nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒09‒18
thirty papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Returns to Education at Community Colleges: New Evidence from the Education Longitudinal Survey By Marcotte, Dave E.
  2. Student Centric Learning Through Planned Hard work - An Innovative Model By Aithal, Sreeramana; Aithal, Shubrajyotsna
  3. No student left behind? Evidence from the Programme for School Guidance in Spain By J. Ignacio Garcia-Perez; Marisa Hidalgo-Hidalgo
  4. STEM graduates and secondary school curriculum: does early exposure to science matter? By Marta De Philippis
  5. Les résultats éducatifs de long terme des élèves de l?école secondaire privée au Québec : une évaluation des effets de traitement avec données longitudinales By David Lapierre; Pierre Lefebvre; Philip Merrigan
  6. The Returns to Elite College Education: A Quasi-Experimental Analysis By Anelli, Massimo
  7. Analysis of ABC Model of Annual Research Productivity using ABCD Framework By Aithal, Sreeramana; V. T., Shailashree; P. M., Suresh Kumar
  8. Student Coaching: How Far Can Technology Go? By Philip Oreopoulos; Uros Petronijevic
  9. Thrivers and Divers: Using Non-Academic Measures to Predict College Success and Failure By Graham Beattie; Jean-William P. Laliberté; Philip Oreopoulos
  10. Some Approaches to Ranking in Higher Education By Barinova, V.A.; Eremkin, V.A.; Zemtsov, Stepan
  11. Powering education By Fadi Hassan; Paolo Lucchino
  12. Academic enrolment, careers and student mobility in Italy By Ilaria De Angelis; Vincenzo Mariani; Francesca Modena; Pasqualino Montanaro
  13. Small Firms, Human Capital, and Productivity in Asia By Vandenberg, Paul; Trinh, Long Q.
  14. Bridging the Gap in Workforce and Education Services: Career Coaching in the Virginia RETHINKS Health Sciences Education TAACCCT Program By Cecilia Speroni; Nan Maxwell
  15. Modelling adult skills in OECD countries By Jorge Calero; Rosario Ivano Scandurra
  16. Can Teacher Practices Reduce the Gender Gap in Mathematics Interest for Students with Different Achievements? By Yulia V. Kuzmina
  17. The Impact of Grade Retention on Juvenile Crime By Juan Diaz; Nicolas Grau; Tatiana Reyes; Jorge Rivera
  18. Recent Flattening in the Higher Education Wage Premium: Polarization, Skill Downgrading, or Both? By Valletta, Robert G.
  19. Sociology Academic World: The Institutionalization of Relations of Power and Knowledge By Vakhshtayn, Victor Semenovich; Nazarenko, A.P.
  20. The Empirical Content of Season-of-Birth Effects: An Investigation with Turkish Data By Torun, Huzeyfe; Tumen, Semih
  21. The economic impact of universities: evidence from across the globe By Anna Valero; John Van Reenen
  22. Leisure and education: insights from a time-use analysis By Jorge Calero; Marcos Fernández-Gutiérrez
  23. The Efficiency of Race-Neutral Alternatives to Race-Based Affirmative Action: Evidence from Chicago's Exam Schools By Glenn Ellison; Parag A. Pathak
  24. Public, privé et éducation prioritaire : une analyse de la mixité sociale selon le secteur du collège By Pierre Courtioux; Tristan-Pierre Maury
  25. What Makes a Good Trader? On the Role of Intuition and Reflection on Trader Performance By Brice Corgnet; Mark DeSantis; David Porter
  26. Implementing the Virginia RETHINKS Health Sciences Education TAACCCT Grant By Margaret Sullivan; Brittany English; Alyson Burnett; Jillian Berk
  27. “No more credit score”: employer credit check bans and signal substitution By Clifford, Robert; Shoag, Daniel
  28. Gini coefficients of education for 146 countries, 1950-2010 By Ziesemer, Thomas
  29. The gender productivity gap : some evidence for a set of highly productive academic economists By Ruiz-Castillo, Javier; Carrasco, Raquel
  30. Unlucky to Be Young? The Long-Term Effects of School Starting Age on Smoking Behaviour and Health By Bahrs, Michael; Schumann, Mathias

  1. By: Marcotte, Dave E. (American University)
    Abstract: Community colleges have long been recognized for their potential in providing access to post-secondary education for students of limited means. Indeed, the recent #FreeTuition movement is built on community colleges as a cornerstone. Previous research on the value of community colleges in shaping earnings and career outcomes suggests that encouraging access to community college is a good investment. But, the evidence base on this issue is limited. The main limitations stem from the fact that what we know comes from data collected from cohorts of students who studied in community colleges more than twenty years ago. In the meantime, the market for higher education has changed drastically, and the Great Recession and economy of the early 21st Century have reshaped how young Americans are educated and begin their careers. For these reasons, I update the evidence on the employment and earnings effects of community college education. I study the experiences of the Educational Longitudinal Survey (ELS) cohort, which graduated from high school and began studying in community colleges at the start of the Great Recession, and who began their working careers in the years after. The experiences of this cohort are important in their own right, since they provide insight into the experiences of American workers during and after one of the largest economic downturns in modern history. Moreover, this paper will provide insight into the role post-secondary education plays in shaping economic security more generally.
    Keywords: education, community college
    JEL: I21 I23 I26
    Date: 2016–09
  2. By: Aithal, Sreeramana; Aithal, Shubrajyotsna
    Abstract: The strategies followed by educational institutions and the students become very important when the performance of students in the examinations is concerned. By means of properly planned and well guided model of training and motivation to do hard work, students can follow a well disciplined study plan and become exceptionally successful in examinations. Teaching and training by experienced and dedicated faculty members, continuous support by parents and motivating the students based on setting their goal through proper career guidance and orienting them to focus on the study are few motivating factors in a planned systematic accelerated study model. It is found that instead of studying at last minutes for the exams, if students continuously study every day through hard work and with the proper plan, they can do a better performance. In this paper, we have discussed the strategies the students should adopt during such transition of the curriculum, the importance of Pre-university education in deciding the career of a student, Opportunities in intermediate education, challenges in intermediate education, plan of study etc. The paper also contains the strategies the parents of such students to be followed based on changing family environment, parents dream, expectations, pressure, and worry. To face such critical situation, and support the students and the parents, Expert Pre-University College in Mangalore, India, developed a new innovative hard-work based training model called Seven to Seven (12 hours) Training Model. In the environment of enhanced competition, this new model is Student Centric. The paper contains the Core values of this new model, SWOC analysis, ABCD analysis, Stakeholders expectations, Institutional expectations, Student expectation, Teachers expectations and Parents expectations as a Case Study.
    Keywords: Innovation in intermediate education, Seven to seven study model, SWOC analysis, ABCD analysis.
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2016–09–01
  3. By: J. Ignacio Garcia-Perez; Marisa Hidalgo-Hidalgo
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the effects of a remedial education programme implemented in Spain between 2005 and 2012 that o¤ered after-school classes for underperforming students from poor socioeconomic backgrounds. We use two different estimation strategies, re-weighting estimators and propensity score matching, and address the existence of selection bias. We find that this programme had a substantial positive e¤ect on children’s academic achievement: the probability of falling behind the general progress of the group declined by approximately 5% and mean reading scores increased by approximately 10% of one standard deviation. We also find that a larger exposure to the programme improves students’ scores: whereas students in schools that participated in the programme for at most two years do not experience any significant positive effect, those in schools that participated for at least three years did. The programme significantly reduced the probability of belonging to the bottom part of the distribution (by approximately 7.5%) and improved mean scores (by approximately 18% of one standard deviation). Finally, we find that the impact of the programme is much stronger for students in rural schools than for students in urban schools.
    Date: 2016–09
  4. By: Marta De Philippis
    Abstract: Increasing the number of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) university graduates is considered a key element for long-term productivity and competitiveness in the global economy. Still, little is known about what actually drives and shapes students' choices. This paper focusses on secondary school students at the very top of the ability distribution and explores the effect of more exposure to science on enrolment and persistence in STEM degrees at the university and on the quality of the university attended. The paper overcomes the standard endogeneity problems by exploiting the different timing in the implementation of a reform that induced secondary schools in the UK to offer more science to high ability 14 year-old children. Taking more science in secondary school increases the probability of enrolling in a STEM degree by 1.5 percentage point and the probability of graduating in these degrees by 3 percentage points. The results mask substantial gender heterogeneity: while girls are as willing as boys to take advanced science in secondary school - when offered -, the effect on STEM degrees is entirely driven by boys. Girls are induced to choose more challenging subjects, but still the most female-dominated ones.
    Keywords: university education; high school curriculum; STEM
    JEL: I21 I28 J16 J24
    Date: 2016–08
  5. By: David Lapierre (Department of Economics, University of Quebec in Montreal); Pierre Lefebvre (Department of Economics, University of Quebec in Montreal); Philip Merrigan (Department of Economics, University of Quebec in Montreal)
    Abstract: (in French) Peu d?études peuvent évaluer les effets de long terme de l?école privée secondaire sur les résultats éducatifs des élèves, tout en contrôlant pour les caractéristiques des élèves et des parents. Au Québec, la deuxième province canadienne la plus populeuse, plus de vingt pourcent des élèves du secondaire fréquentent les écoles privées subventionnées par l?État, mais avec frais de scolarité plafonnés. Les biais de sélection, de causalité et de recrutement causés par la possibilité pour l?école privée de sélectionner les élèves rendent toutefois inappropriée une comparaison simpliste de leurs résultats éducatifs par rapport à leurs pairs du secteur public. Cette étude utilise les quatre premiers cycles de deux cohortes longitudinales de l?Enquête sur les jeunes en transition (EJET) réalisée par Statistique Canada. Elle estime l?effet de traitement de l?école privée sur le taux de graduation du secondaire selon le temps attendu, la fréquentation d?un CEGEP à 19 ans, la fréquentation de l?université à 21 ans ou plus, la graduation universitaire à partir de 24 ans ou plus ainsi que l?inscription aux programmes menant à des professions régies par des ordres professionnels au Québec. L?analyse économétrique estime les effets de traitement selon l?appariement par balancement entropique prenant en considération plusieurs variables clés dont le statut socioéconomique des élèves. Les résultats sont ensuite validés par une simulation de variable confondante. Les effets significatifs et robustes estimés attribuables à l?école privée expliquent plus de 56 de l?écart observé entre les élèves par les données (administratives ou descriptives de l?EJET), et près de 81 pourcent selon le modèle, la cohorte et le sexe. Abstract (in English, working paper is in French) Very few studies analyze the long term educational effects of private secondary school students while controlling for their socioeconomic status. In Québec, the second most populous Canadian province, twenty percent of students at this level are enrolled in private schools subsidized by the government, who however set a relatively low ceiling for the fees in exchange for subsidies. Bias from selection, causality and admission coming from the fact that private schools may select their students, give way to inappropriate simplistic comparison of their educational results with their public sector peers. This study uses the first four longitudinal waves on the two cohorts of Statistics Canada?s Youth in Transition Survey (YITS). The analysis estimates the average treatment on the treated the effect of private school on secondary school graduation rate within expected number of years (5), enrollment in postsecondary institutions at age 19, university enrollment at age 21 or more, university graduation at age 24 or more, and enrollment in professional degrees program. The econometric analysis of treatment effects is based on a particular entropy balancing algorithm with a large set of key balancing covariates. Results are validated by a simulation-based sensitivity analysis for matching estimators. We find large, positive and statistically significant effects of private schooling on almost all outcomes analyzed. The results are not sensitive to simulations of omitted variable bias.
    Keywords: EJET-YITS, école privée, graduation à l?école secondaire, poursuite et obtention de diplômes d?études postsecondaires et professionnels, données longitudinales, effets de traitement, balancement entropique
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2016–08
  6. By: Anelli, Massimo (Bocconi University)
    Abstract: I take advantage of a sharp discontinuity in the probability of admission to an elite university at the admission score threshold, to estimate causal returns to college education quality. I use a newly constructed dataset, which combines individual administrative records about high school, college admission, college attendance and tax returns. Students with score just above the admission threshold have 52% higher yearly income with respect to just-below-threshold students. This premium is equivalent to a jump from the 44th percentile to the 74th percentile of the income distribution. The richness of the data allows me to explore the counterfactual college career of not admitted students and the potential mechanisms underlying the estimated income premium. I find that students with a just-above-threshold score are less likely to be college dropouts, take six fewer months to graduate, choose different majors and are more likely to have income in the top quartile of the distribution. Cumulated over fifteen years, the time span of income data for my sample, the net premium of attending the elite university amounts to around $120,000.
    Keywords: education quality, returns to education, human capital
    JEL: I21 I22 I23 I28 J24 J31
    Date: 2016–09
  7. By: Aithal, Sreeramana; V. T., Shailashree; P. M., Suresh Kumar
    Abstract: Higher education institutions ought to be centres of learning as well as knowledge creation. Ne w knowledge is generated through research activities carried out by its faculty. There are various parameters for ranking an institution such as curriculum standards, student placement record, admission demand, high profile faculty, investment and infrastructure facilities, alumni accomplishments etc. Going by this, the prime objective of a higher education institution is often forgotten. ABC model recently developed by Aithal P.S & Suresh Kumar P.M., focus on measuring annual research performance of higher educational institutions. According to this model, an organization can calculate its annual research performance using its annual research output by taking into account the following factors such as the number of articles published in refereed journals, the number of books published, and the number of chapters in edited book or number of business cases published in Journals. Studying the implications of a system or model considering all determinants in key areas and analysing the key issues to identify the effective factors and its critical constituent element is the task of ABCD analysis model. In this paper, we have attempted to apply ABCD analysing technique on ABC model of annual research productivity of higher educational institutions.
    Keywords: ABC model of annual research productivity, ABCD analysis of a model, Research in higher educational institutions.
    JEL: I2 O3
    Date: 2016–08–26
  8. By: Philip Oreopoulos; Uros Petronijevic
    Abstract: Recent studies show that programs offering structured, one-on-one coaching and tutoring tend to have large effects on the academic outcomes of both high school and college students. These programs are often costly to implement and difficult to scale, however, calling into question whether making them available to large student populations is feasible. In contrast, interventions that rely on technology to maintain low-touch contact with students can be implemented at large scale and minimal cost but with the risk of not being as effective as one-on-one, in-person assistance. In this paper, we test whether the effects of coaching programs can be replicated at scale by using technology to reach a larger population of students. We work with a sample of over four thousand undergraduate students from a large Canadian university, randomly assigning students into one of the following three interventions: (i) a one-time online exercise designed to affirm students’ values and goals; (ii) a text messaging campaign that provides students with academic advice, information, and motivation; and (iii) a personal coaching service, in which students are matched with upper-year undergraduate coaches. We find large positive effects from the coaching program, as coached students realize a 0.3 standard deviation increase in average grades and a 0.35 standard deviation increase in GPA. In contrast, we find no effects from either the online exercise or the text messaging campaign on any academic outcome, both in the general student population and across several student subgroups. A comparison of the key features of the text messaging campaign and the coaching service suggests that proactively and regularly initiating conversations with students and working to establish trust are important design features to incorporate in future interventions that use technology to reach large populations of students.
    JEL: I20 I23 J24 J38
    Date: 2016–09
  9. By: Graham Beattie; Jean-William P. Laliberté; Philip Oreopoulos
    Abstract: We collect a comprehensive set of non-academic characteristics for a representative sample of incoming freshman to explore which measures best predict the wide variance in first-year college performance unaccounted for by past grades. We focus our attention on student outliers. Students whose first-year college average is far below expectations (divers) have a high propensity for procrastination – they self-report cramming for exams and wait longer before starting assignments. They are also considerably less conscientious than their peers. Divers are more likely to express superficial goals, hoping to 'get rich' quickly. In contrast, students who exceed expectations (thrivers) express more philanthropic goals, are purpose-driven, and are willing to study more hours per week to obtain the higher GPA they expect. A simple seven-variable average of these key non-academic variables does well in predicting college achievement relative to adding more variables or letting a machine-algorithm choose. Our results, descriptive in nature, warrant further research on the importance of non-linearities for the design and targeting of successful interventions in higher-education.
    JEL: I2 I23 J24
    Date: 2016–09
  10. By: Barinova, V.A. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Eremkin, V.A. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Zemtsov, Stepan (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze the main approaches to ranking in higher education, considered foreign experience ranking of universities and educational programs. The analysis of the Russian rankings in the education system and are assessing their applicability. Conclusions on the results of a comparative analysis of Russian and international ratings.
    Keywords: higher education, ranking
    Date: 2016–06–28
  11. By: Fadi Hassan; Paolo Lucchino
    Abstract: More than 1.3 billion people worldwide have no access to electricity and this has first-order effects on several development dimensions. In this paper we focus on the link between access to light and education. We randomly distribute solar lamps to 7th grade pupils in rural Kenya and monitor their educational outcomes throughout the year at quarterly frequency. We find that access to lights through solar lamps is a relevant and effective input to education. Our identification strategy accounts for spillovers by exploiting the variation in treatment at the pupil level and in treatment intensity across classes. We find a positive and significant intention-to-treat effect as well as a positive and significant spillover effect on control students. In a class with the average treatment intensity of our sample (43%), treated students experience an increase in math grades of 0.88 standard deviations. Moreover, we find a positive marginal effect of treatment intensity on control students: raising the share of treated students in a class by 10% increases grades of control students by 0.22 standard deviations. We exploit household geolocation to disentangle within-class and geographical spillovers. We show that geographical spillovers do not have a significant impact and within-school interaction is the main source of spillovers. Finally, we provide suggestive evidence that the mechanism through which lamps affect students is by increasing co-studying at school especially after sunset.
    Keywords: Randomised controlled trial; solar lamps; education; energy access; spillover effects; randomised saturation design
    JEL: C93 O12
    Date: 2016–07
  12. By: Ilaria De Angelis (Banca d'Italia); Vincenzo Mariani (Banca d'Italia); Francesca Modena (Banca d'Italia); Pasqualino Montanaro (Banca d'Italia)
    Abstract: Italy has fewer graduates than most OECD countries, because of both a lower university enrolment rate and a modest completion rate. During the last decade, enrolment in tertiary education in Italy has fallen, despite a slight recovery over the last two years. The decline is partly due to the fading of the effects of the Bologna Process, which had led to a temporary increase in the number of students with prior work experience. The reduction in enrolment has also involved younger students, mainly as a consequence of weak demographic dynamics, only partly offset by an increase in immigrants, whose enrolment rates are however very low. Regardless of demographic trends, many students have decided not to enroll in tertiary education for reasons also related to the economic recession, including the sharp drop in household income, the increase in the tuition fees-to-income ratio and the reduction in grants. Enrolment has fallen more noticeably in Southern universities, also reflecting a greater propensity to migrate to the North. Nevertheless, on-time graduations have increased throughout the country and time-to-degree has decreased.
    Keywords: university, enrolment, mobility, academic performance JEL Classification: I20, I21
    Date: 2016–09
  13. By: Vandenberg, Paul (Asian Development Bank Institute); Trinh, Long Q. (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: The paper analyzes the link between human capital and firm-level productivity in five Asian countries. It draws on a dataset of over 4,000 enterprises and considers both the prior educational attainment of workers and in-service training programs of enterprises. Differences between small, medium-sized, and large enterprises and between countries are also presented. The key finding is that both preservice education and in-service training are positively correlated with labor productivity. The productivity of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is enhanced by a higher level of skills and education of the workforce, just as it is with large firms. However, there are country differences. The policy implications are that competitiveness is enhanced both by raising the general level of education in the workforce and by encouraging enterprise-based training programs.
    Keywords: SME; human capital; firms; enterprises; services; productivity; skills; education; in-service training; labor; workforce; competitiveness; enterprise-based training; People’s Republic of China; Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Viet Nam
    JEL: D22 D24 J24
    Date: 2016–09–12
  14. By: Cecilia Speroni; Nan Maxwell
    Abstract: To better prepare students for jobs in health care, Virginia’s TAACCCT grant included seven strategies to improve student outcomes. This study examines the implementation of each of the strategies and the challenges, successes, sustainability approaches, and lessons learned across the strategies.
    Keywords: Community college, TAACCCT, career coaches, online education, workforce development, health careers
    JEL: I J
  15. By: Jorge Calero (University of Barcelona & IEB); Rosario Ivano Scandurra (University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: Research in the social sciences has focused extensively on the relationship between family background, educational attainment and social destination, on the one hand, and on the processes of skills creation and skills use, on the other. This paper brings these two branches of the literature together by examining the correlation between a range of social factors. The methodology we adopt provides a comprehensive approach to the study of the channels through which literacy skills are acquired, taking into account the interrelation of family background, educational attainment, and the use of skills at work and at home. We use the Programme of International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC) dataset and apply a structural equation model (SEM). Our results show that family background and education play an important role in the configuration of adult skills and skill practices. Unequal family access to resources has a strong impact at later stages in life and strongly affects educational attainment and skills outcomes. Additionally, skills use has a positive and direct impact on adult skills.
    Keywords: Skills, education, family background, SEM, literacy, PIAAC
    JEL: I2 I24
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Yulia V. Kuzmina (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Researchers have postulated that there is a positive effect of autonomy-supportive teacher practices on academic interest. Few studies, however, investigate how these practices can reduce the gender gap in mathematics interest. The goal of our study is to examine how autonomy-supportive practices effect on attitudes toward mathematics for girls and boys with different level of mathematics achievements. We used data from the Russian longitudinal study “Trajectories in Education and Career” (TrEC) to identify teacher practices which can reduce the gender gap in mathematics interest. Using hierarchical linear regression analysis we focused on two types of teacher practices: autonomy-supportive and controlling. We conducted analysis for boys and girls separately and evaluated how the effect of teacher practices on mathematics interest varies for boys and girls in general and according to their level of mathematics achievements. Our analysis demonstrates that girls are more sensitive to different teacher practices and some autonomy-supportive practices have a positive effect on mathematics interest for girls only and no effect on boys’ interest. We also identified that some teacher practices have different effects on students’ interest according to the level of their prior achievements. Autonomy-supportive practices are more important for students with high achievements
    Keywords: mathematics interest, intrinsic motivation to learn mathematics, gender differences, autonomy-supportive practices, controlling practices
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Juan Diaz; Nicolas Grau; Tatiana Reyes; Jorge Rivera
    Abstract: Using detailed administrative and individual data on schooling and crime records from Chile, we estimate the effect of grade retention between 4th and 8th grade on juvenile crime. We base our research on the rule which specifies that students who fail more than one subject must repeat the year. We present two empiri- cal strategies to address the strong evidence that the forcing variable is – locally – manipulated. First, we follow Barreca, Guldi, Lindo, and Waddell (2011) in implementing a donut-hole fuzzy regression discontinuity design (FRD). Second, we extend the approach developed by Keele, Titiunik, and Zubizarreta (2015) to implement a method that combines matching with FRD. These two methodolo- gies deliver similar results and neither show a statistically significant effect on a placebo test. According to our results, grade retention increases the probability of juvenile crime by 1.6 percentage point (pp), an increase of 33% (higher for males and low SES students). We also find that grade retention increases the probability of dropping out by 1.5pp. Regarding mechanisms, our findings suggest that the effect of grade retention on crime does not only manifest itself indirectly as a result of its effect on dropping out. Furthermore, the effect of grade retention on crime is worsened when students switch schools right after failing the grade.
    Date: 2016–09
  18. By: Valletta, Robert G. (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco)
    Abstract: Wage gaps between workers with a college or graduate degree and those with only a high school degree rose rapidly in the United States during the 1980s. Since then, the rate of growth in these wage gaps has progressively slowed, and though the gaps remain large, they were essentially unchanged between 2010 and 2015. I assess this flattening over time in higher education wage premiums with reference to two related explanations for changing U.S. employment patterns: (i) a shift away from middle-skilled occupations driven largely by technological change (“polarization”); and (ii) a general weakening in the demand for advanced cognitive skills (“skill downgrading”). Analyses of wage and employment data from the U.S. Current Population Survey suggest that both factors have contributed to the flattening of higher education wage premiums.
    JEL: I23 J23 J24
    Date: 2016–08–17
  19. By: Vakhshtayn, Victor Semenovich (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Nazarenko, A.P. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The preprint is devoted to the study of mechanisms of the production of scientific knowledge in modern universities and other academic institutions. In particular, it is focused on relationships between scientific and education activities in the contemporary Russian universities, on strategies and tactics of the academic community during the execution of research projects. Additionally, the preprint concerns the study of assessing applications for a grant by experts of the scientific funds.
    Keywords: scientific knowledge, academic institutions
    Date: 2016–07–22
  20. By: Torun, Huzeyfe (Central Bank of Turkey); Tumen, Semih (Central Bank of Turkey)
    Abstract: Although the season of birth variable is often used as an instrumental variable to estimate the rate of returns to schooling in the labor economics literature, there is an emerging consensus that the season of birth is systematically associated with later outcomes in life such as the educational and labor market success; thus, it is highly likely non-random. Using a large micro-level data set from Turkey, we argue that the degree of this non-randomness can be even larger in a developing-country context. Specifically, we show that around 20 percent of all individuals in Turkey have January as their month of birth due to a combination of geographical, seasonal, institutional, and idiosyncratic factors that lead to misreporting. We further document that being January-born strongly predicts worse socio-economic outcomes in later life. We show that this can be a serious problem in evaluating policies that define eligibility based on the month of birth – such as compulsory schooling and compulsory military service laws that set the eligibility birth date cutoff as the January 1st. We confirm the validity of this concern based on a series of regression discontinuity design exercises. We conclude that, in a developing-country context, additional caution should be exercised when using the season-of-birth variable as a statistical tool.
    Keywords: season-of-birth effects, IV, education, earnings, family background, misreporting
    JEL: C26 I26 J13
    Date: 2016–09
  21. By: Anna Valero; John Van Reenen
    Abstract: We develop a new dataset using UNESCO source materials on the location of nearly 15,000 universities in about 1,500 regions across 78 countries, some dating back to the 11th Century. We estimate fixed effects models at the sub-national level between 1950 and 2010 and find that increases in the number of universities are positively associated with future growth of GDP per capita (and this relationship is robust to controlling for a host of observables, as well as unobserved regional trends). Our estimates imply that doubling the number of universities per capita is associated with 4% higher future GDP per capita. Furthermore, there appear to be positive spillover effects from universities to geographically close neighbouring regions. We show that the relationship between growth and universities is not simply driven by the direct expenditures of the university, its staff and students. Part of the effect of universities on growth is mediated through an increased supply of human capital and greater innovation (although the magnitudes are not large). We find that within countries, higher historical university presence is associated with stronger pro-democratic attitudes.
    Keywords: universities; growth; human capital; innovation
    JEL: I23 J24 O10 O31
    Date: 2016–08
  22. By: Jorge Calero (University of Barcelona & IEB); Marcos Fernández-Gutiérrez (Universidad de Cantabria)
    Abstract: The impact of education on participation in leisure activities is of particular relevance when analysing education and educational policies and for understanding leisure and leisure policy design. Yet, despite advances in the measurement and analysis of education, studies of the effects of education on leisure activities have not been especially exhaustive nor have they been sufficiently integrated with leisure studies. We seek to rectify these shortcomings, by analysing the effects of education on leisure participation in Spain based on the study of individuals’ time-use patterns. Results highlight the impact of education on the time dedicated to activities that have beneficial individual and social outcomes, including cultural and sports activities, and reading books and the press. We demonstrate the potential of integrating analyses of education and leisure for understanding the benefits of participation in a greater diversity of leisure activities and for developing policies that strengthen the repertoire of leisure options.
    Keywords: Education and leisure, determinants of leisure activity, non-monetary effects of education, quantitative research.
    JEL: I24 I26
    Date: 2016
  23. By: Glenn Ellison; Parag A. Pathak
    Abstract: Several public K-12 and university systems have recently shifted from race-based affirmative action plans to race-neutral alternatives. This paper explores the degree to which race-neutral alternatives are effective substitutes for racial quotas using data from the Chicago Public Schools (CPS), where a race-neutral, place-based affirmative action system is used for admissions at highly competitive exam high schools. We develop a theoretical framework that motivates quantifying the efficiency cost of race-neutral policies by the extent admissions decisions are distorted more than needed to achieve a given level of diversity. According to our metric, CPS's race-neutral system is 24% and 20% efficient as a tool for increasing minority representation at the top two exam schools, i.e. about three-fourths of the reduction in composite scores could have been avoided by explicitly considering race. Even though CPS's system is based on socioeconomic disadvantage, it is actually less effective than racial quotas at increasing the number of low-income students. We examine several alternative race-neutral policies and find some to be more efficient than the CPS policy. What is feasible varies with the school's surrounding neighborhood characteristics and the targeted level of minority representation. However, no race-neutral policy restores minority representation to prior levels without substantial inefficiency, implying significant efficiency costs from prohibitions on affirmative action policies that explicitly consider race.
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2016–09
  24. By: Pierre Courtioux (Edhec Business School - Edhec Business School, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Tristan-Pierre Maury (Edhec Business School - Edhec Business School)
    Abstract: In this article, based on social segregation indices (both entropy and exposure indices) for the period 2004-2014, we compare the level of social diversity at the middle school level between private schools, public schools (excluding priority education) and public schools in priority education zones. For a given level of social diversity, we also look at the way advantaged social background pupils might concentrate in some schools. Our results show that private schools are slightly over-represented among schools located at the extremes of the distribution of entropy levels, that is to say, both among the most "mixed" and the most "segregated" schools. However, the nature of social diversity varies between public, private and priority education schools. At given level of entropy, private schools receive relatively less disadvantaged social backgrounds pupils. Focusing on the most "segregated" schools, the complementary use of the standardized exposure index shows that there is a tendency to separate students with advantaged social background and other students in private schools, as well as in public schools (excluding priority education). On the contrary, schools in priority education zones are more homogeneous with a large proportion of disadvantaged social group's pupils.
    Abstract: Dans cet article, sur la base d'indices statistiques de ségrégation (indices d'entropie et d'exposition) portant sur la période 2004-2014, nous analysons et comparons le degré de mixité sociale des établissements appartenant au secteur privé, au secteur public hors éducation prioritaire et au secteur public relevant de l'éducation prioritaire. Nous regardons également à niveau de mixité sociale donné si les élèves très favorisés restent fortement concentrés dans certains établissements ou non. Nos résultats montrent que le secteur privé est légèrement surreprésenté parmi les établissements situés aux extrêmes de la distribution des niveaux entropie, c'est-à-dire à la fois parmi les plus « mixtes » et parmi les plus « ségrégés ». Cependant, la nature de cette mixité varie selon le secteur. A niveau donné de mixité sociale, le secteur privé accueille relativement moins d'élèves d'origines sociales défavorisées. En se concentrant sur les établissements les plus « ségrégés », l'utilisation complémentaire de l'indice d'exposition normalisé montre qu'il existe dans le secteur privé et public hors éducation prioritaire, une tendance à la séparation des élèves « très favorisés » et des autres groupes. Au contraire, le secteur de l'éducation prioritaire est homogène et concentre en grande majorité des groupes sociaux défavorisés.
    Keywords: priority education policy,social diversity,segregation,secondary education,private school,collège,mixité sociale,enseignement privé,éducation prioritaire
    Date: 2016–06
  25. By: Brice Corgnet (EMLYON Business School, Univ Lyon, GATE L-SE UMR 5824, F-69131 Ecully, France); Mark DeSantis (Argyros School of Business and Economics & Economic Science Institute, Chapman University, Orange, CA, 92866); David Porter (Argyros School of Business and Economics & Economic Science Institute, Chapman University, Orange, CA, 92866)
    Abstract: Using simulations and experiments, we pinpoint two main drivers of trader performance: cognitive reflection and theory of mind. Both dimensions facilitate traders’ learning about asset valuation. Cognitive reflection helps traders use market signals to update their beliefs whereas theory of mind offers traders crucial hints on the quality of those signals. We show these skills to be complementary because traders benefit from understanding the quality of market signals only if they are capable of processing them. Cognitive reflection relates to previous Behavioral Finance research as it is the best predictor of a trader’s ability to avoid commonly-observed behavioral biases.
    Keywords: Experimental asset markets, behavioral finance, cognitive reflection, theory of mind, financial education
    JEL: C92 G02
    Date: 2016
  26. By: Margaret Sullivan; Brittany English; Alyson Burnett; Jillian Berk
    Abstract: To better prepare students for jobs in health care, Virginia’s TAACCCT grant included seven strategies to improve student outcomes. This study examines the implementation of each of the strategies and the challenges, successes, sustainability approaches, and lessons learned across the strategies.
    Keywords: Community college, TAACCCT, career coaches, online education, workforce development, health careers
    JEL: I J
  27. By: Clifford, Robert (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston); Shoag, Daniel (Harvard University)
    Abstract: In the past decade, most states have banned or considered banning the use of credit checks in hiring decisions, a screening tool that is widely used by employers. Using new Equifax data on employer credit checks, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York Consumer Credit Panel/Equifax data, and the LEHD Origin-Destination Employment data, we show that these bans increased employment of residents in the lowest-credit score census tracts. The largest gains occurred in higher-paying jobs and in the government sector. At the same time, using a large database of job postings, we show that employers increased their demand for other signals of applicants’ job performance, like education and experience. On net, the changes induced by these bans generate relatively worse outcomes for those with mid-to-low credit scores, for those under 22 years of age, and for blacks, groups commonly thought to benefit from such legislation.
    JEL: J78 M50
    Date: 2016–03–01
  28. By: Ziesemer, Thomas (UNU-MERIT, and Maastricht University, SBE)
    Abstract: We provide Gini coefficients of education based on data from Barro and Lee (2010) for 146 countries for the years 1950-2010. We compare them to an earlier data set and run some related LOESS fit regressions on average years of schooling and GDP per capita, both showing negative slopes, and among the latter two variables. Tertiary education is shown to reduce education inequality. A growth regression shows that tertiary education increases growth, Gini coefficients of education have a u-shaped impact on growth and labour force growth has an inverted u-shape effect on growth.
    Keywords: Human capital, Human capital distribution, education, inequality, growth, new data
    JEL: E24 I24 I25 O15 Y10
    Date: 2016–08–29
  29. By: Ruiz-Castillo, Javier; Carrasco, Raquel
    Abstract: This paper compares the average productivity of males and females in a set of 2,530 highly productive economists that work in 2007 in a selection of the top 81 Economics departments worldwide. The main findings are the following. Firstly, after controlling for age and cohort effects, as well as for the effect of four career variables and a variable on geographic mobility, the productivity of females is, on average, 54% lower than the productivity of males. Secondly, the gender productivity gap decreases as we move up from the departments outside the U.S. towards the top ten U.S. departments. Thirdly, when we restrict our attention to the 833 economists with above average productivity, the proportion of females decreases from 14.0% to 5.4% and, after controlling for demographic and career variables, the gender productivity gap decreases to 15.8%.
    Date: 2016–09
  30. By: Bahrs, Michael; Schumann, Mathias
    Abstract: In this study, we analyse the long-term effects of school starting age on smoking behaviour and health in adulthood. School entry rules combined with birth month are used as an instrument for school starting age. The analysis adopts the German Socio- Economic Panel data and employs a fuzzy regression discontinuity design. The results reveal that school starting age reduces the long-term risk to smoke, improves long-term health, and affects physical rather than mental health. In addition, we find that the relative age composition of peers and the school environment are important mechanisms.
    Keywords: smoking,health,peer effects,education,school starting age,regression discontinuity design
    JEL: I12 I21 I28
    Date: 2016

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