nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒10‒16
thirty-two papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. What Do Educational Superintendents Think About Mathematics Reform in Turkey? By Muammer Yildiz; Renan Sezer; Aysegul Bayraktar; Zeynep Akkurt Denizli; Necdet Guner
  2. Student Coaching: How Far Can Technology Go? By Philip Oreopoulos; Uros Petronijevic
  3. Powering Education By Fadi Hassan; Paolo Lucchino
  4. Participation in Massive Open Online Courses: The Effect of Learner Motivation and Engagement on Achievement By Semenova Tatiana
  5. To gain or not to lose? Tuition fees for loss averse students By Guilhem Lecouteux; Léonard Moulin
  6. Does Social Interaction Improve Learning Outcomes? Field Evidence from Massive Open Online Education By Dennis Zhang; Gad Allon; Jan Van Mieghem
  7. Considering Responsible Research and Innovation in Science Education Teaching Approaches at Primary Level By ANGHEL Gabriela Alina; GORGHIU Gabriel
  8. Student Centric Curriculum Design and Implementation – Challenges & Opportunities in Business Management & IT Education By Aithal, Sreeramana
  9. Principals' Transformational Leadership Behaviours in Public Secondary Schools in the State of Kuwait: A Comparison between Male and Female Principals By ALIAH ALDUWAILAH
  10. Birth Spacing and Educational Outcomes By Elaine L. Hill; David J.G. Slusky
  11. Inequalities in educational outcomes: How important is the family? By Bredtmann, Julia; Smith, Nina
  12. Post-16 educational choices in England By Claudia Hupkau; Sandra McNally; Jenifer Ruiz-Valenzuela; Guglielmo Ventura
  13. Cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills, and family background: evidence from sibling correlations By Anger, Silke; Schnitzlein, Daniel
  14. Education and Expenditure Inequality in Bhutan: An Analysis based on 2007 and 2012 Household Survey Data By Dorji Lethro; Takahiro Akita
  15. Intensive Mothering and Well-being: The Role of Education and Child Care Activity By Jose Ignacio Gimenez Nadal; Almudena Sevilla
  16. Elites and the Expansion of Education in 19th-century Sweden By Andersson, Jens; Berger, Thor
  17. Influence of Family Role on Political Participation Intention among University Students in the State of Kuwait By ABEER E. J. S. ALDUWAILA
  18. College Better: Parimutuel Betting Markets as a Commitment Device and Monetary Incentive By Lester Lusher
  19. El uso del castigo físico por parte del docente, y el rendimiento de los estudiantes en la sierra peruana. By Miranda, Alejandra
  20. Open innovative governance, transparency and citizens´ quality of life: An application to Portuguese municipalities. By João Laitão; Helena Alves; Dina Pereira
  21. How to Control Controlled School Choice: Comment By Battal Dogan
  22. Inequality, Educational Choice and Public School Quality in Income Mixing Communities By Paolo Melindi-Ghidi
  23. Internet and the elderly in Spain: Time dedicated to search and communications By Molina, Jose Alberto; Campaña, Juan Carlos; Ortega, Raquel
  24. Vocational teachers and trainers in a changing world : the imperative of high-quality teacher training systems By Axmann, Michael.; Rhoades, Amy.; Nordstrum, Lee.; La Rue, Josée-Anne.; Byusa, Michelle.
  25. On the optimal provision of social insurance By Krueger, Dirk; Ludwig, Alexander
  26. Effects of the Bologna Reform on educational outcomes: Micro evidence from Germany By Hahm, Sabrina; Kluve, Jochen
  27. Impacts of an Enhanced Family Health and Sexuality Module of the HealthTeacher Middle School Curriculum: A Cluster Randomized Trial (Journal Article) By Brian Goesling; Mindy E. Scott; Elizabeth Cook
  28. Teaching, Teachers Pensions and Retirement across Recent Cohorts of College Graduate Women By Maria D. Fitzpatrick
  29. Inequality, Educational Choice and Public School Quality in Income Mixing Communities By Paolo Melindi-Ghidi
  30. Intelligent Coaching Systems in Higher-Order Applications: Lessons from Automated Content Creation Bottlenecks By Christian Greuel; John Murray; Cindy Ziker; Louise Yarnall; Alexander Kernbaum
  31. Literacy and Numeracy Proficiency in IALS, ALL and PIAAC By Marco Paccagnella
  32. What Do We Know About School Discipline Reform? By Matthew P. Steinberg; Johanna Lacoe

  1. By: Muammer Yildiz (Turkish Ministry of Education); Renan Sezer (Ankara University); Aysegul Bayraktar (Ankara University); Zeynep Akkurt Denizli (Ankara University); Necdet Guner (Pamukkale University)
    Abstract: Starting in 2004-2005 Turkish education system went through a reform starting with elementary school and moving up to all levels. The middle school (grades 6-8) mathematics curriculum in Turkey also changed in terms of its content, emphasis and pedagogy. This study aims to evaluate and compare the current curriculum with that used prior to 2005. Superintendents (n=47) working in Istanbul, participated in the study. Data of the study was collected through a questionnaire developed by the researchers based on related literature and experts’ opinions. The questionnaire consisted of 10 open-ended, eight multiple-choice and 31 Likert type questions.According to the study findings, 80% of the superintendents agreed that with the mathematical activities offered in the new curriculum students develop critical thinking skills. Additionally, 85% of them agreed that the said mathematical activities develop independent thinking skills. Of the superintendents 87% agreed that students engage in higher order thing skills during these activities. Only 9% of the superintendents thought that various teaching methods are being used in schools. Also 24% of the superintendents and 26% of them agree that teachers and students respectively had adopted to their new roles defined by the constructivist pedagogy. One major finding was that 18% of the superintendents agreed that the national curriculum takes the socio-economic level of students whereas that percentage was 13 with respect to the infrastructure of schools. Compared to the previous mathematics program, 47% of the superintendents thought that the new program was more successful in teaching mathematics. Furthermore 18% of the superintendents agreed that class size does not affect the applicability of the curriculum. Even though, half of the superintendents (49%) thought that teachers followed the new program’s recommendations in planning their lessons, 82% of them wrote that the most commonly used teaching method was lecturing. Thus, only 26% of them observed that the recommended teachings methods were used in classrooms. Moreover, 38% of the superintendents mentioned that teachers continued using conventional teaching methods; 15% of them voiced concern that parents, students, principals and even teachers did not truly accept the pedagogy endorsed by the new program. Though the new program puts an emphasis on use of mathematics in daily life, 19% of the superintendents found this aspect lacking in application. The findings of this study might be useful in future revisions and implementations of the national mathematics program.
    Keywords: Mathematics reform, superintendents, mathematics curriculum evaluation, mathematics education in Turkey
    JEL: I29
  2. By: Philip Oreopoulos; Uros Petronijevic
    Abstract: Recent studies show that programs offering structured, one-on-one coaching and tutoring tend to have large effects on the academic outcomes of both high school and college students. These programs are often costly to implement and difficult to scale, however, calling into question whether making them available to large student populations is feasible. In contrast, interventions that rely on technology to maintain low-touch contact with students can be implemented at large scale and minimal cost but with the risk of not being as effective as one-on-one, in-person assistance. In this paper, we test whether the effects of coaching programs can be replicated at scale by using technology to reach a larger population of students. We work with a sample of over four thousand undergraduate students from a large Canadian university, randomly assigning students into one of the following three interventions: (i) a one-time online exercise designed to affirm students' values and goals; (ii) a text messaging campaign that provides students with academic advice, information, and motivation; and (iii) a personal coaching service, in which students are matched with upper-year undergraduate coaches. We find large positive effects from the coaching program, as coached students realize a 0.3 standard deviation increase in average grades and a 0.35 standard deviation increase in GPA. In contrast, we find no effects from either the online exercise or the text messaging campaign on any academic outcome, both in the general student population and across several student subgroups. A comparison of the key features of the text messaging campaign and the coaching service suggests that proactively and regularly initiating conversations with students and working to establish trust are important design features to incorporate in future interventions that use technology to reach large populations of students.
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Fadi Hassan; Paolo Lucchino
    Abstract: More than 1.3 billion people worldwide have no access to electricity and this has first-order effects on several development dimensions. In this paper we focus on the link between access to light and education. We randomly distribute solar lamps to 7th grade pupils in rural Kenya and monitor their educational outcomes throughout the year at quarterly frequency. We find that access to lights through solar lamps is a relevant and effective input to education. Our identification strategy accounts for spillovers by exploiting the variation in treatment at the pupil level and in treatment intensity across classes. We find a positive and significant intention-to-treat effect as well as a positive and significant spillover effect on control students. In a class with the average treatment intensity of our sample (43%), treated students experience an increase in math grades of 0.88 standard deviations. Moreover, we find a positive marginal effect of treatment intensity on control students: raising the share of treated students in a class by 10% increases grades of control students by 0.22 standard deviations. We exploit household geolocation to disentangle within-class and geographical spillovers. We show that geographical spillovers do not have a significant impact and within-school interaction is the main source of spillovers. Finally, we provide suggestive evidence that the mechanism through which lamps affect students is by increasing co-studying at school especially after sunset.
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Semenova Tatiana (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are a relatively new format of distance education which has become popular among students, faculties, employees and others. Regardless of the fact that MOOCs are a widespread phenomenon, they face some challenges including high dropout rates, low levels of student-teacher interaction, low representation of poor and less educated learners, issues with data processing and data analysis for creating predictive models. In our study, we look more closely at the last issue, while creating a model describing the relationship between the motivation, engagement, and achievement of MOOC participants. We use a database which consists of trace data and survey data from students of 20 online courses launched on the Coursera platform in 2014–2015 at the Higher School of Economics. Our research shows that for modelling the relationship between factors and achievement of MOOC students, it is necessary to transform the interval dependent variable into an ordinal one. To evaluate the relationship between motivation, engagement, and achievement, we used mediation analysis with ordinal logistic regression. The research shows that academic motivation of MOOC learners has an indirect effect on their achievement. The level of engagement acts as a mediator of this relationship. At the same time, intrinsic motivation plays an alternative role in the MOOC format compared to a traditional course format. Intrinsic motivation decreases the likelihood of getting a higher score from the second week of the course.
    Keywords: MOOC, Coursera, motivation, intrinsic motivation, engagement, achievement
    JEL: I21 I29
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Guilhem Lecouteux (Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - Polytechnique - X - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Léonard Moulin (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - Université Paris 13 - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We model the educational choice of students whose objectives in terms of salary are conditioned by their social origins. We assume that students from a poor background have a lower reference point than students with wealthier origins. We then study the efficiency of a policy of tuition fees as a mechanism to select students on the basis of their academic abilities. We show that, even in the absence of borrowing constraints, the optimal policy consists in lowering tuition fees for poorer students: since prospective students from a disadvantaged background perceives the possibility of joining the university as a gain, they have a tendency to act too cautiously compared to students with higher aspirations, who are ready to take risky choices in order to avoid what they perceive as a failure, i.e. not joining the university.
    Keywords: Tuition fees
    Date: 2015–01–01
  6. By: Dennis Zhang; Gad Allon; Jan Van Mieghem
    Abstract: This paper studies how service providers can design social interaction among participants and quantify the causal impact of that interaction on service quality. We focus on education and analyze whether encouraging social interaction among students improves learning outcomes in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), which are a new service delivery channel with universal access at reduced, if not zero, cost. We analyze three randomized experiments in a MOOC with more than 30; 317 students from 183 countries. Two experiments study large-group interaction by encouraging a random subset of students to visit the course discussion board. The majority of students treated in these experiments had higher social engagement, higher quiz completion rates, and higher course grades. Using these treatments as instrumental variables, we estimate that one additional board visit causally increases the probability that a student finishes the quiz in the subsequent week by up to 4:3%. The third experiment studies small-group interaction by encouraging a random subset of students to conduct one-on-one synchronous discussions. Students who followed through and actually conducted pairwise discussions increased their quiz completion rates and quiz scores by 10% in the subsequent week. Combining results from these three experiments, we provide recommendations for designing social interaction mechanisms to improve service quality.
    Date: 2016
  7. By: ANGHEL Gabriela Alina (Valahia University of Targoviste); GORGHIU Gabriel (Valahia University of Targoviste)
    Abstract: The paper targets to identify the potential of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in the teaching-learning process specific for science education, designed to primary students (3rd and 4th forms). In this respect, a specific case study is analyzed: a unit dedicated to natural nanomaterials, having the objective of increasing the students’ awareness related to the existence and usage of such materials. During the lessons, experimental approaches were introduced with the view to emphasize the nanoparticles in natural nanomaterials, but also to establish correlations between their structure and function.The overall objective of the research was to analyze advantages and limitations of the teaching strategy which tried to consider RRI dimensions in science lessons. Specific research objectives are oriented on: analysis of the efficacy of the teaching methods used in the classroom - mostly of the 6E Model: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Exchange, Evaluate (OS1), and analysis of the way in which RRI becomes efficiency in the educational process (OS2). The data collection process took into consideration the learning objects proposed by the teaching unit and the semi-structured interview conducted with the primary teachers. The whole analysis and the interpretation led us to the following conclusion: introducing RRI dimensions in the teaching strategy - even from early ages - positively motivates students and stimulates their active participation during the science lessons, determining so an intense process of deep learning of the related scientific content and developing of a desirable social behavior in relation to social and educational environment.
    Keywords: Responsible Research and Innovation, science education, primary level, 6E model, IRRESISTIBLE Project
    JEL: I21 I29
  8. By: Aithal, Sreeramana
    Abstract: Student-centric curriculum design and implementation in higher education system are getting importance due to the reason of creating employable and skilled graduates who can take optimum decisions for industry problems and who can lead technocrat society. Even though student-centric curriculum is essential in all areas of higher education, it became essential in business management and information technology due to the fact that these areas are changing at a faster rate due to the enhanced competition in globalized business. In this paper, we have discussed the challenges and opportunities in curriculum planning, designing, and effective implementation in autonomous and affiliated business schools. We have discussed the possibility of designing industry oriented curriculum in business management and information technology, which contain both industry and research experience components. This student centric curriculum improvement model will take care of rapid growth of both the fields and the requirement of updating the curriculum with present developments. The opportunities and challenges of student-centric curriculum design and developments in Business management subject and in Information technology subjects are discussed. The advantages, benefits, constraints, and disadvantages of such system are listed. Though the implementation of the new model is challenging, the advantages and the benefits outlay the disadvantages and the constraints.
    Keywords: Curriculum design in Business Management, Curriculum design in Information Technology, New curriculum model in higher education, ABCD listing of student centric curriculum design
    JEL: A23
    Date: 2016–08–28
  9. By: ALIAH ALDUWAILAH (University of Southampton)
    Abstract: The paper reports an empirical study investigating transformational leadership practices among principals in public secondary schools in the State of Kuwait, as perceived by secondary-school teachers. This research adopted the taxonomy of the transformational leadership paradigm and the conceptual model for school restructuring proposed by Leithwood (1994) and Janie and Leithwood (1995). The respondents consisted of 682 teachers from 118 public secondary schools in six educational regions in Kuwait. The second-order confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the core transformational leadership dimensions of principals are: (I) cultivating extensively shared visions; (ii) constructing consensus about school goals and priorities; (iii) having high performance expectations; (iii) modelling behaviours; (iv) providing personal support to teachers and school staff; (v) providing intellectual stimulation; (vi) consolidating a school culture; and (vii) constructing a collaborative school structure. Such finding on transformational leadership behaviours in the Kuwaiti school context are highly consistent with the original model proposed by Leithwood (1994) and Janie and Leithwood (1995). In addition, the result on the measurement invariance showed that there was not statistical difference between male and female principals' transformational leadership model.
    Keywords: Principals' Transformational Leadership; Public Secondary Schools; Confirmatory Factor Analysis, The State of Kuwait
  10. By: Elaine L. Hill (Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry); David J.G. Slusky (Department of Economics, The University of Kansas;)
    Abstract: Virtually all parents want their children to succeed academically. How to achieve this goal, though, is far from clear. Specifically, the temporal spacing between adjacent births has been shown to affect educational outcomes. While many of these studies have produced substantial and statistically significant results, these results have been relatively narrow in their application due to data limitations. Using Colorado birth certificates matched to schooling outcomes, we investigate the relationship between birth spacing and educational attainment. We instrument birth spacing with a previous pregnancy that did not result in a live birth. We find no overall effect of spacing on either the first or second children’s grade 3-10 test scores. Stratifying by the sexes of the children, we find that when the first child is a boy and the second a girl, an extra year of spacing increases the first child’s math, reading, and writing test scores by 0.07-0.08 SD, while there is no impact on the second child. This is the first study to do such an analysis using matched large scale birth and elementary to high school administrative data, and to leverage a very large data set to stratify our results by the sexes of the children. .
    Keywords: human capital, educational attainment, birth spacing, pregnancy loss, miscarriage
    JEL: J13 I14 I20
    Date: 2016–09
  11. By: Bredtmann, Julia; Smith, Nina
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate sibling correlations in educational outcomes, which serve as a broad measure of the importance of family and community background. Making use of rich longitudinal survey and register data for Denmark, our main aim is to identify the parental background characteristics that are able to explain the resemblance in educational outcomes among siblings. We find sibling correlations in educational outcomes in the range of 15 to 33 percent, suggesting that up to a third of the variation in educational achievement can be explained by family and community background. Our results further reveal that parents' socio-economic background can account for a large part of the sibling correlation. Other family characteristics such as family structure, the incidence of social problems, and parents' educational preferences also play a role, though these factors only contribute to explaining sibling similarities at lower levels of the educational distribution.
    Abstract: Der vorliegende Artikel beschäftigt sich mit der Korrelation im Bildungserfolg von Geschwistern, welche als umfassendes Maß für die Bedeutung des familiären und sozialen Umfelds für den individuellen Bildungserfolg dient. Neben der Bestimmung der Geschwisterkorrelationen besteht das Ziel der Untersuchungen insbesondere darin, herauszufinden, welche familiären Faktoren für den Zusammenhang im Bildungserfolg von Geschwistern verantwortlich sind. Auf Basis umfangreicher Befragungs- und Registerdaten für Dänemark kommen wir zu dem Ergebnis, dass die Korrelation im Bildungserfolg von Geschwistern zwischen 15 und 33 Prozent beträgt. Dies bedeutet, dass bis zu einem Drittel des individuellen Bildungserfolgs durch familiäre und umgebungsbezogenen Faktoren erklärt werden kann. Wir finden überdies, dass der sozioökonomische Hintergrund der Eltern einen großen Teil der Geschwisterkorrelation im Bildungserfolg erklären kann. Andere Faktoren, wie die familiäre Situation, das Vorliegen sozialer Probleme sowie die Bildungspräferenzen der Eltern spielen ebenfalls eine wichtige Rolle für den Bildungserfolg. Diese Faktoren können jedoch lediglich zur Erklärung der Geschwisterkorrelation im unteren Bereich der Bildungsverteilung beitragen.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility,sibling correlations,education
    JEL: I21 I24 J13
    Date: 2016
  12. By: Claudia Hupkau; Sandra McNally; Jenifer Ruiz-Valenzuela; Guglielmo Ventura
    Abstract: Well under half of young people in England complete A-levels, yet the baffling array of qualifications available for their peers is rarely discussed. Sandra McNally, director of the newly established Centre for Vocational Education Research, describes the complex system of post-16 technical education - and calls for major reforms to address our collective need for improved skills and social mobility.
    Keywords: vocational education, apprenticeships, progression routes
    JEL: I20 I24 I28
    Date: 2016–10
  13. By: Anger, Silke (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Schnitzlein, Daniel
    Abstract: "This paper estimates sibling correlations in cognitive and non-cognitive skills to evaluate the importance of family background for skill formation. Based on a large representative German dataset including IQ test scores and measures of non-cognitive skills, a restricted maximum likelihood model indicates a strong relationship between family background and skill formation. Sibling correlations in non-cognitive skills range from 0.22 to 0.46; therefore, at least one-fifth of the variance in these skills results from shared sibling-related factors. Sibling correlations in cognitive skills are higher than 0.50; therefore, more than half of the inequality in cognition can be explained by shared family background. Comparing these findings with those in the intergenerational skill transmission literature suggests that intergenerational correlations capture only part of the influence of family on children's cognitive and non-cognitive skills, as confirmed by decomposition analyses and in line with previous findings on educational and income mobility." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    JEL: J24 J62
    Date: 2016–10–10
  14. By: Dorji Lethro (National Statistics Bureau, Royal Government of Bhutan); Takahiro Akita (Rikkyo University)
    Abstract: Based on the 2007 and 2012 Bhutan Living Standard Survey, this study examines the roles of education in expenditure inequality in Bhutan using several decomposition techniques. While the expansion of basic education appears to have narrowed urban-rural expenditure disparity, the expansion of higher education seems to have increased expenditure inequality among households with higher education. Together with a rise in expenditure disparity among educational groups, this has raised overall expenditure inequality. Basic education policies that could raise general educational level still serve as an effective means to mitigate expenditure inequality. Implementing effective higher education policies would be another important option, as the policies that could reduce inequality among households with higher education are crucial. There might be a mismatch between the needs of employers and the qualifications of people with higher education. The government thus needs to formulate and implement higher education policies that could mitigate the mismatch.
    Date: 2016–10
  15. By: Jose Ignacio Gimenez Nadal; Almudena Sevilla
    Abstract: We use data from the 2012, and 2013 Well-being Module of the American Time Use Survey to understand maternal momentary well-being, and how these vary by educational attainment. We document that even after controlling for a wide set of maternal characteristics, higher educated mothers report lower levels of happiness and meaning, and higher levels of fatigue when engaging in child-related activities than mothers with lower educational attainment. Further analysis reveals that there is no education gap in momentary wellbeing among fathers and non-mothers. These findings are consistent with more educated mothers feeling the pressures from the ideology of intensive mothering, whereby mother’s continuous time and attention is understood as being crucial for child development.
    Keywords: Mothering. Momentary well-being, Child care, Ideology of intensive mothering, Time use
    JEL: J31 J63
    Date: 2016–10
  16. By: Andersson, Jens (Department of Economic History, Lund University); Berger, Thor (Department of Economic History, Lund University)
    Abstract: Did economic and political inequality hamper the spread of mass schooling in the 19th century? This paper analyzes the link between investments in primary schooling and the spread of voting rights in 19th-century Sweden using newly collected data on educational expenditure and the distribution of voting rights in local governments. We find that municipalities governed by local elites spent substantially more on primary schooling relative to those that were more egalitarian. This empirical result is robust to using matching estimators, comparing municipalities located within the same county or district, and using differences in agricultural suitability as an instrument for the presence of local landed elites. Broadly, these findings suggest that elites were historically not always a barrier to the diffusion of elementary education and further our understanding of how Sweden managed to maintain a high level of human capital despite its low level of economic development and restricted franchise in the 19th century.
    Keywords: Democratization; elites; human capital development
    JEL: I21 I24 N33
    Date: 2016–10–07
  17. By: ABEER E. J. S. ALDUWAILA (The Higher Institute of Musical Art, The Ministry of Education, The State of Kuwait)
    Abstract: Political socialisation has seemingly wrought significant changes in political attitudes and associated behavioral paradigms. This could be reflected in how the political inclination of the youngsters is normally perceived to be reflective to that of their parents/guardians. In the Kuwaiti context, there is minimal empirical knowledge since there are hardly any research and related studies exploring the causal mechanisms of how the political attitudes and behaviour of the younger generation is influenced by their parents. Therefore, this paper aimed at investigating how familial roles play an important role on the political participation intention among university students in Kuwait. The participation in the study consisted of 635 undergraduate students from both public and private higher educational institutions in the State of Kuwait. The findings derived upon a structural equation model (SEM) revealed that parental participation in politics had a direct effect on the younger generation. Besides, it is further considered that the intergeneral transmission of political thoughts and ideologies through parents is considered as a indirect effect on the younger generation via the political discussions conducted within family, the positive attitude about politics within family and the personal interest of the individual, respectively. To conclude, the intergenerational transmission and associated processes impacting the inclination of the younger generation to participate in the political process is significantly affected both directly and indirectly as a function of the political attitudes and environment within the family as a whole via process of family socialisation.
    Keywords: Family Role, Political Participation Intention, University Students, Kuwait
  18. By: Lester Lusher
    Abstract: Procrastination, an issue linked to poor performance and decreased well-being, is a pervasive problem in education. This paper examines the role of commitment and motivation by evaluating a program called which acts as a commitment device and monetary incentive to help college students battle problems of present bias. The zero-sum mechanism is based off a parimutuel betting market, where students join a pool by placing a monetary wager on themselves to achieve the pool's "commitment challenge." Students who successfully commit to the challenge 1) recover their wagers and 2) split losing wagers proportionally. Through a series of lab and field experiments, I find that students interested in the mechanism were low-achieving, overconfident, self-identified procrastinators, while traditional measures of time-preferences were weak predictors of selection. Across all pools, students randomly selected to participate were more likely to achieve the commitment challenge than students who applied for a spot but were randomly excluded. Consistent with loss aversion, having the student risk their own money is a principal contributor to the effectiveness of the mechanism.
    Date: 2016
  19. By: Miranda, Alejandra (Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE))
    Abstract: Ensuring a quality education means having a suitable environment for students' development. In Peru, violence against children is one of the factors that continues to affect this environment. Due to this fact, the objective of the study is to explore the medium-term effect of teachers' use of corporal punishment in the highlands on students' achievement. Due to its high poverty, illiteracy, and malnutrition rates, the highlands is one of the most vulnerable regions in Peru. Using data from the Longitudinal Young Lives Study and the School Census, an OLS model as well as a Propensity Score Matching were performed to estimate the effect of teachers' violence on students' achievement from public schools in the highlands. Results show that being a victim of corporal punishment at the age of 8 years old negatively affects students' achievement in math and vocabulary at age 12, even after other characteristics of the child, family, and school are controlled. It was also found that although boys are more likely to be victims of such violence, the effect on achievement is heterogeneous, and more harmful for girls than boys.
    Keywords: Disciplina escolar, Docentes, Rendimiento escolar, Perú, School punishment, School discipline, Teachers, Academic achievement, Peru
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2016
  20. By: João Laitão; Helena Alves; Dina Pereira
    Abstract: The new paradigm for public administration is founded on different meanings for distinct dimensions of open innovative governance. Thus, "open" may mean: open governance; open data; open information; and open innovation; which stand for new types of open relationships between citizens, firms and municipalities. In the context of citizens’ rights, open innovative governance is approached as the right to participate in the innovation process of agenda-setting and decision-making. The chapter discusses the effects of open innovative governance and municipalities’ transparency on citizens’ quality of life. To do so, we test different specifications of probit models, by taking as a reference a population of 308 Portuguese municipalities and using the data collected through the Local Authority site, integrated in the Local Government Integrity for Portugal initiative, in the period 2013-2014. To assess the effects on quality of life, a proxy for citizens’ well-being is considered, taking into account the positive variation of the citizens’ purchasing power index. The main results reveal a positive and significant influence of open innovative governance on citizens’ quality of life, regarding two dimensions: Plans and planning; and Taxes, fees, prices and regulations. Moreover, a positive and significant association between higher education institutions and citizens’ quality of life is revealed, although this could be counterbalanced by the negative effects associated with the condition of being a low density municipality and variation in purchasing power.
    Keywords: Open Governance; Public Innovation; Quality of Life; Transparency.
    JEL: R1 R12
    Date: 2016–10
  21. By: Battal Dogan
    Abstract: Echenique and Yenmez [AER 2015, 105(8): 2679-94] study choice rules for a school that express preferences for a diverse student body. Their Theorem 2 characterizes choice rules that are "generated by reserves for the priority". We show that the "only if part" is not correct. We exhibit a choice rule that is generated by reserves for the priority but violates one of their axioms. A similar issue arises in Theorem D.2., where a priority is allowed to be endogenous. We reformulate the axioms and repair the results.
    JEL: H75 I21 I28
    Date: 2016–10
  22. By: Paolo Melindi-Ghidi (Aix-Marseille University (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS & EHESS)
    Abstract: Why, in some urban communities, do rich and poor households cohabit while, in others, we observe sorting by income? To answer this question I develop a two-community general equilibrium framework of school quality, residential choice and tax decision with probabilistic voting. The model predicts that in highly unequal societies in which households segregate by schooling, low- and high-income households choose to live in the same community. When there is less inequality, we observe the typical sorting by income across communities. The theoretical model suggests that the effect of inequality on the quality of public schooling is ambiguous and depends on the relative endowments of housing in the two communities. When inequality increases, if housing in the community where rich and poor households cohabit is affordable, then an inflow of high-income middle class households towards this community emerges. As a consequence, inequality negatively impacts the quality of public schooling due to an ends-against-the-middle coalition that pushes tax rates down.
    Keywords: Inequality, probabilistic voting, segregation, income mixing equilibrium
    JEL: D72 I24 I28 R21
    Date: 2016–10
  23. By: Molina, Jose Alberto; Campaña, Juan Carlos; Ortega, Raquel
    Abstract: Internet use reduces the isolation or exclusion of individuals in specific socio-economic groups and, consequently, increases the quality of life, with this being especially the case for the elderly. Knowing that the elderly are becoming particularly active in dedicating time to the Internet, we provide evidence of the time that Spanish individuals aged 65 and older dedicate to two online activities: search and communications. Thus, our work contributes to the central objective of the Digital Agenda for Europa, which sets out to ensure universal broadband coverage across the European Union. We estimate a simultaneous SUR model with data from the 4,036 individuals aged 65 years (inclusive) and older from the Spanish Time Use Survey for 2009-2010. Results indicate that being male has a positive influence on the time devoted to search on the Internet, whereas age has a negative effect. Time devoted to both Internet activities increases with higher levels of education and at the highest level of individual health. By contrast, a greater number of family members has a negative influence on the time spent on search and, more so, on communications. Finally, living in a larger city produces a positive effect on the time dedicated to search.
    Keywords: Elderly, Internet, Time use, SUR model, Digital Agenda for Europa
    JEL: D12 J14 J22
    Date: 2016–10–10
  24. By: Axmann, Michael.; Rhoades, Amy.; Nordstrum, Lee.; La Rue, Josée-Anne.; Byusa, Michelle.
    Abstract: This paper presents an analytical framework for assessing TVET teacher training systems. It takes a holistic approach, providing a conceptual framework that government agencies and TVET institutions can use to examine the internal efficiency and coherence of their teacher preparation programmes, as well as assess the dynamic capability of the system to anticipate and respond to the needs of both employers and students. This framework responds to the contemporary imperative for high-quality TVET teacher training systems that are effective, efficient, equitable and innovative, and furthermore, that are aligned to national and local objectives to improve productivity, employment and social inclusion. It is provided to help governments and institutions deal with the challenge of preparing teachers and trainers in a changing world so that they in turn can equip the next generation with the skills and ability to continue learning that they will need throughout their working lives. This working paper reflects the background research and conclusions of the Global Dialogue Forum on Vocational Education and Training held in September 2010, supplemented by reviews of current practice in teacher training and consultations with colleagues from many other organizations, including the World Bank, the European Training Foundation, the German International Cooperation, Luxembourg Agency for Development Cooperation, and the Swiss Development Cooperation.
    Keywords: teacher training, training system, vocational training, training policy, role of ILO, formation des enseignants, système de formation, formation professionnelle, politique de formation, rôle de l'OIT, formación del personal docente, sistema de formación, formación profesional, política de formación, papel de la OIT
    Date: 2015
  25. By: Krueger, Dirk; Ludwig, Alexander
    Abstract: In this paper we compute the optimal tax and education policy transition in an economy where progressive taxes provide social insurance against idiosyncratic wage risk, but distort the education decision of households. Optimally chosen tertiary education subsidies mitigate these distortions. We highlight the quantitative importance of general equilibrium feedback effects from policies to relative wages of skilled and unskilled workers: subsidizing higher education increases the share of workers with a college degree thereby reducing the college wage premium which has important redistributive benefits. We also argue that a full characterization of the transition path is crucial for policy evaluation. We find that optimal education policies are always characterized by generous tuition subsidies, but the optimal degree of income tax progressivity depends crucially on whether transitional costs of policies are explicitly taken into account and how strongly the college premium responds to policy changes in general equilibrium.
    Keywords: Progressive Taxation,Education Subsidy,Transitional Dynamics
    JEL: E62 H21 H24
    Date: 2015
  26. By: Hahm, Sabrina; Kluve, Jochen
    Abstract: The Bologna Process aimed at harmonizing European higher education systems and at increasing their efficiency. This paper analyzes impacts of the Bologna Reform for Germany by using unique micro data from Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (HU). We estimate treatment effects on the probability to graduate within instructional time, on standardized study duration, and on final overall grades. Variation in treatment introduction over time and across departments generates exogenous assignment of students into a treatment (Bachelor) and control group (Diploma). We account for potentially remaining selection bias by estimating a 2SLS model using the share of firstyear Bachelor students among all students as an instrument. Our empirical results are robust across specifications and sample stratifications and indicate the following: the Bologna reform led to a significant and sizeable increase in the probability of graduating within planned instructional time; it also significantly decreased standardized study duration. At the same time, overall final grades are significantly worse in the treatment group.
    Abstract: Das zentrale Ziel des 1999 von den Bildungsministern der EU-Mitgliedstaaten initiierten Bologna-Prozesses bestand in einer nachhaltigen Sicherung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der Europäischen Union. In Bezug auf das deutsche Hochschulsystem stand dabei insbesondere der Gedanke im Fokus, den Arbeitsmarkt in kürzerer Zeit mit Hochschulabsolventen zu versorgen. Dieses Papier analysiert die Auswirkungen der Bologna-Reform in Deutschland auf Basis von Mikrodaten der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (HU). Wir schätzen den Effekt der Umstellung von traditionellen Studienabschlüssen (Diplomstudiengänge) zum zweistufigen Studiensystem (Bachelorstudiengänge) auf die Wahrscheinlichkeit, das Studium innerhalb der Regelstudienzeit zu absolvieren, sowie auf die (standardisierte) Dauer des Studiums und die erreichten Abschlussnoten. Unsere Identifikationsstrategie basiert auf der exogenen zeitlichen Variation in der Einführung der neuen Studiengänge. Einem eventuell verbleibenden Selektionseffekt wird durch Verwendung eines Instrumentenvariablenansatzes Rechnung getragen. Die Ergebnisse der empirischen Analyse sind robust gegenüber einer Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Spezifikationen sowie für eine Reihe von Stratifikationen. Sie deuten darauf hin, dass die Bologna-Reform zu einem starken und signifikanten Anstieg der Wahrscheinlichkeit, den Abschluss innerhalb der Regelstudienzeit zu erlangen, geführt hat. Gleichermaßen verringert sich die zur Erreichung eines berufsqualifizierenden Hochschulabschlusses durchschnittlich benötigte Zeit signifikant. Im Hinblick auf die erreichten Abschlussnoten lässt sich eine geringfügige Verschlechterung feststellen, die jedoch im Kontext veränderter Bewertungsmechanismen zu betrachten ist.
    Keywords: Bologna process,education policy,university reform,impact analysis,instrumental variables
    JEL: I21 I28 J24
    Date: 2016
  27. By: Brian Goesling; Mindy E. Scott; Elizabeth Cook
    Abstract: Students in the treatment schools reported greater exposure to information on reproductive health topics such as sexually transmitted infections, abstinence, and birth control.
    Keywords: Family Health, Sexuality, HealthTeacher, Cluster Randomized Trial, Teen Pregnancy, Family Support
    JEL: I
  28. By: Maria D. Fitzpatrick
    Abstract: Labor force participation rates of college-educated women ages 60 to 64 increased by 20 percent (10 percentage points) between 2000 and 2010. One potential explanation for this change stems from the fact that fewer college-educated women in the more recent cohorts were ever teachers. This occupational shift could affect the length of women’s careers because teaching is a profession where workers are covered by defined benefit pensions and, generally, defined benefit pensions allow workers to retire earlier than Social Security. I provide evidence supporting the hypothesis and show that older college-educated women who worked as teachers do not experience increases in labor force participation as large as their counterparts who never taught.
    JEL: H55 J2
    Date: 2016–09
  29. By: Paolo Melindi-Ghidi (AMSE - Aix-Marseille School of Economics - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales)
    Abstract: Why, in some urban communities, do rich and poor households cohabit while, in others, we observe sorting by income? To answer this question I develop a two-community general equilibrium framework of school quality, residential choice and tax decision with probabilistic voting. The model predicts that in highly unequal societies in which households segregate by schooling, low- and high-income households choose to live in the same community. When there is less inequality, we observe the typical sorting by income across communities. The theoretical model suggests that the effect of inequality on the quality of public schooling is ambiguous and depends on the relative endowments of housing in the two communities. When inequality increases, if housing in the community where rich and poor households cohabit is affordable, then an inflow of high-income middle class households towards this community emerges. As a consequence, inequality negatively impacts the quality of public schooling due to an ends-against-the-middle coalition that pushes tax rates down.
    Keywords: inequality,probabilistic voting,segregation,income mixing equilibrium
    Date: 2016–09
  30. By: Christian Greuel (SRI International); John Murray (SRI International); Cindy Ziker (SRI International); Louise Yarnall (SRI International); Alexander Kernbaum (SRI International)
    Abstract: Intelligent virtual environments hold promise for improving learner-directed instruction in context. These systems trace the progress of learners performing tasks and can insert immediate coaching to focus learner attention, link knowledge to activity, and accelerate the shift from abstract to concrete learning. Such technology has been used to improve self-directed learning of hands-on procedures, but also shows promise for higher-order applied fields, such as engineering. To realize this vision, research must address the formidable bottlenecks around content creation and build understanding of the types of reusable content libraries relevant to the subject domains. This presentation describes two projects for interactive training that developed prototypes for automated content creation. A third project is presented that illustrates a suite of learning object libraries to support engineering instruction.The first project, SAVE, uses a 3D browser-based simulation environment not only for hands-on training in equipment maintenance, but also for automating the generation of instructional exercise solutions. SAVE allows a subject matter expert to use the interactive simulation for modeling the correct steps of a procedure, thus providing a rapid way to extract their knowledge. The system collects a trace of the expert’s activity, which becomes the reference against which learner activity is compared in automated assessment. The second project, AR Mentor, delivers augmented reality overlays in head-mounted displays worn by student mechanics while learning to maintain terrestrial vehicles. An automated speech system interacts with the students as they perform equipment adjustments and troubleshoot system faults. To deliver audible step-by-step guidance, a prototype text-to-speech translator was developed to convert steps as written in the technical manual into the voice of a virtual coach. The third project, SiMPLE, developed a library of engineering computation objects to allow learners to construct electromechanical simulations, and provides an intelligent coaching system to allow novice engineers to iteratively refine their design specifications. When a working simulation is achieved, the system is linked to a 3D printer for physical prototype production.The first two projects demonstrate methods of using virtual intelligent technologies to accelerate training content production in hands-on domains: expert model tracing and technical manual translation. The third project provides the tools needed to support engineering instruction: object libraries with embedded computations, as well as scripts for design coaching, design testing, and physical prototyping. Together, these projects illustrate the wide range of available, reusable libraries and the extensive opportunities for automating content creation in many socio-technical fields.
    Keywords: Intelligent coaching systems, Augmented reality, Interactive sociotechnical training, Automated educational content creation
    JEL: C63 I21
  31. By: Marco Paccagnella
    Abstract: This paper analyses proficiency in literacy and numeracy in the countries that have participated in the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS, administered between 1994 and 1998), the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (ALL, administered between 2003 and 2007) and the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC, administered in 2012). While many countries experienced small to modest changes in literacy proficiency between IALS and PIAAC, others saw sizeable variations, mostly on the negative side. In the shorter span that separated ALL and PIAAC, numeracy proficiency clearly declined (except in Italy), while literacy moved less on average (except for the large increase registered in Italy and the large decline experienced by Norway). Changes in the composition of the population have had little impact on observed changes in scores. Larger variations took place within different socio-demographic groups, but these tended to cancel each other out on aggregate. In particular, large variations are observed by age and levels of education. Older adults in PIAAC are generally more proficient than their IALS counterparts, probably due to the increase in educational attainments that took place over recent decades. On the contrary, tertiary-educated individuals appear to be on average less proficient than in the past, which may signal that the expansion of tertiary education has been accompanied by a decline in the average quality of university graduates (or of university instruction). There is also no evidence that the change in delivery mode, with a switch to a computer-based assessment in PIAAC, had any significant effect on performance. However, the OECD is unable to ascertain how differences in implementation and technical standards affect the comparability of the data, so that a certain degree of caution should always be exercised in interpreting these results. Amongst the countries that experienced larger changes in literacy proficiency between surveys, a close inspection of IALS data (in particular through an investigation of response patterns at the item level) highlights some anomalies in Italy and Poland (and, to a lesser extent, in England and Northern Ireland), suggesting that particular caution should be exercised in interpreting the evolution of proficiency in these countries. Ce document analyse les compétences en littératie et en numératie dans les pays qui ont participé à l'Enquête internationale sur l'alphabétisation des adultes (EIAA, administrée entre 1994 et 1998), à l'Enquête sur la littératie et les compétences des adultes (ELCA, administrée entre 2003 et 2007) et à l’Enquête sur les compétences des adultes (PIAAC, administrée en 2012). Alors que dans de nombreux pays le changement du niveau de littératie entre l'EIAA et PIAAC a été faible, d’autres ont enregistré des variations notables, pour la plupart négatives. Dans l’intervalle plus court qui sépare l’ELCA et PIAAC, les compétences en numératie ont clairement décliné (sauf en Italie), tandis que les niveaux de littératie ont en moyenne enregistré de moindres variations (excepté une importante augmentation enregistrée en Italie et un déclin notable constaté en Norvège). Les modifications dans la composition de la population semblent avoir peu d'impact sur le changement dans les résultats entre les différentes enquêtes. De plus grandes variations ont eu lieu au sein des différents groupes socio-démographiques, mais ceux-ci ont tendance à s’annuler les uns les autres dans l'ensemble. En particulier, de grandes variations sont observées selon l'âge et les niveaux d'éducation. Les adultes plus âgés dans PIAAC sont généralement plus compétents que leurs homologues de l'EIAA, probablement en raison de l'augmentation du niveau d'instruction qui s’est opérée au cours des dernières décennies. Au contraire, les individus ayant un niveau d’instruction de niveau tertiaire semblent en moyenne moins compétents que dans le passé, ce qui pourrait indiquer que l'expansion de l'enseignement supérieur a été accompagnée d'une baisse de la qualité des nouveaux entrants à l’université (ou de l’enseignement universitaire).
    Date: 2016–10–11
  32. By: Matthew P. Steinberg; Johanna Lacoe
    Abstract: In this article, we summarize the critiques of exclusionary discipline and examine the research base on which discipline policy reform rests.
    Keywords: school discipline, suspension, zero tolerance
    JEL: I

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