nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒10‒30
29 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Does distance determine who is in higher education? By Sørensen, Elise Stenholt; Høst, Anders Kamp
  2. Does increasing compulsory education decrease or displace adolescent crime? New evidence from administrative and victimization data By Brilli, Ylenia; Tonello, Marco
  3. What's in a Name? The Effect of Brand on the Level of English Universities' Fees By Andrew Jenkins; Alison Wolf
  4. Understanding the response to financial and non-financial incentives in education: Field experimental evidence using high-stakes assessments By Simon Burgess; Robert Metcalfe; Sally Sadoff
  5. Student earnings expectations: Heterogeneity or noise? By Díaz Serrano, Lluís; Hartog, Joop; Nilsson, William; Ophem, Hans van; Yang, Po
  6. Does malaria control impact education? Evidence from Roll Back Malaria in Africa By Maria Kuecken; Josselin Thuilliez; Marie-Anne Valfort
  7. What Happens to Students with Low Reading Proficiency at 15? Evidence from Australia By Cain Polidano; Chris Ryan
  8. Centralized Admission and the Student-College Match By Machado, Cecilia; Szerman, Christiane
  9. High-Stakes Accountability and Teacher Turnover: how do different school inspection judgements affect teachers' decisions to leave their school? By Sam Sims
  10. The Effect of Increasing Education Efficiency on University Enrollment: Evidence from Administrative Data and an Unusual Schooling Reform in Germany By Jan Marcus; Vaishali Zambre
  11. Learning by doing, low level equilibrium trap, and effect of domestic policies on child labour By Chakraborty, Kamalika; Chakraborty, Bidisha
  12. The Competitive Effects of Online Education By David J. Deming; Michael Lovenheim; Richard W. Patterson
  13. "DVD-based Distance-learning Program for University Entrance Exams: Experimental Evidence from Rural Bangladesh" By Hisaki Kono; Yasuyuki Sawada; Abu S. Shonchoy
  14. Student Aid, Academic Achievement, and Labor Market Behavior. By Elena Mattana; Juanna Joensen
  15. Fields of education, gender and the labour market By OECD
  16. Higher education expansion, economic reform and labor productivity By Yao, Yao
  17. Adjusting content to individual student needs: Further evidence from an in-service teacher training program By Adrien Bouguen
  18. School Hours and Maternal Labour Supply: A Natural Experiment from Germany By Nikki Shure
  19. Rising Aspirations Dampen Satisfaction By Andrew E. Clark; Akiko Kamesaka; Teruyuki Tamura
  20. Giving a Little Help to Girls? Evidence on Grade Discrimination and its Effect on Students Achievement By Camille Terrier
  21. Mobile Phones, Civic Engagement, and School Performance in Pakistan By Minahil Asim; Thomas Dee
  22. Are They All Like Bill, Mark, and Steve? The Education Premium for Entrepreneurs By Fabiano Schivardi; Claudio Michelacci
  23. Mathematics Curriculum Effects on Student Achievement in California By Cory Koedel; Diyi Li; Morgan S. Polikoff; Tenice Hardaway; Stephani L. Wrabel
  24. Giving Peru a Productivity Boost: Towards a System of Continuous Education and Training By Pablo Lavado; Jamele Rigolini; Gustavo Yamada
  25. Education, Labour Market Experience and Cognitive Skills: A First Approximation to the PIAAC Results By Juan Francisco Jimeno; Aitor Lacuesta; Marta Martínez-Matute; Ernesto Villanueva
  26. Financial Literacy: Thai Middle Class Women Do Not Lag behind By Antonia Grohmann; Olaf Hübler; Roy Kouwenberg; Lukas Menkhoff
  27. Determinants of Regional Differences in Rates of Overeducation in Europe By Davia, Maria A.; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.
  28. The Causes and Consequences of Increased Female Education and Labor Force Participation in Developing Countries By Rachel Heath; Seema Jayachandran
  29. Time Series Analysis & Choices for General and Vocational Education in Arab Economies By Harkat, Tahar; Driouchi, Ahmed; Achehboune, Amale

  1. By: Sørensen, Elise Stenholt; Høst, Anders Kamp
    Abstract: We assessed the effect of distance to higher education institutions on education enrolment. Furthermore, we analysed how parental education and geographic region affect the relationship between distance and enrolment. We employed Danish administrative data of high school students from 2006–2013 and found no relationship between distance and the decision to enrol in higher education, when controlling for individual and parental characteristics. However, the results did suggest a small negative association between distance and enrolment among students in cases where neither of their parents completed a higher education. However, this only applied in Central Jutland Region and Southern Denmark Region.
    Keywords: High school graduates, higher education, geographical accessibility, distance to school
    JEL: C25 I21 R10
    Date: 2015–12–11
  2. By: Brilli, Ylenia (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Tonello, Marco (Bank of Italy, Economic Research Department, Territorial Economic Research Unit)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the contemporaneous effect of education on adolescent crime by exploiting the implementation a reform that increases the school leaving age in Italy by one year. We find that the Reform increases the enrollment rate of all ages, but decreases the offending rate of 14-year-olds only, who are the age group explicitly targeted by the Reform. The effect mainly comes from natives males, while females and immigrants are not affected. The Reform does not induce crime displacement in times of the year or of the day when the school is not in session, but it increases violent crimes at school. By using measures of enrollment and crime, as well data at the aggregate and individual level, this paper shows that compulsory education reforms have a crime reducing effect induced by incapacitation, but may also lead to an increase of crimes in school facilities plausibly due to a higher students concentration.
    Keywords: adolescent crime; school enrollment; crime displacement; incapacitation
    JEL: I21 I28 J13 K42
    Date: 2016–10–18
  3. By: Andrew Jenkins (Department of Social Science, University College London); Alison Wolf (School of Management, King's College London)
    Abstract: Higher education is increasingly competitive and international in its recruitment of both students and faculty, and international 'league tables' are increasingly publicised and discussed. In many jurisdictions, universities also now have freedom to set fees for at least some students, and those with a high reputation are well placed to charge large amounts. England has a university sector which is highly differentiated in reputational terms, and a fee regime which allows universities to set fees for a large proportion of their students. It is therefore possible, using administrative and income data, to examine how far commonly recognised measures of reputation explain universities' teaching income per student, after controlling for a wide range of other factors. The results confirm that reputation, or 'brand', appears to have a very large impact on fee and teaching income, and that it is therefore entirely rational for English universities to prioritise activities which raise their international visibility and reputation.
    Keywords: Fees, Teaching income, Brand, University reputation, University revenue
    JEL: I22 I23
  4. By: Simon Burgess; Robert Metcalfe; Sally Sadoff
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of incentivizing students’ effort during the school year on performance on high-stakes assessments in a field experiment with 63 low-income high schools and over 10,000 students. We contribute to the literature on education incentives by incentivising inputs rather than output, by focusing on high stakes outcomes, and by comparing financial and non-financial rewards. We take advantage of our large sample and rich data to explore heterogeneity in the effects of incentives, and identify a “right tail” of underperforming students who experience a significant impact on high stakes assessments. Among students in the upper half of the distribution of incentive effectiveness, exam scores improve by 10% to 20% of a standard deviation, equal to about half the attainment gap between poor and non-poor students.
    Date: 2016–10–19
  5. By: Díaz Serrano, Lluís; Hartog, Joop; Nilsson, William; Ophem, Hans van; Yang, Po
    Abstract: Students’ choices in education can only be based on expected outcomes. Econometric models that infer expectations based on ex post outcomes impose a rational structure of expectations on school performance and post-graduation earnings. Direct surveys suggest much ignorance and fuzziness. We use survey data on expectations in four universities in three countries and check for relations of expected probability to graduate and of expected earnings with personal abilities and attitudes. We find that most of the difference in expectations among individuals is just noise. Keywords: Student expectations; earnings; earnings dispersion; risk attitudes. JEL Codes: I21; I26; J24; D83
    Keywords: Educació -- Models matemàtics, Orientació professional, 331 - Treball. Relacions laborals. Ocupació. Organització del treball, 37 - Educació. Ensenyament. Formació. Temps lliure,
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Maria Kuecken (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics); Josselin Thuilliez (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marie-Anne Valfort (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Relying on microeconomic data, we examine the impact of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) control campaigns on the educational attainment of primary school children in 14 Sub-Saharan African countries. Combining a difference-in-differences approach with an IV analysis, we exploit exogenous variation in pre-campaign malaria prevalence and exogenous variation in exposure to the timing and disbursements of the RBM campaign. In all 14 countries, the RBM campaign reveals itself as a particularly cost-effective strategy to improve primary school children’s educational attainment.
    Keywords: Malaria,Education,Roll-Back-Malaria
    Date: 2015–01–04
  7. By: Cain Polidano (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Chris Ryan (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: While is it widely accepted that adults with poor reading skills have inferior labour market outcomes, little is known about whether low reading proficiency in school is a precursor to inferior labour market outcomes in adulthood. We fill this gap in the literature using education and labour market information to age 25 years for participants in the 2003 Program of International Student Assessment (PISA) who were tracked from age 15 in the 2003 Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth. We find no difference in full-time employment rates or earning capacity of jobs attained at age 25 between those who had low and medium reading proficiency at age 15. Supporting analysis suggests that high rates of participation and positive outcomes from vocational education and training (VET) among those with low reading proficiency helps them avoid any negative effects from poor achievement in school. These results highlight the role of accessible VET pathways in facilitating the labour market participation of youth who may become disengaged from learning in school.
    Keywords: Academic achievement, PISA, labour market
    JEL: I20 I26 J01
    Date: 2016–10
  8. By: Machado, Cecilia (Fundação Getúlio Vargas); Szerman, Christiane (Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio))
    Abstract: Decentralized assignments in the education market have been increasingly replaced by centralized ones. However, empirical evidence on these transitions are scarce. This paper examines the adoption of centralized admissions in the Brazilian higher education market. Using rich administrative data, we exploit time variation in the adoption of a clearinghouse across institutions to investigate its impact on student sorting, migration and enrollment. We find that institutions under the centralized assignment are able to attract students with substantially higher test scores and that geographical mobility of admitted students increases. While there are no sizable effects on final enrollment rates, search is intensified. Overall, our findings indicate positive impacts of centralization on the college market.
    Keywords: test scores, college admission, centralized matching, higher education, migration, enrollment
    JEL: D47 I23 I28
    Date: 2016–09
  9. By: Sam Sims (Department of Social Science, University College London)
    Abstract: High teacher turnover damages pupil attainment (Borg et al., 2012; Ronfeldt et al., 2012). But while the effects of pupil and teacher characteristics on turnover are well documented, relatively little attention has been paid to the impact of the accountability system. This paper is the first to evaluate the effect on turnover of schools receiving different judgements from the English national schools inspectorate, Ofsted. Theoretically, the effects of inspection judgements are ambiguous. An 'Inadequate' rating may harm teachers' self-efficacy, increasing the chance of them leaving their current school. On the other hand, an 'Inadequate' rating provides a negative signal about the quality of teachers working in that school, decreasing the chance of them finding employment elsewhere. I use a difference in difference approach to estimate this empirically and find that an 'Inadequate' rating leads to an increase in turnover of 3.4 percentage points. By contrast, schools receiving an 'Outstanding' rating see no change in turnover. The results are robust to a number of specifications, sample restrictions and a placebo test.
    Keywords: Teacher turnover, high-stakes accountability, school inspection, efficacy, signalling
    JEL: I21 J44 J63 D82
    Date: 2016–10–10
  10. By: Jan Marcus; Vaishali Zambre
    Abstract: We examine the consequences of compressing secondary schooling on students’ university enrollment. An unusual education reform in Germany reduced the length of academic high school while simultaneously increasing the instruction hours in the remaining years. Accordingly, students receive the same amount of schooling but over a shorter period of time, constituting an efficiency gain from an individual’s perspective. Based on a difference-indifferences approach using administrative data on all students in Germany, we find that this reform decreased enrollment rates. Moreover, students are more likely to delay their enrollment, to drop out of university, and to change their major. Our results show that it is not easy to get around the trade-off between an earlier labor market entry and more years of schooling.
    Keywords: University enrollment, G8, workload, difference-in-differences, education efficiency
    JEL: I28 J18 D04
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Chakraborty, Kamalika; Chakraborty, Bidisha
    Abstract: This paper builds an overlapping generations household economy model with learning by doing effect in unskilled work. We study the short run equilibrium of schooling, relationship between child schooling and parental schooling, long run dynamics of schooling and human capital and relative effectiveness of two domestic policies- child labour ban and education subsidy on schooling. We find some interesting results. If parents working in unskilled sector do not experience any schooling at their childhood, they will never send their children for schooling. But the relationship between parental schooling and child schooling may not be monotonic. This relationship depends on other factors like subsistence consumption expenditure, learning by doing effect, responsiveness of wage to human capital in skilled sector, efficiency of education technology. Existence of low level equilibrium trap for unskilled parent depends on the specific form of human capital accumulation function. For a certain range of parental schooling time path of child schooling will be oscillating in nature. Decrease in child wage increases steady state schooling only if the maximum possible adult unskilled wage exceeds the sum of the schooling cost and subsistence expenditure of the household. If unskilled adult wage is sufficiently small, education subsidy is more effective in enhancing schooling than banning child labour.
    Keywords: child labour, schooling, human capital, low level equilibrium trap, oscillation, child labour ban, education subsidy
    JEL: I21 J22 J24 J82
    Date: 2016–10–22
  12. By: David J. Deming; Michael Lovenheim; Richard W. Patterson
    Abstract: We study the impact of online degree programs on the market for U.S. higher education. Online degree programs increase the competitiveness of local education markets by providing additional options in areas that previously only had a small number of brick-and-mortar schools. We show that local postsecondary institutions in less competitive markets experienced relative enrollment declines following a regulatory change in 2006 that increased the market entry and enrollment of online institutions. Impacts on enrollment were concentrated among private non-selective institutions, which are likely to be the closest competitors to online degree programs. We also find increases in per-student instructional spending among public institutions. Our results suggest that by increasing competitive pressure on local schools, online education can be an important driver of innovation and productivity in U.S. higher education.
    JEL: I22 I23
    Date: 2016–10
  13. By: Hisaki Kono (Faculty of Economics, Kyoto University); Yasuyuki Sawada (Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo); Abu S. Shonchoy (New York University and Institute of Developing Economies)
    Abstract: In contrast to the remarkable improvement in basic education globally, access to higher education remains limited in many developing countries, particularly in rural areas where the quantity and quality of supply is inadequate. In this study, we evaluate a unique DVD-based distance-learning program, targeting students who aim to take university entrance exams in rural Bangladesh, by conducting two experiments: one to evaluate the impact of the program and the second to examine its price sensitivity. Our findings demonstrated that the DVD program had a considerable positive effect on the probability of students passing entrance exams. This effect does not depend on students’ cognitive scores, but does depend on non-cognitive attributes―particularly self-control abilities―indicating the importance of a commitment mechanism in applying the DVD program. In the second experiment, we offered a randomized subsidy to interested participants; however, price sensitivity was not correlated with students' socio-economic status, suggesting that imposing a cost for such a program may not disproportionately exclude poor students. We also found evidence that a higher price induced a greater attendance rate due to the sunk cost effect.
    Date: 2016–10
  14. By: Elena Mattana (University of Chicago); Juanna Joensen (University of Chicago)
    Abstract: Does it matter whether study aid is provided as grants or loans? We provide a framework for quantifying the impacts of financial aid on student debt, academic capital, and labor market outcomes. We specify and estimate a dynamic discrete choice model of simultaneous education, work, and student loan take-up decisions. We use administrative panel data and exploit exogenous variation from the 2001 Swedish Study Aid reform for identification of the model parameters. This enables ex-ante evaluation of various changes to financial aid schemes. We find that additional years of aid and more generous means testing on student income substantially reduce dropout rates and increase graduation rates with more advanced degrees, but at the cost of students staying enrolled longer and accumulating more debt. Moving from an income-contingent to an annuity-based loan repayment scheme decreases student debt accumulation and improves the effectiveness of academic capital accumulation. If study aid consists mostly of grants, a reduction in loans and increase in grants reduces graduation rates. However, once loans are larger than grants, further changes have little impact on dropout and graduation rates. This means that in some cases, the government can decide who bears the college cost without affecting human capital accumulation.
    Date: 2016
  15. By: OECD
    Abstract: More and more adults are earning a tertiary qualification, but not all tertiary degrees have the same value on the labour market. In general, postgraduate degrees such as master’s and doctoral degrees are associated with higher employment rates and earnings than bachelor’s degrees. Labour market outcomes also vary by field of education. Some fields of education differ markedly in their gender composition, reflecting the sex-typing of occupations and gender stereotypes. Graduates’ field of education is closely related with their occupational choices; therefore a better understanding of gender disparities in this area can help to identify some of the mechanisms that lie behind gender differences in the labour market and beyond.
    Date: 2016–10–28
  16. By: Yao, Yao
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of higher education expansion, along with economic reform of the state sector, in the late 1990’s in China on its labor productivity. I argue that in an economy such as China, where allocation distortions widely exist, an educational policy affects average labor productivity not only through its effect on human capital stock, but also through its effect on human capital allocation across sectors. Thus, its impact could be very limited if misallocation becomes more severe following the policy. I construct a two-sector general equilibrium model with private enterprises and state-owned enterprises, with policy distortions favoring the latter. Households, heterogeneous in ability, make educational choices and occupational choices in a threeperiod overlapping-generations setting. Counterintuitively, quantitative analysis shows an overall negative effect of higher education expansion on average labor productivity (by 5 percent). Though it did increase China’s skilled human capital stock significantly (by nearly 50 percent), the policy had the effect of reallocating relatively more human capital toward the less-productive state sector. This also directed physical capital allocation toward the state sector and further dampened average labor productivity. It was the economic reform that greatly improved the allocation efficiency and complemented educational policy in enhancing labor productivity (by nearly 50 percent).
    Keywords: Higher education, China, Economic reform, Educational policy,
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Adrien Bouguen (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: Adapting instruction to the specific needs of each student is a promising strategy to improve overall academic achievement. In this article, I study the impact of an intensive in-service teacher training program on reading skills offered to kindergarten teachers in France. The program modifies the lesson content and encourages teachers to adapt instruction to student needs by dividing the class according to initial achievement. While assessing impact is usually difficult due to the presence of ability bias and teacher selection, I show that in this context, a value-added model that controls for school and teacher characteristics constitutes a legitimate strategy to estimate the treatment effect. Results show that all students benefiting from the program progressed in reading skills at the end of the year. Besides, weaker students progressed faster on less-advanced competences (such as letter recognition), while stronger students improved their reading skills. This suggests that teachers adjusted content to students' needs. Finally, a cost-effectiveness analysis reveals that the program is approximately three times more cost-effective than reducing class size in France.
    Keywords: teacher training,inequality, Early childcare program,teaching practices and content
    Date: 2015–03
  18. By: Nikki Shure (Department of Social Science, University College London)
    Abstract: This paper examines the recent German reform to increase primary school hours and the effect this has had on maternal labour supply. The introduction of Ganztagsschulen, or full day schools, has been one of the largest and most expensive reforms in the German education landscape over the past 15 years, but with little evaluation. While the impetus for the reform came from improving pupils' learning outcomes, it was also motivated by a desire to increase maternal labour supply, which had been traditionally low in Germany as compared to other countries. I exploit the quasi-experimental nature of reform to assess whether or not gaining access to a full day school increases the likelihood that mothers enter into the labor market or extend their working hours if already employed. I use the German Socio-Economic Panel data set (GSOEP) and link it to a school-level data set with geographical information software (GIS). Using a flexible difference-in-difference approach in my estimation of linear probability and logit models, I find that the policy has a statistically significant effect of approximately five percentage points at the extensive margin, drawing more women into the labor market. I find no significant impact of the policy at the intensive margin; women who were already working do not extend their hours and in some cases even shorten them. These results are robust to a variety of checks and comparable to previous findings in the literature on childcare and maternal labor supply. This is one of the few papers, however, to look at the relationship between primary school and maternal labor supply at the level of treatment.
    Keywords: Time Allocation and Labor Supply, Education: Government Policy, Economics of Gender
    JEL: J22 I28 J16
  19. By: Andrew E. Clark (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), PSE - Paris School of Economics); Akiko Kamesaka (Aoyama Gakuin University, ESRIN - European State Research Institute - ESA); Teruyuki Tamura (Sophia University - Sophia University)
    Abstract: It is commonly-believed that education is a good thing for individuals. Yet its correlation with subjective well-being is most often only weakly positive, or even negative, despite the many associated better individual-level outcomes We here square the circle using novel Japanese data on happiness aspirations. If reported happiness comes from a comparison of outcomes to aspirations, then any phenomenon raising both at the same time will have only a muted effect on reported well-being. We find that around half of the happiness effect of education is cancelled out by higher aspirations, and suggest a similar dampening effect for income.
    Keywords: Education,Satisfaction,Aspirations,Income
    Date: 2015–03
  20. By: Camille Terrier (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper tests whether we observe sex-discrimination in teachers' grades, and whether such biases affect pupils' achievement during the school year. I use a unique dataset containing standardized tests, teachers' attributed grades, and pupil's behavior, all three at different periods in time. Based on double-differences, the identification of the gender bias in teachers' grades suggests that (i) girls benefit from a substantive positive discrimination in math but not in French, (ii) girls' better behavior than boys, and their initial lower achievement in math do not explain much of this gender bias. Then, I use the heterogeneity in teachers' discriminatory behavior to show that classes in which teachers present a high degree of discrimination in favor of girls at the beginning of the year are also classes in which girls tend to progress more over the school year compared to boys.
    Keywords: Gender,grading,discrimination,progress
    Date: 2014–11
  21. By: Minahil Asim; Thomas Dee
    Abstract: The effective governance of local public services depends critically on the civic engagement of local citizens. However, recent efforts to promote effective citizen oversight of the public-sector services in developing countries have had mixed results. This study discusses and evaluates a uniquely designed, low-cost, scalable program designed to improve the governance and performance of primary and middle schools in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The School Council Mobilization Program (SCMP) used mobile-phone calls to provide sustained and targeted guidance to local school-council members on their responsibilities and authority. We examine the effects of the SCMP on school enrollment, student and teacher attendance, and school facilities using a “difference in difference in differences” (DDD) design based on the targeted implementation of the SCMP. We find that this initiative led to meaningful increases in primary-school enrollment, particularly for young girls (i.e., a 12.4 percent increase), as well as targeted improvements in teacher attendance and school facilities, most of which were sustained in the months after the program concluded.
    JEL: I2 O1
    Date: 2016–10
  22. By: Fabiano Schivardi (Bocconi University); Claudio Michelacci (EIEF)
    Abstract: We study how the educational composition and the return to education of US entrepreneurs has evolved since the late 80's. The fraction of entrepreneurs with a college degree has increased, while the fraction of entrepreneurs with a post-college degree has remained stable over time at around one third. The premium of having a college degree relative to a high school degree has increased, but roughly as much as the analogous premium for workers. The premium for postgraduate education relative to college education has increased substantially more for entrepreneurs than for workers: now an entrepreneur with a post-graduate degree earns more than twice us much as he used to earn in the 90's. The analogous percentage increase for entrepreneurs with a college degree is just 50 percent. The sharp increase in the skill premium for entrepreneurs with post-graduate education is partly due to the higher value of their businesses (in terms of dividend payments and firm valuation) and partly due to the greater speed at which they sell their businesses. The premium to post-graduate education has remained high during the Great Recession and is still present when looking at the higher deciles of the entrepreneurs income distribution.
    Date: 2016
  23. By: Cory Koedel (University of Missouri); Diyi Li; Morgan S. Polikoff; Tenice Hardaway; Stephani L. Wrabel
    Abstract: We estimate relative achievement effects of the four most commonly adopted elementary-mathematics textbooks in the fall of 2008 and fall of 2009 in California. Our findings indicate that one book, Houghton Mifflin’s California Math, is more effective than the other three, raising student achievement by 0.05-0.08 student-level standard deviations of the grade-3 state standardized math test. We also estimate positive effects of California Math relative to the other textbooks in higher elementary grades. The differential effect of California Math is educationally meaningful, particularly given that it is a schoolwide effect and can be had at what is effectively zero marginal cost.
    Keywords: curriculum evaluation, educational production, student achievement, elementary mathematics
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2016–09
  24. By: Pablo Lavado (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico); Jamele Rigolini (Banco Mundial); Gustavo Yamada (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)
    Abstract: In spite of impressive rates of economic growth, the quality of the labor force’s human capital is considered a major challenge for sustaining medium term economic growth in Peru. This note reviews the skills of the Peruvian labor force, and the status of the continuous education and training system. Based on such an assessment and on learnings from international best practices, it proposes a system of continuous education and training that draws from international best practices, but that addresses local capacity and institutional issues.
    Keywords: Education, Continuous education, Labor training, Peru
    JEL: I2 J24 P36
    Date: 2015–12
  25. By: Juan Francisco Jimeno; Aitor Lacuesta; Marta Martínez-Matute; Ernesto Villanueva
    Abstract: This paper examines how formal education and experience in the labour market correlate with measures of human capital available in The Survey of Adult Skills, a product of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The findings are consistent with the notion that, in producing human capital, work experience substitutes formal education at the bottom of the schooling distribution. First, the number of years of working experience correlates with literacy proficiency only among low-educated individuals. Secondly, low-educated workers who only perform simple tasks on their jobs (calculating percentages or reading emails) do better in numeracy and literacy tests than similar employees who did not perform those tasks. Thirdly, workers in jobs intensive in numeric tasks perform relatively better in the numeracy section of the PIAAC test than in the literacy part. Overall, our results suggest that the contribution of on-the-job learning to skill formation is about a third of that of compulsory schooling in most of the countries that participated in PIAAC. Ce document étudie les liens entre, d’une part, la scolarité et l’expérience professionnelle, et d’autre part, les indicateurs du capital humain présents dans l’Évaluation des compétences des adultes, lancée dans le cadre du Programme de l’OCDE pour l'évaluation internationale des compétences des adultes (PIAAC). Les résultats concordent avec l’idée selon laquelle, dans le contexte de la production de capital humain, l’expérience professionnelle se substitue à la scolarité à l’extrémité inférieure de la distribution des niveaux d’instruction. Premièrement, le nombre d’années d’expérience professionnelle n’est corrélé au niveau de compétences à l’écrit que chez les individus peu qualifiés. Deuxièmement, les actifs peu qualifiés qui n’effectuent que des tâches simples (calculer des pourcentages ou lire des courriers électroniques) obtiennent de meilleurs résultats aux tests de compétences en calcul et à l’écrit que des salariés similaires qui n’effectuent pas ce type de tâches. Troisièmement, les salariés qui effectuent des nombreuses tâches de calcul obtiennent des résultats relativement meilleurs en calcul qu’à l’écrit au test du PIAAC. Dans l’ensemble, nos résultats semblent indiquer que la contribution de l’expérience professionnelle aux compétences acquises représente un tiers environ de celle de la scolarité obligatoire dans la plupart des pays ayant participé au PIAAC.
    Date: 2016–10–26
  26. By: Antonia Grohmann; Olaf Hübler; Roy Kouwenberg; Lukas Menkhoff
    Abstract: This research studies the stylized fact of a “gender gap” in that women tend to have lower financial literacy than men. Our data which samples middle-class people from Bangkok does not show a gender gap. This result is not explained by men’s low financial literacy, nor by women’s high income and good education. Rather, it seems influenced by country characteristics on general gender equality and finance-related equality, such as little gender gaps regarding pupils’ mathematics abilities or secondary school enrollment, and women’s strong role in financial affairs. This may indicate ways to reduce the gender gap in financial literacy elsewhere.
    Keywords: financial literacy, financial behavior, gender gap, individual characteristics, societal norms, Thailand
    JEL: D14 J16 D91
    Date: 2016
  27. By: Davia, Maria A. (Universidad de Castilla – La Mancha); McGuinness, Seamus (Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin); O'Connell, Philip J. (ESRI, Dublin)
    Abstract: This paper examines the factors determining variations in spatial rates of overeducation. A quantile regression model has been implemented on a sample of region-yearly data drawn from the EU Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) and several institutional and macroeconomic features captured from other data-sets. Potential determinants of overeducation rates include factors such as labour market risk, financial aid to university students, excess labour demand and institutional factors. We find significant effects both for labour market structural imbalances and institutional factors. The research supports the findings of micro based studies which have found that overeducation is consistent with an assignment interpretation of the labour market.
    Keywords: regional variation, overeducation, mismatch
    JEL: C29 I21 J24
    Date: 2016–09
  28. By: Rachel Heath; Seema Jayachandran
    Abstract: This article describes recent trends in female education and labor force participation in developing countries. It also reviews the literature on the causes and effects of the recent changes in female education and employment levels.
    JEL: J16 O15
    Date: 2016–10
  29. By: Harkat, Tahar; Driouchi, Ahmed; Achehboune, Amale
    Abstract: Abstract: The current research focuses on the analysis of the determinants of educational choices in Arab countries using time series. This is to reveal the likely model of choice between general and vocational training in these economies. The selected theoretical framework considers that educational choices are globally influenced by education and macroeconomic variables. These include unemployment, GDP growth, and GDP per capita. The empirical analysis is based on regression, time series analysis and causality tests as inspired by the above theoretical framework. The findings show different outcomes for each of the Arab countries as such revealed decisions depend globally on the macroeconomics and performance of education in each country. These economies show that vocational education accounts differently for the macroeconomic variables while few accounts but also differently, for the schooling performance. Even with these differences that are related to signs of the effects, the monitoring of vocational education versus general training in Arab countries needs to be pursued as this allows for a more balanced educational and employment systems.
    Keywords: Keywords: Vocational education, Arab world, Time series.
    JEL: I25 J68 M54
    Date: 2016–10–27

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