nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒09‒11
twelve papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The effect of a specialized versus a general upper secondary school curriculum on students’ performance and inequality. A difference-in-differences cross country country comparison. By Alfonso Leme; Josep-Oriol Escardíbul
  2. Student and Staff Attitudes and School Performance By Moshe Justman; Brendan Houng
  3. Breaking the Cycle: the Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital By Andrew Wheeler
  4. Should all students be taught complex mathematics? By OECD
  5. Perfil e Desempenho Acadêmico dos Alunos de Economia da FACE/UFG By Sandro Eduardo Monsueto; Adriana Moura Guimarães
  6. Implementation of the Third Wave of Monitoring the Efficiency and Quality of School Education in the Context of the Increase in Wages of Teachers: Main Results By Avraamova, Elena M.; Klyashko, Tatianata; Loginov, Dmitriy; Mareeva, Svetlana
  7. Are They All Like Bill, Mark, and Steve? The Education Premium for Entrepreneurs By Claudio Michelacci; Fabiano Schivardi
  8. Human capital investments and expectations about career and family By Wiswall, Matthew; Zafar, Basit
  9. A Complexity-Theoretic Perspective on Innovation Policy By Koen Frenken
  10. The Effects of Early Pregnancy on Education, Physical Health and Mental Distress: Evidence from Mexico By Gunes, Pinar; Tsaneva, Magda
  11. Diet Quality of American School Children by National School Lunch Program Participation Status: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010 (Summary) By Elizabeth Condon; Susan Drilea; Carolyn Lichtenstein; James Mabli; Emily Madden; Katherine Niland
  12. Diet Quality of American School Children by National School Lunch Program Participation Status: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010 By Elizabeth Condon; Susan Drilea; Carolyn Lichtenstein; James Mabli; Emily Madden; Katherine Niland

  1. By: Alfonso Leme (Nova School of Business and Economics - Universidade Nova de Lisboa); Josep-Oriol Escardíbul (University of Barcelona & Barcelona Institute of Economics)
    Abstract: Countries differ in their upper secondary school systems in a way that some require their students to choose a specialization from a set of areas - typically natural sciences, economic sciences, humanities or arts - and follow that specialization for the course of their upper secondary education years (e.g. Portugal, Spain, Sweden) whereas by contrast, others including Finland, Denmark or the U.S. follow a general curriculum where students, albeit being able to choose between different classes in distinct areas, are not required to follow a single specialization and thus, receive a more general education. Because countries only follow one system or the other, a cross-country analysis is required to estimate the possible effects of these institutional differences. An international differences-in-differences approach is chosen to account for country heterogeneity and unobserved factors influencing student outcomes, by using both PISA and PIAAC data for 20 different countries. The regression results suggest that the choice of one system or the other does not account for differences across countries in either the mean performance or the inequality of students’ test scores.
    Keywords: fuel efficiency, technological change, car characteristics
    JEL: L62 Q50 R4
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Moshe Justman (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne; and Department of Economics, Ben Gurion University of the Negev); Brendan Houng (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: This report assesses the extent to which student and staff opinions towards school — specifically, Victoria's Attitudes to School Survey (ATSS) administered to students and its School Staff Survey (SSS)—can improve predictions of government school performance reflected in students Australian Tertiary Admissions Ranks (ATARs), beyond predictions based on students' Year-9 reading and numeracy NAPLAN scores, their demographic characteristics and their socioeconomic status (SES). As the number of questions in the two surveys is very large, we first reduce their dimensionality by combining sets of similar questions into broader categories, and calculate average student answers within schools. (We are not able to identify student attitude responses individually.) We then add these variables to our school-level prediction regressions. While the added explanatory power of these variables in predicting school success rates is limited, we find that for all four success indicators, the student survey variables add more explanatory power than the staff survey variables. Statistically significant coefficients appear sporadically for student motivation, connectedness to peers, a stimulating learning environment, class behaviour, and, surprisingly, student distress. However, these do not necessarily indicate causal effects: our results may reflect, wholly or in part, the more positive attitudes to school of successful students and their teachers, collinearity between observed variables, possible confounding factors, and the subjective nature of survey responses. Finally, we emphasize that ATAR values are only one imperfect measure of school performance. About half the students in a cohort do not go on to university, and for such students other measures of school performance are relevant. The predictive power of these surveys is of secondary importance to their intrinsic value in providing information on student and teacher attitudes as direct indicators of what is happening in schools. Engagement and well-being are significant positive outcomes in themselves."
    Keywords: Student and staff attitudes, access to higher education, standardized tests, longitudinal analysis, NAPLAN, ATAR, VCE, Victoria, Australia"
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2016–09
  3. By: Andrew Wheeler
    Abstract: This paper examines the causal effect of parental education on the cognitive and non-cognitive development of children. I find that a parent's education is a strong determinant of their child's verbal aptitude, numerical aptitude and educational aspirations. Parents who complete high school rather than just primary school will on average lift their children's cognitive performance by 24 percentiles in maths, 15 percentiles in vocabulary and 23 percentiles in reading tests. Children of these parents will also aspire to complete two more years of schooling. Somewhat surprisingly, I find that parental education has no impact on children's self-esteem or self-efficacy. These results are robust to various specifications. I estimate these effects using instrumental variables, taking a change in education policy with differential effects on North Vietnam and South Vietnam as my instrument. The instruments used are relevant and strong, and there is sound cause to believe that they are valid. To my knowledge, this is the first study to derive a causal relationship between parental education and non-cognitive development. It also contributes to a sparse and unsettled literature on the causal relationship between parental education and cognitive development.
    Keywords: Cognitive Development; Non-cognitive Development; Parental Education; Instrumental Variables
    JEL: I25 I26 I28
    Date: 2016
  4. By: OECD
    Abstract: Exposure to complex mathematics concepts and tasks is related to higher performance in PISA among all students, including socio-economically disadvantaged students. Working on complex problems without individualised support can increase mathematics anxiety among weaker students. In most PISA-participating countries and economies, at least one in two students attends schools where teachers believe that it is best to adapt academic standards to the students’ needs. Teaching strategies that support struggling students in mixed classes, such as giving students extra help when they need it, are related to students having more confidence in their mathematics ability.
    Date: 2016–09–06
  5. By: Sandro Eduardo Monsueto (FACE-UFG, Ciências Econômicas); Adriana Moura Guimarães (FACE-UFG, Ciências Econômicas)
    Abstract: This paper has like goal describe the student’s profile newcomer in the FACE/UFG’s Sciences Economics’ course, as well his trajectory and academic performance. For this propose, are examine the academic recording of grades. In addition to personal information and the forms of entry from the students that started on the course between 2009 and 2014. The results reveal an entrance’s profile relatively young and predominant masculine. Are observe significant dropout rate and failures (by medium and missing) in the compulsory subjects, taking to a problem of retention and delay. The econometric model indicates, among others factors, a bigger difficult to advance on the course between the students that entrance by affirmative action politics already in the firsts semesters. On the basis on the results, are delineated a few suggestions of action.
    Keywords: Academic Performance, College student, Degree in economics
    JEL: I21 I23
  6. By: Avraamova, Elena M. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Klyashko, Tatianata (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Loginov, Dmitriy (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Mareeva, Svetlana (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The character of this study is a monitoring one, and it is devoted to the analysis of the effects obtained as a result of increasing of teachers wage. The information base is a survey of principals, teachers and parents of pupils, since, according to the methodology, each of these groups has its own vision of the effectiveness of the school and the impact on the effectiveness of the reviewed management solutions (growth of the teachers wage).
    Keywords: teachers wage, school education, effectiveness
    Date: 2016–06–07
  7. By: Claudio Michelacci (EIEF); Fabiano Schivardi (Università Bocconi and EIEF)
    Abstract: We rely on the Survey of Consumer Finances to study how the return to education of US entrepreneurs has evolved since the late 80's. We calculate the yearly income that an entrepreneur expects to obtain during his entrepreneurial venture, as resulting from labor income, dividend payments, and realized capital gains upon selling the business. We find that the premium of having a college degree relative to a high school degree has increased, but roughly as much as the analogous premium for workers. Instead, the premium for postgraduate education relative to college education has increased substantially more for entrepreneurs than for workers. Today an entrepreneur with a postgraduate degree earns on average 100,000 dollars per year more than an entrepreneur with a college degree. The difference is larger at higher quantiles of the entrepreneurs' income distribution. In the late 80's, it was close to zero. The increase in the premium to postgraduate education is unlikely to be explained by selection or valuation issues related to business failure; by a pattern of sectoral specialization more favourable to postgraduate entrepreneurs; by their easier access to internal or external finance; by their newly created businesses embodying better technologies; or by compensating differentials - due to greater business risk or lower possibilities of recycling entrepreneurial skills into new ventures. All this suggests that the more advanced skills associated with higher education have become increasingly important for running successful businesses.
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Wiswall, Matthew (University of Wisconsin-Madison and Arizona State University, W.P. Carey School of Business); Zafar, Basit (Federal Reserve Bank of New York)
    Abstract: This paper studies how individuals believe human capital investments will affect their future career and family life. We conducted a survey of high-ability currently enrolled college students and elicited beliefs about how their choice of college major, and whether to complete their degree at all, would affect a wide array of future events, including future earnings, employment, marriage prospects, potential spousal characteristics, and fertility. We find that students perceive large “returns" to human capital not only in their own future earnings, but also in a number of other dimensions (such as future labor supply and potential spouse’s earnings). In a recent follow-up survey conducted six years after the initial data collection, we find a close connection between the expectations and current realizations. Finally, we show that both the career and family expectations help explain human capital choices.
    Keywords: human capital; subjective expectations; college major; uncertainty; marriage; fertility; labor supply; gender
    JEL: D81 D84 I21 I23 J10 J12 J13 J16 J24
    Date: 2016–08–01
  9. By: Koen Frenken
    Abstract: It is argued that innovation policy based on notions of market failure or system failure is too limited in the context of current societal challenges. I propose a third, complexity-theoretic approach. This approach starts from the observation that most innovations are related to existing activities, and that policy’s additionality is highest for unrelated diversification. To trigger unrelated diversification into activities that contribute to solving societal challenges, government’s main task is to organize the process of demand articulation. This process leads to clear and manageable societal objectives that effectively guide a temporary collation of actors to develop solutions bottom-up. The combination of a broad coalition, a clear objective and tentative governance are the means to cope with the inherent complexity of modern-day innovation.
    Date: 2016–08
  10. By: Gunes, Pinar (University of Alberta, Department of Economics); Tsaneva, Magda (Clark University)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the effects of early pregnancy on education, labor force participation, physical and mental health, and preventive health behaviors of young girls in Mexico. In order to overcome the selection bias, this paper employs a propensity score matching analysis using a nationally representative longitudinal data from the Mexican Family Life Survey. In the short run, early pregnancy increases the probability of being overweight and anemic, and reduces physical activity; however, it does not affect mental health. The results also demonstrate that early pregnancy increases the probability of dropping out of high school and reduces labor force participation. Finally, the effect on being overweight operate through reduced education and physical activity, and moreover, the effect persists in the long run.
    Keywords: Early Pregnancy; Human Capital; Mexico
    JEL: I10 J13
    Date: 2016–09–01
  11. By: Elizabeth Condon; Susan Drilea; Carolyn Lichtenstein; James Mabli; Emily Madden; Katherine Niland
    Keywords: Diet Quality, National School Lunch Program Participation Status, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NSLP
    JEL: I0 I1
  12. By: Elizabeth Condon; Susan Drilea; Carolyn Lichtenstein; James Mabli; Emily Madden; Katherine Niland
    Abstract: This study provides information on the quality of school children’s diets from multiple perspectives, including usual nutrient intakes and food consumption patterns.
    Keywords: Diet Quality , National School Lunch Program Participation Status, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NSLP
    JEL: I0 I1

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