nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒10‒09
twenty-six papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. University Revenue within a New Structure of Resources By Elena A. Nikolayenko; Liudmila M. Filatova
  2. Long-Term Orientation and Educational Performance By Figlio, David; Giuliano, Paola; Ozek, Umut; Sapienza, Paola
  3. Student Performance in Mathematics using PISA-2009 data for Portugal By Susana Faria; Maria Conceição Portela
  4. Does it pay to study abroad? Evidence from Poland By Jacek Liwinski
  5. Does Classroom Gender Composition Affect School Dropout? By Anil, Bulent; Guner, Duygu; Delibasi, Tuba Toru; Uysal, Gokce
  6. Impact of school day extension on educational outcomes: evidence from Mais Educação in Brazil By Luis Felipe Batista de Oliveira; Rafael Terra
  7. Cognitive Ability and Games of School Choice By Christian Basteck; Marco Mantovani; ;
  8. Faster broadband: are there any educational benefits? By Benjamin Faber; Rosa Sanchis-Guarner; Felix Weinhardt
  9. Parents, schools and human capital differences across countries By Marta De Philippis; Federico Rossi
  10. Parents’ inter-ethnic marriage and children’s education and disability: Evidence from Vietnam By Dang, Trang; Nguyen, Cuong
  11. The Intergenerational Transmission of Schooling among the Education-Rationed By Jorge M. Agüero; Maithili Ramachandran
  12. The effects of Assortative Matching on Job and Marital Satisfaction through University Attendance By Alessandro Tampieri; Majlinda Joxhe
  13. Dealing with student heterogeneity: curriculum implementation strategies and student achievement By Rosario Maria Ballatore; Paolo Sestito
  14. Can Student Test Scores Provide Useful Measures of School Principals' Performance? By Hanley Chiang; Moira McCullough; Stephen Lipscomb; Brian Gill
  15. Internationalization strategies of business schools - how flat is the world? By Bertrand Guillotin; Vincent Mangematin
  16. Protecting Unsophisticated Applicants in School Choice through Information Disclosure By Christian Basteck; Marco Mantovani; ;
  17. Child labour ban versus Education subsidy in a model with learning by doing effect in unskilled work By Chakraborty, Kamalika; Chakraborty, Bidisha
  18. Intensive Mothering and Well-being: The Role of Education and Child Care Activity By Gimenez-Nadal, Jose Ignacio; Sevilla, Almudena
  19. The Missing "One-Offs": The Hidden Supply of High-Achieving, Low Income Students By Hoxby, Caroline M.; Avery, Christopher
  20. Does Relative Grading Help Male Students? Evidence from a Field Experiment in the Classroom By Eszter Czibor; Mirjam van Praag; Randolph Sloof; Sander Onderstal
  21. Intergenerational Mobility under Education-Effort Complementarity. By Jaime Alonso-Carrera; Jordi Caballé; Xavier Raurich
  22. High-Quality Teacher Professional Development and Classroom Teaching Practices: Evidence from Talis 2013 By Fabian Barrera-Pedemonte
  23. Impacto do Programa Mais Educação em indicadores educacionais By Luis Felipe Batista de Oliveira; Rafael Terra
  24. The gender wage gap and the early-career effect education By Hildegunn E. Stokke
  25. School Autonomy, Education Quality and Development: an Instrumental Variable Approach By Nicolas Contreras
  26. A Framework for the Analysis of Student Well-Being in the Pisa 2015 Study: Being 15 In 2015 By Francesca Borgonovi; Judit Pál

  1. By: Elena A. Nikolayenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Liudmila M. Filatova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Market reform in Russia has had a positive impact on economic sectors and has generally led to higher production quality. However, the education sector (especially professional training) has been an exception. Although education reform was undertaken with the goal of modernization, the general level of value added in the education sector has not grown in the past four years. This article examines changes in higher education under the new configuration of resources based on the income structure of universities located in the Central Federal District (CFD). The results evidence a change in financial support from different income sources and in cost structures at university level. These are the result of higher education reform and university support programs aimed at enhancing the academic and research capacity of the leading Russian universities and developing a competitive national education system. This paper reveals trends in the financing of higher education institutions using statistical and economic analysis, comparing the income structures of different groups of universities and their cost structures. Analysing the dynamics of the aggregate indicators, we study cost structures considering university priorities to increase teaching staff salaries and income from their research and development projects. The study assesses the implications of increasing regional university differentiation in terms of funding and income sources, which lead, considering the commitment to increase the faculty’s salaries, to a shortage of funds for the maintenance of property. These circumstances force the universities to make considerable efforts to find extra-budgetary funding sources in a situation of shrinking effective demand, which jeopardises the development opportunities for a large proportion of regional universities
    Keywords: higher education resources, number of employees with higher education, value added in education, income structure
    JEL: H52 I22 I23
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Figlio, David; Giuliano, Paola; Ozek, Umut; Sapienza, Paola
    Abstract: We use remarkable population-level administrative education and birth records from Florida to study the role of Long-Term Orientation on the educational attainment of immigrant students living in the US. Controlling for the quality of schools and individual characteristics, students from countries with long term oriented attitudes perform better than students from cultures that do not emphasize the importance of delayed gratification. These students perform better in third grade reading and math tests, have larger test score gains over time, have fewer absences and disciplinary incidents, are less likely to repeat grades, and are more likely to graduate from high school in four years. Also, they are more likely to enroll in advanced high school courses, especially in scientific subjects. Parents from long term oriented cultures are more likely to secure better educational opportunities for their children. A larger fraction of immigrants speaking the same language in the school amplifies the effect of Long-Term Orientation on educational performance. We validate these results using a sample of immigrant students living in 37 different countries.
    Keywords: Cultural Transmission; education; Long-Term Orientation
    JEL: I20 I24 J15 Z1
    Date: 2016–09
  3. By: Susana Faria (Department of Mathematics, Universidade do Minho); Maria Conceição Portela (Católica Porto Business School and CEGE, Universidade Católica Portuguesa)
    Abstract: This paper is based on Portuguese data from PISA-2009, and it focuses on the measurement of student achievement in mathematics and on the determinants of this achievement both at the student and at the school levels. Data on about 3900 Portuguese students and 194 schools who participated in PISA-2009 were used to accomplish our objectives. Given the hierarchical structure of data, the models adopted for statistical analysis were multilevel models, which can take into account data variability within and among the hierarchical levels. Specifically we were interested in understanding whether the impact of students' variables were similar for students with different levels of achievement. As a result, we used a multilevel quantile regression model to analyse the determinants of students' success, where the potential determinants are student and school variables. Our study provides evidence that a stable relation with achievement is expected for some variables (e.g. gender, repetition, or socio economic back- ground), while other variables show varying impacts depending on the students location on the rank of achievement in maths (e.g. immigrant status of students, or some study strategies like control strategies). In spite of schools having a significant impact on students' achievement (without considering any explanatory factors, 30% of the variability found in students' test scores can be explained by the school attended), we found that most school-level variables (except location) were not significant in explaining the school effect.
    Keywords: Multilevel quantile regression models; Mathematics achievements; PISA-2009
    Date: 2016–09
  4. By: Jacek Liwinski (University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: Tertiary education has been perceived in Poland as a key determinant of success in the labour market, as clearly shown by the increase of the net enrolment ratio in tertiary education from 9.8% in 1990 up to 40.9% in 2009. However, as tertiary education becomes more and more popular, it does not signal skills as well as before. It seems that employers may treat students' participation in international exchange programs as a new signaling tool since according to them international students’ skills – both cognitive and non-cognitive – are well above the average. On the other hand, students participating in exchange programs underline a positive impact of studying abroad on their personal development, i.e. on their general skills. Thus, from a theoretical point of view we may expect a positive correlation between studying abroad and wages, which follows from both signaling theory and human capital theory. On the average, 16% of European students report a positive impact of participation in Erasmus exchange program on their incomes, but interestingly, those from the CEE countries, including Polish students, report it much more often. The aim of this paper is to determine whether studying abroad for at least one semester has an impact on wages of higher education graduates in Poland. To answer this question, an extended Mincer wage equation was estimated using OLS on the basis of data from the nationwide tracer survey of Polish graduates conducted in 2007 (Graduate Tracer Study 2007). The hourly net wage rate in the first job after graduating from a higher education institution was the dependent variable in the wage equation. In order to reduce the selection bias, three groups of variables depicting students’ abilities and skills were included in the model. The results of the analysis show that Polish students who completed at least one semester of studies abroad, enjoy a wage premium of 35% in their first workplace after graduation. Moreover, the wage premium is higher in case of graduates holding Bachelor’s degree (48%) than those with Master’s degree (26%).
    Keywords: investment in human capital, studying abroad, international exchange programs, wage premium, wage equation
    JEL: J24 J31 I29
  5. By: Anil, Bulent (Bahcesehir University); Guner, Duygu (KU Leuven); Delibasi, Tuba Toru (Bahcesehir University); Uysal, Gokce (Bahcesehir University)
    Abstract: Measuring the gender peer effects on student achievement has recently attracted a lot of attention in the literature. Yet, the results are inconclusive. A substantial amount of research shows that having relatively more girls in a division increases the academic achievement of all students. Nevertheless, the identification of pure gender effects remains a challenge due to the fact that girls outperform boys in overall academic performance. Our study overcomes this identification problem in a setting where girls are not academically better. Using 2009-2010 school year data on 8th graders in Turkey, this paper disentangles pure "academic" peer effects and "gender" peer effects. Our estimations reveal that the higher the share of females in a division, the lower the likelihood that a student drops out. One standard deviation increase in the share of females in the division decreases the likelihood of dropout by 0.3 percentage points. This result holds even though females are 9.32 percentage points more likely to drop out. These findings are robust to the inclusion of various control variables e.g. parental and academic background of the student, school and regional characteristics. We also find that the gender peer effects are prevalent in both females and males.
    Keywords: gender, peer effects, dropout
    JEL: J16 I20
    Date: 2016–09
  6. By: Luis Felipe Batista de Oliveira (IPC-IG); Rafael Terra (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "There are many elements to the public policies required to reduce educational disparities among students. They include issues related to infrastructure, remuneration and training of education professionals, and debates regarding unifying content at the national level and on forms of public service provision and delivery. There are also suggestions regarding how students can best make use of their time to seek to expand their knowledge, relationships and school participation. While there are many initiatives that focus on all of these aspects, their impacts are not always subject to a causal analysis capable of providing the information necessary to improve them. This Working Paper provides evidence regarding the impact of the extended school days implemented under the Programa Mais Educação ('More Education' programme?PME), an initiative of the Brazilian federal government. The PME transfers funds directly to educational institutions, which, in turn, purchase educational materials and fund monitoring grants for extracurricular activities". (?)
    Keywords: Impact, school day extension, educational, outcomes, evidence, Mais Educaç
    Date: 2016–08
  7. By: Christian Basteck; Marco Mantovani; ;
    Abstract: We take school admission mechanisms to the lab to test whether the widely-used manipulable Boston-mechanism disadvantages students of lower cognitive ability and whether this leads to ability segregation across schools. Results show this is the case: lower ability participants receive lower payoffs and are over-represented at the worst school. Under the strategy-proof Deferred Acceptance mechanism, payoff differences are reduced, and ability distributions across schools harmonized. Hence, we find support for the argument that a strategy-proof mechanisms “levels the playing-field”. Finally, we document a trade-off between equity and efficiency in that average payoffs are larger under Boston than under Deferred Acceptance.
    JEL: C78 C91 D82 I24
    Date: 2016–10
  8. By: Benjamin Faber; Rosa Sanchis-Guarner; Felix Weinhardt
    Abstract: Governments around the world are committing substantial public funds to upgrading their broadband infrastructure, partly in the hope of promoting education. Research findings by Rosa Sanchis-Guarner and colleagues raise doubts about whether faster internet speeds will raise young people's attainment at school.
    Keywords: Internet, broadband, educational attainment, information and communication technology
    Date: 2016–10
  9. By: Marta De Philippis (Banca d'Italia); Federico Rossi (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: Results from international standardized tests show large cross-country differences in students' performances. Where do these gaps come from? This paper argues that differences in cultural environments and parental inputs may be of great importance. We show that the school performance of second-generation immigrants is similar to that of native students in their parents' countries of origin. This holds true even after accounting for different family background characteristics, schools attended and selection into immigration. We quantify the overall contribution of various parental inputs to the observed cross-country differences in PISA test performance and show that they account for between 12% and 30% of the total variation and for most of the gap between East Asia and other regions. This pattern calls into questions whether PISA scores should be interpreted only as a quality measure for a country's educational system, since they actually contain an important intergenerational and cultural component.
    Keywords: parental inputs, school quality
    JEL: I25 O43 F22 Z1 J61
    Date: 2016–09
  10. By: Dang, Trang; Nguyen, Cuong
    Abstract: This paper examines whether interethnic marriage of parents is associated with educational performance of children in Vietnam using data from the 2009 Population and Housing Census. It finds that interethnic marriage of parents is associated with educational attainment of children in Vietnam. Children with parents from different ethnic groups tend to have better education and lower disability incidence than children with parents from one ethnic minority group.
    Keywords: Health, education, disability, children, interethnic marriage
    JEL: I1 I2
    Date: 2015–09–01
  11. By: Jorge M. Agüero (University of Connecticut); Maithili Ramachandran (University of California, Riverside)
    Abstract: We estimate the intergenerational transmission of schooling in a country where the majority of the population was rationed in its access to education. By eliminating apartheid-style policies against blacks, the 1980 education reform in Zimbabwe swiftly tripled the progression rate to secondary schools. Using a fuzzy regression discontinuity design, we find large and robust intergenerational transmissions. Placebo tests for white Zimbabweans further validate our design. Evidence of assortative mating suggests that the marriage, rather than the labor, market is a key mechanism for these transmissions. We discuss how our results impact the long-term success and design of antipoverty policies.
    Keywords: Schooling, intergenerational effects, Zimbabwe
    JEL: I21 J13 J24
    Date: 2016–10
  12. By: Alessandro Tampieri (University of Greenwich, United Kingdom); Majlinda Joxhe (CREA, Université du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: This paper examines how the decision to acquire higher education may affect job and marital satisfaction. We propose a theoretical model where individuals decide whether to attend university both for obtaining higher job satisfaction and for meeting potential partners. As the probability of marrying an educated partner increases (due to positive educational assortative matching), the average ability of university students falls, since more (low ability) students are willing to attend university. Two effects can be withdrawn: (i) average job satisfaction decreases, while (ii) marital satisfaction increases. We then test the model using the British Household Panel Survey for years 1996-2008, using a dynamic bivariate model. Consistent with the theoretical predictions, we find that higher education is correlated with lower average job satisfaction. In addition, the higher education of the partner increases marital satisfaction.
    Keywords: higher education, job satisfaction, marital satisfaction
    JEL: I21 J12
    Date: 2016
  13. By: Rosario Maria Ballatore (Banca d'Italia); Paolo Sestito (Banca d'Itaia)
    Abstract: In this study we investigate the relationship between student achievement and a crucial aspect of teaching: curriculum implementation strategies. More specifically, we consider three strategies representing teachers' approach in dealing with heterogeneous classes: i) spending time on the same topic until everyone understands, ii) moving on to another topic even if part of the class does not understand the previous one, and iii) spending time to revise concepts and topics already studied in the previous year. We exploit the within-student between-subjects variation in the frequency with which different teachers adopt each of the three strategies to control for constant student and class traits and for the possibility that teachers may adapt their strategies to class composition. Our findings show that spending time on the same topic until everyone understands is not associated with a better performance of less able students. On the contrary, it produces substantial achievement losses for the most able ones. Spending time revising topics studied in the previous year increases the achievement of less able students without lowering the performance of the most able ones.
    Keywords: student heterogeneity, curriculum implementation strategies
    JEL: I21 I24 C33
    Date: 2016–09
  14. By: Hanley Chiang; Moira McCullough; Stephen Lipscomb; Brian Gill
    Abstract: This report describes findings from a study examining the accuracy of four test-based measures of principal performance for predicting principals’ contributions to student achievement in future years.
    Keywords: Administrator Effectiveness, Administrator Evaluation, Principals, Student Achievement, Academic Achievement, Student Achievement Growth
    JEL: I
  15. By: Bertrand Guillotin (Grenoble Ecole de Management - Grenoble École de Management (GEM)); Vincent Mangematin (MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM))
    Abstract: Business school strategy has become more complex than ever, especially regarding internationalization. Using different paths, experiencing failure and success, business schools have internationalized, attracting many of the international students who contributed $27 billion 2 to the US economy in 2014. Some business schools are global, training global managers, others are more focused on national markets. How do business schools strategize about internationalization? Can we use existing models to explain this process? Are internationalization and globalization similar? Using a comparative analysis of six case studies in the US and Europe, we found that the engine of internationalization influences its paths and outcomes. We contribute to the body of IB research by discussing how business schools strategize their internationalization toward uniformity or diversity under isomorphic pressures from accreditation bodies (AACSB, 2011) and rankings. The so-called Uppsala model should be 1 Acknowledgements: the authors would like to thank two anonymous and rigorous TIBR reviewers for their detailed and useful feedback, as well as Prof. Richard M. Burton, professor emeritus of organization and strategy (Duke University), for his pertinent comments and continuous support. Also, we acknowledge that some of the findings in this paper were presented at peer-reviewed colloquia (EGOS 2013 and EGOS 2014). 2 Institute for International Education, Open Doors Data, 2 extended to deal with three tensions: internationalization vs. globalization, enacted dimensions of audiences, and respective risks of different internationalization pathways.
    Keywords: business schools, disruptions, internationalization, globalization, strategies, knowledge
    Date: 2015
  16. By: Christian Basteck; Marco Mantovani; ;
    Abstract: Unsophisticated applicants can be at a disadvantage under manipulable and hence strategically demanding school choice mechanisms. Disclosing information on applications in previous admission periods makes it easier to asses the chances of being admitted at a particular school, and hence may level the playing field between applicants who differ in their cognitive ability. We test this conjecture experimentally for the widely used Boston mechanism. Results show that, absent this information, there exist a substantial gap between subjects of higher and lower cognitive ability, resulting in significant differences in payoffs, and ability segregation across schools. The treatment is effective in improving applicants’ strategic performance. However, because both lower and higher ability subjects improve when they have information about past demands, the gap between the two groups shrinks only marginally, and the instrument fails at levelling the playing field.
    JEL: C78 C91 D82 I24
    Date: 2016–09
  17. By: Chakraborty, Kamalika; Chakraborty, Bidisha
    Abstract: This paper builds an overlapping generations household economy model with learning by doing effect in unskilled work. We study the relative effectiveness of child labour ban and education subsidy on schooling. We find some interesting results- the time path of schooling is oscillating but convergent in nature; a fall in child wage does not necessarily increase steady state schooling; if unskilled adult wage is sufficiently small, education subsidy is more effective in enhancing schooling than banning child labour and a child labour ban that increases steady state schooling may not be accompanied by increase in utility level of the household.
    Keywords: child labour, schooling, human capital, oscillation, child labour ban, education subsidy
    JEL: E24 I21 J22 J24 O10
    Date: 2016–04–27
  18. By: Gimenez-Nadal, Jose Ignacio; Sevilla, Almudena
    Abstract: We use data from the 2012, and 2013 Well-being Module of the American Time Use Survey to understand maternal momentary well-being, and how these vary by educational attainment. We document that even after controlling for a wide set of maternal characteristics, higher educated mothers report lower levels of happiness and meaning, and higher levels of fatigue when engaging in child-related activities than mothers with lower educational attainment. Further analysis reveals that there is no education gap in momentary wellbeing among fathers and non-mothers. These findings are consistent with more educated mothers feeling the pressures from the ideology of intensive mothering, whereby mother’s continuous time and attention is understood as being crucial for child development.
    Keywords: Mothering. Momentary well-being. Child care. Ideology of intensive mothering. Time use
    JEL: D1 D13 D6
    Date: 2016
  19. By: Hoxby, Caroline M. (Stanford University); Avery, Christopher (Harvard University)
    Abstract: We show that the vast majority of low-income high achievers do not apply to any selective college. This is despite the fact that selective institutions typically cost them less, owing to generous financial aid, than the two-year and nonselective four-year institutions to which they actually apply. Moreover, low-income high achievers have no reason to believe they will fail at selective institutions since those who do apply are admitted and graduate at high rates. We demonstrate that low-income high achievers' application behavior differs greatly from that of their high-income counterparts with similar achievement. The latter generally follow experts' advice to apply to several "peer," a few "reach," and a couple of "safety" colleges. We separate low-income high achievers into those whose application behavior is similar to that of their high-income counterparts ("achievement-typical") and those who apply to no selective institutions ("income-typical"). We show that income-typical students are not more disadvantaged than the achievementtypical students. However, in contrast to the achievement-typical students, income-typical students come from districts too small to support selective public high schools, are not in a critical mass of fellow high achievers, and are unlikely to encounter a teacher who attended a selective college. We demonstrate that widely used policies--college admissions recruiting, campus visits, college mentoring programs--are likely to be ineffective with income-typical students. We suggest that effective policies must depend less on geographic concentration of high achievers.
    Date: 2015
  20. By: Eszter Czibor; Mirjam van Praag; Randolph Sloof; Sander Onderstal
    Abstract: We conduct a framed field experiment in a Dutch university to compare student effort provision and exam performance under the two most prevalent evaluation practices: absolute (criterion-referenced) and relative (norm-referenced) grading. Based on the empirical stylized fact of gender differences in competitiveness we hypothesize that the rank-order tournament created by relative grading will increase male, but not female, performance. Contrary to our expectations, we find no impact of competitive grading on preparation behavior or exam scores among either gender. Our result may be attributed to the low value students in our sample attach to academic excellence.
    Date: 2016
  21. By: Jaime Alonso-Carrera (Universidade de Vigo); Jordi Caballé (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona); Xavier Raurich (Universitat de Barcelona)
    Abstract: In this paper, we build a model that, according to the empirical evidence, gives raise to oscillations in wealth within a dynasty while keeping intergenerational persistence in education attainment. The mechanism that we propose is based on the interaction between effort and wealth suggested by the Carnegie effect, according to which wealthier individuals make less effort than the poorer. The oscillations in wealth arise from changes in the effort exerted by different generations as a response to both inherited wealth and college premium. Our mechanism generates a rich social stratification with several classes in the long run as a consequence of the combination of different levels of education and effort. Furthermore, we generate a large mobility in wealth among classes even in the long run. Our model highlights the role played by the minimum cost on education investment, the borrowing constraints, and the complementarity between effort and education.
    Keywords: Intergenerational Mobility, Education, Effort.
    JEL: I24 J62
    Date: 2016
  22. By: Fabian Barrera-Pedemonte
    Abstract: This paper examines the contribution of high-quality teacher professional development (TPD) to the strategies teachers report using to improve students’ learning in the classroom. What was taught in this TPD, and how it was delivered to teachers is compared across the 35 educational systems with available data in TALIS 2013. Results suggest that teachers who take part in curriculum-focused TPD are more likely to report using a variety of the instructional methods considered in this study. Furthermore, TPD delivered with greater levels of teacher collaboration, active learning and longer duration also increases, in many countries and economies, the likelihood of teachers reporting using a large number of these strategies. In contrast, teachers’ exposure to TPD involving other teachers from the school (i.e. with collective participation) seems to be specifically detrimental for active teaching methods. The paper discusses the prevalence of these features, national gaps in their exposure and policy implications derived from these findings. Cet article examine dans quelle mesure un développement professionnel de qualité (DP) peut aider les enseignants à trouver des stratégies pour améliorer l'apprentissage des élèves en classe. Dans les 35 systèmes scolaires pour lesquels les données sont disponibles dans TALIS 2013, on compare le contenu et la manière de procurer ce développement professionnel aux enseignants. Les résultats suggèrent que le DP axé sur le curriculum augmente la probabilité que les enseignants déclarent utiliser une variété de méthodes d’instruction décrites dans cette étude. En outre, les enseignants qui déclarent avoir participé à des activités de développement professionnel mettant en oeuvre un niveau élevé de collaboration entre enseignants et un apprentissage actif sur le long terme utilisent un nombre important de ces stratégies. En revanche, l'exposition des enseignants au DP impliquant d'autres enseignants de l'école (par exemple avec la participation collective) semble être particulièrement néfaste pour les méthodes pédagogiques actives. Ce document traite de la prévalence de ces caractéristiques, des lacunes nationales dans leur exposition et des implications politiques découlant de ces conclusions.
    Date: 2016–10–05
  23. By: Luis Felipe Batista de Oliveira (IPC-IG); Rafael Terra (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Existem muitas abordagens a respeito das políticas públicas necessárias para reduzir disparidades educacionais entre os estudantes. Entre elas, estão questões de infraestrutura, salário e formação dos profissionais de educação, debate a respeito de conteúdos nacionais unificados e formas de provisão e prestação do serviço público. Há também sugestões acerca do uso do tempo, para que os alunos busquem ampliação de seus conhecimentos, relacionamentos e integração escolar. Embora existam muitas iniciativas apresentadas em todas essas vertentes, nem sempre seu impacto é verificado de maneira causal, a fim de fornecer elementos necessários para o aperfeiçoamento das intervenções. Esse artigo oferece evidências a respeito do impacto da ampliação da jornada escolar, conduzida pelo Programa Mais Educação (PME) do governo federal. Tal política transfere recursos diretamente para estabelecimentos de ensino que, por sua vez, custeiam material didático e bolsas de monitoria para atividades oferecidas no contraturno. O enfoque para a correta identificação econométrica encontra-se a partir de 2012. Isso porque ele garante a exploração de uma descontinuidade na priorização das escolas que possuem 50 por cento ou mais de seus alunos como beneficiários do Programa Bolsa Família (PBF). Logo, obtém-se a comparação das escolas por esse critério, de maneira quase experimental. Apesar de tal priorização ter indicado maiores chances de seleção, não são encontradas melhorias no aprendizado (português e matemática) e nas taxas de rendimento (abandono, aprovação e reprovação)".
    Keywords: Impacto, Programa Mais Educação, indicadores educacionais
    Date: 2016–08
  24. By: Hildegunn E. Stokke (Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: This paper identifies the sources of the gender wage gap across education groups and studies how the gap develops with work experience throughout the career. The analysis applies matched employer-employee register data for Norway covering hourly wages for all full-time workers 20-40 years old in 2008 and with information on actual work experience the previous 15 years. Overall, less than half the male wage premium is explained by differences in observable factors. The remaining gap follows from lower returns to worker characteristics for women, especially lower returns to experience. The gender wage gap between observable equal workers is non-existing upon entry to the labor market, while it increases rapidly throughout the early career, before stabilizing. The findings of early-career effects are robust to an analysis following cohorts during 1993-2008. The degree of gender discrimination in the labor market decreases with the level of education. Low educated women have lower returns to experience and lose more from entering family life compared to highly educated women.
    Keywords: gender wage gap; return to experience; early-career effect; register data
    JEL: J16 J31 J71
    Date: 2016–03–29
  25. By: Nicolas Contreras (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper, I manly seek to test the robustness of Hanushek et al.'s (2013) hypothesis, according to which the impact of autonomy in terms of learning outcomes differs across levels of development, being positive for developed countries but not for developing countries. I do so by constructing a school-level measure of autonomy, which I instrument using the distinction between de jure and de facto autonomy, as laid out by Gunnarsson et al. (2009). I also follow them in differentiating between parents participation and school autonomy, thus providing an explanation to their results, in line with the conceptual framework of Hanushek et al. (2013).
    Abstract: Dans ce papier, je cherche principalement à tester la robustesse de l'hypothèse d'Hanushek et al. (2013), selon laquelle l'impact de l'autonomie des écoles en termes d'apprentissage diffère en fonction du niveau de développement, étant positif pour les pays développés mais pas pour les pays en développement. Pour ce faire, je construis une mesure de l'autonomie à l'échelle des écoles que j'instrumente en utilisant la distinction entre autonomie de jure et autonomie de facto, telle que présentée par Gunnarsson et al. (2009). Je suis également ces derniers en différenciant entre la participation des parents et l'autonomie des écoles, procurant ainsi une explication à leurs résultats en accord avec le cadre conceptuel d'Hanushek et al. (2013).
    Keywords: instrumental variable,school autonomy,parental participation,PISA,education quality,developing countries,panel estimation
    Date: 2015–02
  26. By: Francesca Borgonovi; Judit Pál
    Abstract: In 2015, PISA (the Programme for International Student Assessment) asked students to describe their well-being in addition to collecting information on students’ subject-specific skills. This paper provides a comprehensive overview and details the policy relevance of the following five dimensions of well-being covered in PISA 2015: cognitive, psychological, social, physical and material well-being. In addition, the paper outlines the underlying indicators of each dimension and their theoretical and analytical value for education policy. This paper concludes by identifying data gaps within the indicators and exploring how future cycles of PISA could bridge these gaps in order to provide a more comprehensive portrait of students’ well-being. En 2015, PISA (le Programme international pour le suivi des acquis des élèves) a interrogé les élèves sur leur bien-être, en plus de sa collecte de données sur leurs compétences dans des matières spécifiques. Ce document propose un aperçu complet et une analyse détaillée de la pertinence stratégique des cinq dimensions du bien-être couvertes dans l’enquête PISA 2015 : le bien-être cognitif, psychologique, social, physique et matériel. En outre, il examine les indicateurs sous-tendant chacune de ces dimensions, ainsi que leur valeur théorique et analytique pour les politiques d’éducation. Enfin, il identifie les lacunes dans les données des indicateurs et étudie les possibilités d’y remédier dans les prochains cycles PISA afin de dresser un portrait plus exhaustif du bien-être des élèves.
    Date: 2016–10–05

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