, however, is not at the center of attention. Leisure activities as informal learning activities outside of school may affect the formation of skills. By providing valuable opportunities, working part-time while attending full-time secondary schooling can be seen as a stepping stone toward independence and adulthood. The channel of the positive influence, however has not been identified empirically. I suggest that employment during adolescence promotes the formation of character skills that are known to have a positive effect on labor market outcomes and educational achievement. Employing a exible strategy combining propensity score matching and regression techniques to account for self-selection, I find beneficial e ects on character skills. Further, it improves future expectations, the knowledge on which skills and talents school students have and reduces the importance of parents advice with respect to their childs future career. The results are robust to several model specifications and varying samples and robust to including family-fixed effects.
    Keywords: human capital,teenage employment,non-cognitive skills,time use,treatment effect
    JEL: I21 J13 J24
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Nicola Branson (SALDRU, UCT); Amy Kahn (SALDRU, UCT)
    Abstract: This paper uses National Income Dynamic Survey (NIDS) data from 2008-2015, together with administrative data on South African schools and post-secondary institutions, to estimate the impact of home background, school quality and scholastic ability during a learner's final years of schooling on enrolment in post-secondary education. We analyse enrolment patterns for each of three institution types separately, namely public universities, public Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) colleges, and private colleges. In light of government's current policy to expand TVET colleges over the next two decades, we focus specifically on this institutional category. In particular, we investigate the role of financial constraints in the enrolment decision, in order to assess the viability of the plan to expand post-secondary education via the TVET sector. Through a series of multinomial logit regressions, we find that household income during matric year is highly significant in determining enrolment in all types of post-secondary institutions, including TVETs. Individual ability (as measured by numeracy test scores) is also important in explaining enrolment in both universities and TVETs, even after controlling for socio-economic background and school quality variables. These findings suggest that increasing the number of seats available at TVET colleges, without expanding funding opportunities and assessing the level of course content, is unlikely to result in the target of 2.5 million learners in TVET by 2030 being met.
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Muhammad Arslan Haider (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad); Zulfiqar Ali (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad)
    Abstract: New tools and technologies have changed the existing social order of society and due to this new social order a new knowledge about society is emerged what is known as “Social Sciences”. During the 19th century social sciences were disciplined and institutionalised in the form of established departments in the Western universities. In Pakistan, universities doing research and teaching in the various fields of social sciences since the independence and the development started particularly from 1960. The evaluation of social sciences is the part of academic activity in developed countries but in Pakistan, the evaluation of academic disciplines remained underdeveloped. The purpose of this research study was to examine the expansion and to evaluate the social sciences in Pakistan. The sample consisted of 60 departments of social sciences from five disciplines (Economics, History, Political Science, Journalism and Sociology) taken from 17 public sector universities of Pakistan. The expansion of social sciences was looked in terms of university, department and faculty strength, while the evaluation of these academic disciplines were measured by the qualification profile of teachers teaching postgraduate classes in public sector universities of Pakistan. Both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies are applied in this research. For the theoretical grounds dependency theory is applied and discussed the intellectual dependency of underdeveloped states on developed states. In Pakistan the extension and expansion of higher education is without any proper planning and policy and due to that reason social sciences disciplines were facing different challenges of specialised faculty, research methodologies and relevant research. In Pakistan, as an indicator higher education was very low comparatively to other countries.
    Keywords: Evaluation, Expansion, Public Universities, Qualification, Social Sciences
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Mitra Akhtari; Diana Moreira; Laura Trucco
    Abstract: We study how political party changes in mayoral elections in Brazil affect the provision of public education. Exploiting a regression discontinuity design for close elections, we find that municipalities with a new party in office have test scores that are 0.07 standard deviations lower than comparable municipalities with no change in the ruling party. Party turnover leads to a sharp increase in the replacement rate of headmasters and teachers in schools controlled by the municipality. In contrast, we show that changes in the party of the mayor do not impact the rate of replacement of school personnel or student test scores for local (non-municipal) schools that are not controlled by the mayor's office. The findings suggest that political turnover in Brazilian municipalities negatively impacts student outcomes through political discretion over the municipal education bureaucracy. Political turnover can adversely affect the quality of public service provision in environments where the bureaucracy is not shielded from the political process.
    Date: 2016–01
  6. By: Cory Koedel (Department of Economics and Truman School of Public Affairs); Jiaxi Li (Department of Economics, at the University of Missouri); Matthew G. Springer (Peabody College of Education and Human Development at Vanderbilt University); Li Tan (Department of Economics, at the University of Missouri)
    Abstract: Spurred by the federal Race to the Top competition, the state of Tennessee implemented a comprehensive statewide educator evaluation system in 2011. The new system is designed to increase the rigor of evaluations and better differentiate teachers based on performance. The use of more differentiated ratings represents a significant shift in education policy. We merge teacher performance evaluations from the new system with data from post-evaluation teacher surveys to examine the effects of the differentiated ratings on job satisfaction for teachers. Using a regression-discontinuity design, we show that higher ratings under the new system causally improve teachers’ perceptions of work relative to lower ratings. Our findings offer the first causal evidence of which we are aware on the relationship between performance ratings and job satisfaction for individual teachers.
    Keywords: personnel evaluation, teacher evaluation, job satisfaction, teacher quality
    JEL: I20 J38 J45
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Julie Berry Cullen; Cory Koedel; Eric Parsons
    Abstract: Improving public sector workforce quality is challenging in sectors such as education where worker productivity is difficult to assess and manager incentives are muted by political and bureaucratic constraints. In this paper, we study how providing information to principals about teacher effectiveness and encouraging them to use the information in personnel decisions affects the composition of teacher turnovers. Our setting is the Houston Independent School District, which recently implemented a rigorous teacher evaluation system. Prior to the new system teacher effectiveness was negatively correlated with district exit and we show that the policy significantly strengthened this relationship, primarily by increasing the relative likelihood of exit for teachers in the bottom quintile of the quality distribution. Low-performing teachers working in low-achieving schools were especially likely to leave. However, despite the success, the implied change to the quality of the workforce overall is too small to have a detectable impact on student achievement.
    JEL: H75 I28 J45
    Date: 2016–11
  8. By: Luka Boeskens
    Abstract: As school choice is an increasingly common feature of OECD education systems, the regulation of publicly funded private schools has become a salient concern for researchers and policy makers alike. Focussing on three areas of regulation – selective admission, add-on tuition fees and for-profit ownership – this paper provides a review of the theoretical and empirical literature concerning their effects on equity and educational effectiveness. It also offers an overview of different countries’ approaches to the funding of private education and the methodological challenges involved in their empirical evaluation. The available evidence confirms that the funding of private schools has yielded widely different results across educational systems and suggests that regulatory frameworks are an important factor shaping these outcomes. Selective admission and substantial add-on tuition fees in particular are likely to exacerbate social segregation and can undermine schools’ incentives to compete on the basis of educational quality. The evidence on subsidised for-profit schools is equally divergent across countries but evidence points to the importance of rigorous accreditation processes and clear conditions concerning selectivity and fees to guide allocation of public funds. Although important questions are yet to be conclusively addressed, including the interaction of different regulatory devices and their effect on specific student groups, the existing literature suggests that private school regulation can make an important contribution to the equity and effectiveness of school choice programmes. À mesure que le choix scolaire est une caractéristique des systèmes éducatifs de l'OCDE de plus en plus commune, la réglementation des écoles privées subventionnées par l’État est devenue une préoccupation saillante pour les chercheurs et les décideurs. En se concentrant sur trois domaines de la réglementation – l’admission sélective, les frais de scolarité et les établissements à but lucratif – ce rapport présente une revue de la littérature théorique et empirique concernant leurs effets sur l'équité et l'efficacité pédagogique. Il énumère également des approches différentes au financement des écoles privées et les défis méthodologiques impliqués dans leur évaluation empirique. Les données disponibles confirment que le financement de l'enseignement privé a donné des résultats très différents à travers les systèmes éducatifs et suggère que les cadres réglementaires sont un principal facteur affectant ces résultats. L’admission sélective et les frais de scolarité substantiels en particulier sont susceptibles d'aggraver la ségrégation sociale et de réduire les incitations des écoles de concourir sur la base de leur qualité éducative. Les données sur les écoles subventionnées à but lucratif sont également divergentes à travers des pays, mais ils soulignent l'importance d'un processus d'accréditation rigoureux et des conditions réglementaires en ce qui concerne leur qualité et sélectivité. Bien que des questions importantes doivent encore être abordées définitivement, la littérature existante suggère que la réglementation des écoles privées peut constituer une contribution importante à l'équité et l'efficacité des programmes de choix scolaire.
    Date: 2016–11–11
  9. By: M. Ali Kemal (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad); Anum Jilani (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad)
    Abstract: The study is an attempt to reveal a link between foreign aid and educational projects in the last one and a half decade. This study used nonlinear model by adding square term of foreign aid to capture the nonlinear association with the primary enrolment, secondary enrolment and higher enrolment. Nevertheless the linear model is also estimated and in the all the three models the results are same that foreign aid in the three sectors does not affect enrolment rate. The study concludes that foreign aid could be effective in increasing primary enrolment but not secondary or higher enrolment.
    Keywords: Aid, Education, Effectiveness, Enrolment
    JEL: I2 H5 I22 F35
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Farzana Afridi (Indian Statistical Institute); Bidisha Barooah (International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie)); Rohini Somanathan (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics)
    Abstract: Can countries with binding budget constraints increase the benefits of school transfers through better program design? We use a cost-neutral change in the design of India's school meal program to study this question. Municipal schools in Delhi switched from packaged snacks to cooked meals in 2003, with no change in payments to meal providers. We use variation in the timing of this transition and child-level panel data to estimate a 3 percentage point rise in average monthly attendance in response to the new program. The effects are largest for early grades, morning school shifts and schools serving diverse menus.
    Keywords: school meals, attendance, program design
    JEL: D1 E31 F01
    Date: 2016–10
  11. By: Strulik, Holger
    Abstract: This study presents a new view on the association between education and longevity. In contrast to the earlier literature, which focused on inefficient health behavior of the less educated, we investigate the extent to which the education gradient can be explained by fully rational and efficient behavior of all social strata. Specifically, we consider a life-cycle model in which the loss of body functionality, which eventually leads to death, can be accelerated by unhealthy behavior and delayed through health expenditure. Individuals are heterogeneous with respect to their return to education. The proposed theory rationalizes why individuals equipped with a higher return to education chose more education as well as a healthier lifestyle. When calibrated for the average male US citizen, the model motivates about 50% percent of the observable education gradient by idiosyncratic returns to education, with causality running from education to longevity. The theory also explains why compulsory schooling has comparatively small effects on longevity and why the gradient gets larger over time through improvements in medical technology.
    Keywords: health inequality,schooling,aging,longevity,health expenditure,unhealthy behavior,smoking,value of life
    JEL: D91 I10 I20 J24
    Date: 2016
  12. By: Prettner, Klaus; Schäfer, Andreas
    Abstract: We investigate the effect of higher education on the evolution of inequality. In so doing we propose a novel overlapping generations model with three social classes: the rich, the middle class, and the poor. We show that there is an initial phase in which no social class invests in higher education of their children such that inequality is driven by bequests. Once a certain income threshold is surpassed, the rich start to invest in higher education of their children, which partially crowds out bequests and thereby reduces income inequality and inheritance flows in the short run. The better educated children of the rich, however, enjoy higher incomes such that inequality starts to rise again. As time goes by, the middle class and potentially also the poor start to invest in higher education. As the economy proceeds toward a balanced growth path, educational differences between social groups and thus inequality decline again. We argue that (1) the proposed mechanism has the potential to explain the U-shaped evolution of income inequality and inheritance flows in rich countries as well as the differential investments in higher education by richer and poorer households, (2) the currently observed increase in inequality is likely to level off in the future.
    Keywords: Higher education,inequality,growth regime switch,middle income trap,Piketty curve
    JEL: I23 I24 I25 O11 O41
    Date: 2016
  13. By: Cally Ardington (SALDRU, School of Economics, University of Cape TownAuthor-Email:); Megan Little (SALDRU, UCT)
    Abstract: The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to have a devastating impact, particularly on the lives of sub-Saharan African children. In addition to reversing the downward secular trend in infant and child mortality, HIV/AIDS has orphaned millions of children. Substantial progress has been made in reducing mother-to-child transmission, but rates of orphanhood continue to climb despite increased availability of antiretroviral therapy. UNAIDS estimates that in sub-Saharan Africa in 2014, 11 million children under the age of 18 had lost one or both of their parents to AIDS (UNAIDS 2016). Recent empirical evidence suggests that children in sub-Saharan Africa who have suffered parental loss are at risk of poorer educational outcomes (Beegle, de Weerdt and Dercon 2006; Bicego, Bicego et al 2003; Case, Paxson and Ableidinger 2004; Evans and Miguel 2007; Guarcello et al. 2004; Monasch and Boerma 2004; Ardington and Leibbrandt 2010; Case and Ardington 2006; Ardington 2009). In South Africa, there are significant differences in the impact of a mother and a father's death. The loss of a child's mother is a strong predictor of poor schooling outcomes, while the loss of a child's father is a significant correlate of poor household socioeconomic status. In two localised longitudinal studies, Case and Ardington (2006) and Ardington and Leibbrandt (2009) use the timing of mothers' deaths relative to children's educational shortfalls to argue that mothers' deaths have a causal effect on children's education. They cannot, however, answer the question of why children whose mothers have died fall behind in school.
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Martin R. West; Ludger Woessmann; Philipp Lergetporer; Katharina Werner
    Abstract: We study whether current spending levels and public knowledge of them contribute to transatlantic differences in policy preferences by implementing parallel survey experiments in Germany and the United States. In both countries, support for increased education spending and teacher salaries falls sharply when respondents receive information about existing levels. Treatment effects vary by prior knowledge in a manner consistent with information effects rather than priming. Support for salary increases is inversely related to salary levels across American states, suggesting that salary differences between the two countries could explain Germans’ lower support for increases. Information about the tradeoffs between different categories of education spending shifts preferences away from class-size reduction and towards alternative purposes.
    JEL: D72 D83 H52 I22
    Date: 2016–11
  15. By: Tanoli, Mubashar Farooq
    Abstract: This study tries to illustrate the relationship between training, mentoring and employee performance. The purpose of the study is to highlight the role of different practices which are mainly out of a few practices of HR. Employee training and mentoring shows their influence on the employee performance. It will generate different results of empirically tested and analyzed data. Data from 250 staff members will be collected from different public and private sector universities of Islamabad. After collection of data it will be analyzed through SPSS and certain results will be achieved. Further, on the basis of calculations results will be obtained through SPSS. Limitations of the study mainly defines the lack of interest of many teacher who are less or not reluctant in sharing the information.
    Keywords: Training, Mentoring, Employee Performance
    JEL: J24 J28 O15
    Date: 2016–11–07
  16. By: Nora Lustig (Stone Center for Latin American Studies, Department of Economics, Tulane University. Commitment to Equity Institute (CEQI).)
    Abstract: Using standard fiscal incidence analysis, this paper estimates the impact of fiscal policy on inequality and poverty in thirteen countries in Latin America around 2010.Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica and Uruguay are the countries which redistribute the most and El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras redistribute the least. Contributory pensions are significantly equalizing in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay and also in Chile, Costa Rica and Ecuador but, in the latter, their effect is small. In the rest of the countries, contributory pensions are unequalizing but their effect is also small. More unequal countries tend to redistribute more. Bolivia, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Peru redistribute below the trend; Chile, Ecuador and Mexico are on trend; and, Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica and Uruguay redistribute above the trend. Fiscal policy reduces poverty in nine countries. However, in Brazil, Bolivia, Guatemala and Honduras, the incidence of poverty after taxes, subsidies and transfers (excluding spending on education and health) is higher than market income poverty, even though fiscal policy is equalizing. In Brazil and Mexico, a third of the post-fiscal poor were impoverished by fiscal policy and, in Bolivia and Guatemala, two thirds were. Public spending on pre-school and primary education is always equalizing and also pro-poor (i.e., per capita spending falls with per capita income). Spending on secondary education is always equalizing but pro-poor only in some countries. Spending on tertiary education is never pro-poor; however, it is always equalizing except for Guatemala. Government spending on public health is always progressive in relative terms and equalizing. Resumen. Este artículo presenta resultados sobre el impacto de la política fiscal en la desigualdad y la pobreza en trece países de América Latina para alrededor del año 2010. Los países que más redistribuyen son Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica y Uruguay, y los que menos, El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras. Las pensiones contributivas tienen un efecto igualador, de magnitud significativa, en Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay. En Chile, Costa Rica y Ecuador el efecto es igualador pero pequeño. En el resto de los países, el efecto es desigualador pero también pequeño. Estos resultados son importantes porque indican que no se puede afirmar de manera general que las pensiones contributivas en América Latina son regresivas y desigualadoras. Si las pensiones contributivas se consideran un ingreso diferido, el efecto redistributivo es 4.1 puntos porcentuales mayor en la Unión Europea pero 15.4 puntos porcentuales mayor cuando las pensiones contributivas se consideran una transferencia. Los resultados para los trece países latinoamericanos muestran que los países más desiguales tienden a dedicar una proporción mayor del PIB al gasto social y que a mayor gasto social, mayor redistribución. Los países más desiguales también tienden a redistribuir más. Entre los países que redistribuyen por debajo de lo que predice la tendencia, se encuentran Bolivia, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras y Perú.Chile, Ecuador y México prácticamente se encuentran sobre la línea de tendencia.Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica y Uruguay lo hacen por encima de la tendencia. Países con un nivel de gasto social similar muestran diferentes niveles de redistribución lo cual sugiere que otros factores tales como la composición y focalización del gasto intervienen en determinar el efecto redistributivo más alla del tamaño. La política fiscal reduce la pobreza extrema en nueve países: Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, México, Perú y Uruguay. Sin embargo, la incidencia de la pobreza después de impuestos, subsidios y transferencias monetarias es mayor que la incidencia para el ingreso de mercado en Bolivia, Brasil, Guatemala y Honduras, aun cuando la política fiscal reduce la desigualdad. Además, aun cuando la incidencia de la pobreza y la desigualdad se reducen, con la nueva medida de Empobrecimiento Fiscal se puede observar que en Brasil y México un tercio y en Bolivia y Guatemala dos tercios de la población pobre medida con el ingreso consumible fue empobrecida: es decir, pasó de pobre a ser más pobre o de no pobre a ser pobre. El gasto en educación pre-escolar y primaria es igualador y pro-pobre en todos los países. El gasto en educación secundaria es igualador en todos los países y también pro-pobre en algunos pero no en todos. El gasto en educación terciaria nunca es pro-pobre pero es igualador a excepción de Guatemala. El gasto en salud siempre es igualador pero es pro-pobre solamente en Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador y Uruguay.
    Keywords: incidencia fiscal, desigualdad, pobreza, impuestos, transferencias, América Latina
    JEL: D31 H22 I38
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Romina R. Giuliano; Benoît Mahy; François Rycx; Guillaume Vermeylen
    Abstract: This article provides first evidence on whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) influences the productivity effects of overeducation. By relying on detailed Belgian linked employer-employee panel data covering the period 1999-2010, our empirical results exhibit a positive and significant impact of over-education on firm productivity. Moreover, they suggest that the effect of over-education is positively enhanced when the firm implements a corporate social responsibility process, especially when it aims to have: i) a good match between job requirements and workers’ educational level, ii) a diverse workforce in terms of gender and age, and iii) a long-term relationship with its workers. Whenfocussing on required and over-education, the results suggest that CSR, besides representing an innovative and proactive approach for the firms’ stakeholders, may also be beneficial for the firm itself through a bigger increase in productivity for each additional year of required or over-education.
    Keywords: Educational mismatch; Productivity; CSR; Linked panel data
    JEL: J28 I20 J24 M50
    Date: 2016–11–08
  18. By: Dan Anderberg (Department of Economics, Royal Holloway University of London); Claudia Cerrone (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods)
    Abstract: This paper develops a model of risky investment in education under disappointment aversion, modelled as loss aversion around one's endogenous expectation. The model shows that disappointment aversion reduces the optimal investment in education for lower ability people and increases it for higher ability people, thereby magnifying the investment gap between them generated by the riskiness of education. Policies aimed at influencing students' expectations can reduce early dropout.
    Keywords: education, risk, disappointment aversion, endogeneous reference points
    JEL: D03 D81 I21
    Date: 2016–11
  19. By: Sprietsma, Maresa
    Abstract: Increasing participation rates in pupil surveys has become an important challenge for empirical educational research. In this paper we investigate whether combining a monetary incentive with a personalised invitation to participate in a survey increases the response rate of secondary school pupils. It is found that pupils who receive a personalised invitation and a monetary incentive are not more likely to participate, nor to participate more quickly following the invitation, than those who received a nonpersonalised invitation and a monetary incentive.
    Keywords: response rate,pupil survey,incentives
    JEL: I20 C83
    Date: 2016
  20. By: Leszek Wincenciak (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: This paper estimates an extended Mincer wage regression model with Heckman correction for non-random selection using LFS data for Poland for the second quarter of 2013. Significant wage penalties are found to overeducation status as well as positive wage premia for being undereducated, which confirms findings that are found in the literature for other countries. Using Duncan and Hoffman (1981) approach, we find significant positive returns to years of overschooling and negative for underschooling. Young participants of the labour market (graduates) are less penalized for being overeducated, which suggests their overeducation is not necessarily a manifestation of lower ability.
    Keywords: educational mismatch, overeducation, undereducation, wage premium, Poland
    JEL: J24 J31 J41
    Date: 2016
  21. By: Afnan Nasim (National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (NUCES), Islamabad); Zaira Hijab (National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (NUCES), Islamabad)
    Abstract: We examined the impact of exposure to terrorism on students’ outcome (i-e anxiety and learning ability of students). Data was collected from the sample (N=182) of students from various universities of twin cities of Pakistan in order to get the better findings and to support our hypothesis. The results revealed that the exposure to terrorism has positive and significant relation with students’ anxiety but positive and insignificant relation with students’ learning ability. Those students who personally experienced exposure to terrorism were more inclined towards anxiety than those who just listened to the news or heard from some other medium. Particularly, those students who were physically present on the place of incident were more likely to be stressed, uncertain and scared. Similarly, the findings indicate that there is a positive but insignificant relation between exposure to terrorism and students’ learning ability. It means that higher the exposure to terrorism, higher will be the students’ learning ability. In other words, students who are directly exposed to terrorism are more motivated towards learning.
    Keywords: Terrorism, anxiety, learning ability, nervousness, fear
  22. By: Michele Di Maio (University of Naples Parthenope); Roberto Nisticò (Università di Napoli Federico II and CSEF)
    Abstract: We investigate the effect of parental job loss on child school dropout using data from the Palestinian Labour Force Survey. To identify the effect, we exploit conflict-induced job separations of Palestinian workers employed in Israel during the Second Intifada. Our results show that parental job loss increases child's school dropout probability by 9 percentage points. The effect varies with the gender, grade, and academic ability of the child, with parental education and the number of children in the household. The effect appears to be driven by a drop in household income. We do not find evidence of alternative mechanisms such as parental divorce or relocation.
    Keywords: Job loss, school dropout, conict, Occupied Palestinian Territories, Israel
    JEL: H56 I20 J63
    Date: 2016–10–23
  23. By: Farooq, Mubashar
    Abstract: In the case of a firm or a nation lack of familiarity with the surroundings, changes occurring with the passage of time and lack of ability to adapt or cope with the changes around the globe draw you back and snatch the capability of fighting at front with the global challenges. In under developing and a few developing countries literacy has been their core issue while comparing them with the other nations of the world. Current study targeted the Public and Private sector educational institutions of South Region of Province Punjab of Pakistan. Institutions which were considered as the population of the study comprise of strength of students which were unable to be accounted for the collection of data. Sample size of 200 was selected on the basis of collection of data from prominent or senior students from all the selected institutes. Secondary data in the shape of statistical reports selected from the annual education reports were capitalized to strengthen the literature review while a survey questionnaire was applied to obtain the responses from the students of the different institutes. Results were obtained through SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Reliability Statistics, Factor Analysis and Correlation analysis were applied on the data to judge its strength, evaluation by respondents and capability to influence each other through their values of interrelation. Results of the data analysis provide full support to the annual educational reports so, supporting the activities done by the Government of Pakistan for promotion and development of Literacy. It was recommended that role of other dimensions of higher and quality education like (competency, attitude, delivery & reliability) can be applied to analyze their role in influencing the level of literacy.
    Keywords: Modern Quality Education, Tangibles of Education system, Literacy
    JEL: F6 I3 I38
    Date: 2016–11–01
  24. By: Martin Foureaux Koppensteiner; Jesse Matheson
    Abstract: We look at the effect of expanding secondary school access on teenage childbearing in Brazil. For this purpose we combine information from the Brazilian school census with vital statistics data. Variation in the introduction of schools across municipalities over time is used to estimate the effect of education access on teenage births. Our results show a 4.56% reduction in municipal teenage childbearing following a school introduction. These results suggest that Brazil’s secondary school expansion between 1997 and 2010 can account for 25% of a substantial decline in teenage childbearing observed over the same period.
    Keywords: Secondary education, teenage childbearing, Brazil
    JEL: I20 I26 J13
  25. By: Karl David Boulware (Department of Economics, Wesleyan University); Robert R. Reed (Department of Economics, Finance, and Legal Studies, University of Alabama); Ejindu Ume (Department of Economics, Miami University)
    Abstract: Recent work by Laibson (1997) identifies that individuals are excessively impatient in the short-run, but wish to become more patient over time. It is often argued that such a time-inconsistency problem distorts individuals’ savings decisions. The objective of this paper is to study human capital accumulation in the presence of a time-inconsistency problem. In doing so, we explain that many policies put into place to take advantage of the inter-personal benefits from human capital accumulation may also be important for resolving ‘intra-personal’ planning problems. Our results also shed light on the role of compulsory education.
    Keywords: Human Capital, Quasi-Geometric Discounting
    JEL: C6 E2 I2
    Date: 2016–08
  26. By: Julia Bredtmann (RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung); Fernanda Martínez Flores (RWI, Ruhr); Sebastian Otten (University College London)
    Abstract: Research on the relationship between high-skilled migration and remittances has been limited by the lack of suitable microdata. We create a unique cross-country dataset by combining household surveys from five Sub-Saharan African countries that enables us to analyze the effect of migrants’ education on their remittance behavior. Having comprehensive information on both ends of the migrant-origin household relationship and employing household fixed effects specifications that only use within-household variation for identification allows us to address the problem of unobserved heterogeneity across migrants’ origin households. Our results reveal that migrants’ education has no significant impact on the likelihood of sending remittances. Conditional on sending remittances, however, high-skilled migrants send significantly higher amounts of money to their households left behind. This effect holds for the sub-groups of internal migrants and migrants in non-OECD countries, while it vanishes for migrants in OECD destination countries once characteristics of the origin household are controlled for.
    Keywords: migration, remittances, skill level, brain drain, Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: F22 F24 O15
    Date: 2016–11
  27. By: Bruno Rodrigues; Vincent Vergnat
    Abstract: Using French administrative data, we estimate the impact of the birth of a first, second and third child on hourly wages, as well as for hours worked, for both women and men. We compute the impact on these out- come variables, two, four and six years after the birth of the child, and focus on the distinction between highly educated women and women with a high school degree or less. We also take the maternity leave (or pa- ternity leave in case of men) duration into account. Estimation is done with difference-in-differences and we compute bootstrapped confidence intervals. Results show both lower and highly educated women decrease significantly their working hours after the birth of their child. Men are, for the most part, not much impacted by the birth of their children. Ma- ternity leave duration influences the magnitude of the impact of the birth, especially on the hourly wages of educated women.
    Keywords: Fertility decisions, Labour Supply, Difference in Differences, Family pay gap.
    JEL: D10 J13
    Date: 2016
  28. By: Hausken, Kjell (UiS)
    Abstract: Researcher-level metrics assess a researcher’s publications and number of citations for each publication. This paper tests empirically 28 two-variable metrics, 26 of which are new in this paper, determined as geometric means from eight one-variable metrics. The 54 highest ranked researchers in RePEc are considered, 13 of whom are Nobel prize winners. One new one- variable metric, the number of citations for the 10 the most cited publication, is introduced. Characteristics of the eight one-variable metrics are considered, illustrating why two-variable metrics are needed. The 54 researchers are ranked for all 36 metrics. The lowest sum of ranks for the 13 Nobel prize winners occurs for metric c 1 , the number of citations for the highest cited publication. The 13 Nobel prize winners have on average 5.3 higher rank on w than on h, suggesting a need for being widely cited, not captured by the h -index. The metric nc, the square root of the product of the number of publications and the citation count, proposed as an interesting metric, correlates best with the RePEc scores. Correlations between the 36 metrics are determined. The 28 two-variable metrics are tentatively ranked according to how they capture characteristics apparently not captured by the one-variable metrics.
    Keywords: Keywords: Scientific impact indices; metrics; indices; research output; ranking; publications; citations; RePEc
    JEL: A12 A14
    Date: 2016–10–30

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