nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒08‒21
eighteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Impact of public-private-partnership programs on students’ learning outcomes: Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment By Hafeez, Fatima; Haider, Adnan; Zafar, Naeem uz
  2. Money or Fun? Why Students Want to Pursue Further Education By Belfield, Chris; Boneva, Teodora; Rauh, Christopher; Shaw, Jonathan
  3. 2d:4d and Lifetime Educational Outcomes: Evidence from the Russian RLMS Survey By John V. Nye; Maksym Bryukhanov; Sergiy Polyachenko
  4. ¿La localización de la escuela importa?. Condicionantes espacio-contextuales de la tasa de repitencia en un panel de datos georreferenciados. By Herrera Gómez, Marcos
  5. Opening up Education: A Support Framework for Higher Education Institutions By Andreia Inamorato dos Santos; Yves Punie; Jonatan Castaño Muñoz
  6. Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes By Will S. Dobbie; Roland G. Fryer, Jr
  7. Access to Education and Teenage Pregnancy By Martin Foureaux Koppensteiner; Jesse Matheson
  8. Bridging the Gap of Education and the Requirements of the Business By Muntean, Mihaela
  9. The Economic Impact of Universities: Evidence from Across the Globe By Anna Valero; John Van Reenen
  10. Does Higher Education Contribute to a Change in Attitudes to Government Price Control in Russia? By John V. Nye; Maksym Bryukhanov; Sergiy Polyachenko
  11. Is There a Role for Higher Education Institutions in Improving the Quality of First Employment? By McGuinness, Seamus; Whelan, Adele; Bergin, Adele
  12. Evaluation of the Formal Technical Education Sub-Activity of the Human Development Project, El Salvador By Larissa Campuzano; Randall Blair; Virginia Poggio; Ivonne Padilla; Seth Morgan; Michael Brannan
  13. Intergenerational Wealth Mobility and the Role of Inheritance: Evidence from Multiple Generations By Adermon, Adrian; Lindahl, Mikael; Waldenström, Daniel
  14. Gender Differences in Job Entry Decisions: A University-Wide Field Experiment By Anya Samek
  15. Education, Cognitive Ability and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Structural Approach By Bijwaard, Govert; Myrskylä, Mikko; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn
  16. Conditions and Practices Associated with Teacher Professional Development and Its Impact on Instruction in TALIS 2013 By Darleen Opfer
  17. Multilevel Transmission of Cultural Attitudes and Entrepreneurial Intention: Evidence from High-School Students By Annie Tubadji; Enrico Santarelli; Roberto Patuelli
  18. Where Households Get Food in a Typical Week: Findings From USDA's FoodAPS By Todd, Jessica E.; Scharadin, Benjamin

  1. By: Hafeez, Fatima; Haider, Adnan; Zafar, Naeem uz
    Abstract: Learning outcomes refer to the performance of the students in academic tests pertaining to the respective grade level. In Pakistan, survey evidences from Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) show a significant dispersion in learning outcomes of public schools as compared with private sector counterpart. The perceived results of learning outcomes in private schools very clear but less evidence is found for educational outcome of schools run under public-private partnership programs. This becomes especially relevant when status of curricular, co-curricular, and extra-curricular activities is compared between public school, private schools, and schools run under public private partnership. In recent literature, it is found that schools taken up by public-private partnership have been providing a better learning environment - Infrastructure Rehabilitation and Development, Administrative changes, Academic Innovation and Planning, Teacher Reform and Student Affairs - is perceived to have a positive impact on learning outcomes. It is to investigate and document that the investments in these areas are justifiable. To promote this fact, we conduct a quasi-experiment to examine the profiles of students in a public-private partnership school at Karachi (running under Zindagi Trust program) and a public school (as counterfactual) in the same neighbourhood. We also recorded the household and socioeconomic characteristics to create a good set of control variables. The propensity-score results show that public-private school is performing better than that of comparison group in attaining learning outcomes thus showing positive effects of PPP. Finally, the study probed into household and parental covariates of student's educational outcomes to enhance internal validity of results.
    Keywords: educational learning outcomes; public-private partnership; quasi-experiment
    JEL: C21 I21 L32
    Date: 2015–12–05
  2. By: Belfield, Chris (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London); Boneva, Teodora (University College London); Rauh, Christopher (University of Cambridge); Shaw, Jonathan (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London)
    Abstract: We study students' motives for educational attainment in a unique survey of 885 secondary school students in the UK. As expected, students who perceive the monetary returns to education to be higher are more likely to intend to continue in full-time education. However, the main driver is the perceived consumption value, which alone explains around half of the variation of the intention to pursue higher education. Moreover, the perceived consumption value can account for a substantial part of both the socio-economic gap and the gender gap in intentions to continue in full-time education.
    Keywords: education, perceived returns, consumption value of education, beliefs, higher education, UK, gender gap, income gradient
    JEL: I24 I26 J13 J24 J62
    Date: 2016–08
  3. By: John V. Nye (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Maksym Bryukhanov (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Sergiy Polyachenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Is in utero exposure to testosterone (T), measured by the second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), associated with lifetime educational attainment? A growing body of work finds exposure to prenatal T to be associated with aggression, physical fitness, performance in computer science, and type of occupation. However, there has not yet been substantial research its relationship with lifetime educational outcomes. Using a large sample drawn from families in Moscow and in the Moscow region from the Russian Longitudinal Measurement Survey (RLMS), we observe clear links between measured 2D:4D and the levels of education obtained by men. Statistically significant positive associations between higher 2D:4D (lower prenatal T) and higher levels of education were found, using difference in means analysis and generalized ordered logit (gologit) regressions. These findings were also robust to using a different subsample. Weaker findings were seen for women. Since many of the earlier findings have shown the benefits of higher prenatal T for achievement, the current finding of a negative effect of prenatal T on educational attainment raises interesting issues about the ambiguous effects of prenatal T and the degree to which the traits it promotes interact with different tasks and social contexts
    Keywords: 2D:4D, prenatal testosterone, education, RLMS, Russia
    JEL: I15 I21
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Herrera Gómez, Marcos
    Abstract: Many studies have examined the determinants of the grade repetition at different levels (student, school, country) without considering the geographical-social environment of school localization. This work uses a panel data of 220 primary schools with georeferenced information, between years 2008 and 2011, exploring the determinants of repetition rate at school, context and geographical neighborhood levels. Results show that the matriculation is a significant variable at school level. Contextual factors such as unemployment rate and percentage of female youth of primary school age are related to the grade repetition rate in primary school. In addition, the unemployment and the women’s proportion of the contiguous areas show significant effects. These results reflect the importance to consider the school’s localization and their social context if we want to establish suitable educational policies that contemplate the rate of repetition.
    Keywords: Tasa de repitencia; Modelos Jerárquicos; Dependencia espacio-temporal
    JEL: C23 I21 I28
    Date: 2016–08
  5. By: Andreia Inamorato dos Santos (European Commission - JRC); Yves Punie (European Commission - JRC); Jonatan Castaño Muñoz (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This report presents a support framework for higher education institutions (HEIs) to open up education. This framework proposes a wide definition of the term ‘open education’, which accommodates different uses, in order to promote transparency and a holistic approach to practice. It goes beyond OER, MOOCs and open access to embrace 10 dimensions of open education. The framework can be used as a tool by HEI staff to help them think through strategic decisions: pedagogical approaches, collaboration between individuals and institutions, recognition of non-formal learning and different ways of making content available. Contemporary open education is mostly enabled by ICTs and because of this, there is almost limitless potential for innovation and reach, which in turn contributes to the modernisation of higher education in Europe.
    Keywords: open education, open educational resources, higher education, OER, open education framework, validation of learning, non-formal learning, MOOC, online courses, elearning,
    Date: 2016–08
  6. By: Will S. Dobbie; Roland G. Fryer, Jr
    Abstract: We estimate the impact of charter schools on early-life labor market outcomes using administrative data from Texas. We find that, at the mean, charter schools have no impact on test scores and a negative impact on earnings. No Excuses charter schools increase test scores and four-year college enrollment, but have a small and statistically insignificant impact on earnings, while other types of charter schools decrease test scores, four-year college enrollment, and earnings. Moving to school-level estimates, we find that charter schools that decrease test scores also tend to decrease earnings, while charter schools that increase test scores have no discernible impact on earnings. In contrast, high school graduation effects are predictive of earnings effects throughout the distribution of school quality. The paper concludes with a speculative discussion of what might explain our set of facts.
    JEL: I20 I26
    Date: 2016–08
  7. By: Martin Foureaux Koppensteiner (Department of Economics at the University of Leicester); Jesse Matheson (Department of Economics at the University of Leicester)
    Abstract: Little is known about the causal impact of education opportunities on the decision of young women to have children. Expanding education opportunities may lead to a greater number of young women putting off childbearing until after their teenage years. In this study we look at the effect of one of the largest secondary school expansions on record, providing quasi-experimental evidence to uncover the causal impact of education opportunity on teenage fertility. After achieving near universal enrolment in primary education in the mid- 1990s, Brazil went through an ambitious program of expanding secondary schooling. Between 1996 and 2009 more than 10,269 secondary schools were introduced, increasing the average enrolment rate for teens age 15 to 19 from 21% to 48%. We combine data from the Brazilian School Census, and Brazilian Vital Statistics data capturing 45 million live births by age of mother into an extraordinarily rich data set. Plausibly exogenous variation in the introduction of schools across municipalities over time is used to estimate the effect of education opportunity on teenage births. We find a significant negative effect of secondary school availability on teenage pregnancy. Our results suggest that the addition of one school at age 15 will reduce average cumulative births by 19 by, on average, 4.4 births or 4.6% relative to the mean. These results suggest that the expansion in secondary schools across Brazil can account for roughly 27% of the large decline in teenage childbearing observed between 1997 and 2009 in Brazil.
    Keywords: Secondary education, teenage pregnancy, Brazil
    JEL: I20 I26 J13
    Date: 2016–08
  8. By: Muntean, Mihaela
    Abstract: Best practices in Business Information Systems recognize the importance of ERPs in supporting business processes in organizations, SAP solutions being a key player in enterprise applications for large companies. Impediments in managing SAP projects in multinational companies or autochthon companies in Romania have been identified, e.g. Lack of skills/training/education; Inadequate support from executives; Data is not integrated; Poor data quality; Inadequate support from business organizations; Inadequate access to data; Inadequate support from IT. Nowadays, beyond the SAP Basis modules, the enterprise applications are enriched with Business Intelligence solutions capable for advanced analysis and reporting. Therefore, the demand of specialists is highly required, companies beginning to act as promoters of a business oriented education. The demarche is developed based on a successful university-business collaboration materialized in the Master program in Business Information Systems organized by the West University of Timisoara, Romania. The rise of a global knowledge economy has intensified the need for strategic partnerships that go beyond the traditional cooperation between university and companies. Lessons learned from this successful project can contribute to the development of further similar projects in the area of business engagement with universities over skills and training.
    Keywords: university-business collaboration, curriculum development and delivery, SAP modules
    JEL: I25 M10
    Date: 2016–07–31
  9. By: Anna Valero; John Van Reenen
    Abstract: We develop a new dataset using UNESCO source materials on the location of nearly 15,000 universities in about 1,500 regions across 78 countries, some dating back to the 11th Century. We estimate fixed effects models at the sub-national level between 1950 and 2010 and find that increases in the number of universities are positively associated with future growth of GDP per capita (and this relationship is robust to controlling for a host of observables, as well as unobserved regional trends). Our estimates imply that doubling the number of universities per capita is associated with 4% higher future GDP per capita. Furthermore, there appear to be positive spillover effects from universities to geographically close neighboring regions. We show that the relationship between growth and universities is not simply driven by the direct expenditures of the university, its staff and students. Part of the effect of universities on growth is mediated through an increased supply of human capital and greater innovation (although the magnitudes are not large). We find that within countries, higher historical university presence is associated with stronger pro-democratic attitudes.
    JEL: I23 I25 J24 O10 O31
    Date: 2016–08
  10. By: John V. Nye (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Maksym Bryukhanov (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Sergiy Polyachenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Does the educational process itself transform an individual’s world outlook towards pro-market values in transition? Much evidence indicates that education correlates with liberal values. However, it is not clear whether this association is the result of selection into education or whether education itself makes people liberal as education and liberal values both are linked to unobservable characteristics such as cognitive abilities, household traits, and the social environment, implying biased ordinary least squares estimates. We employ unique data from 2 waves of the Russian Longitudinal Measurement Survey (RLMS) which contains individual attitudes towards government price control. To overcome the issue of the mutual correlation of liberal values, education, and predetermined and time stable characteristics (fixed effects), we use regressions in first-differences. A negative link between obtaining higher education and support for government price control is documented. The results are also robust to different indicators of the dependent variable and for different sub-samples. Additionally, based on a cross-section sample, we provide evidence that the psychodynamic channel of educational impact on pro-market attitudes is important: white-collar occupations can be considered as insurance against possible market price shocks. The liberal effect of education shows the importance of research on educational policy in the process of the formation of pro-market attitudes in Russia and in other transition economies.
    Keywords: market economy, values, education, Russia, attitudes, RLMS
    JEL: P10 I23
    Date: 2016
  11. By: McGuinness, Seamus (Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin); Whelan, Adele (ESRI, Dublin); Bergin, Adele (ESRI, Dublin)
    Abstract: This paper examines the potential role of higher education institutions in reducing labour market mismatch amongst new graduates. The research suggests that increasing the practical aspects of degree programmes, irrespective of the field of study, will reduce the incidence of initial mismatch. In terms of routes into the labour market, higher education work placements with the potential to develop into permanent posts and the provision of higher education job placement assistance were found to have substantial impacts in reducing the incidence of graduate mismatch. The use of private employment agencies was found to significantly heighten the risk of subsequent mismatch.
    Keywords: graduate labour market, overeducation, over-skilling, recruitment, course composition
    JEL: J24 J31
    Date: 2016–08
  12. By: Larissa Campuzano; Randall Blair; Virginia Poggio; Ivonne Padilla; Seth Morgan; Michael Brannan
    Abstract: This report presents the final results of the evaluations of three interventions funded under the Formal Technical Education Sub-Activity of the first Millennium Challenge Corporation El Salvador compact.
    Keywords: Impact Evaluation, Secondary Education, Post-Secondary Education, Scholarships, Infrastructure, Teacher Training
    JEL: F Z
  13. By: Adermon, Adrian (IFAU); Lindahl, Mikael (University of Gothenburg); Waldenström, Daniel (Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: This study estimates intergenerational correlations in mid-life wealth across three generations, and a young fourth generation, and examines how much of the parent-child association that can be explained by inheritances. Using a Swedish data set we find parent-child rank correlations of 0.3–0.4 and grandparents-grandchild rank correlations of 0.1–0.2. Conditional on parents' wealth, grandparents' wealth is weakly positively associated with grandchild's wealth and the parent-child correlation is basically unchanged if we control for grandparents' wealth. Bequests and gifts strikingly account for at least 50 per cent of the parent-child wealth correlation while earnings and education are only able to explain 25 per cent.
    Keywords: multigenerational mobility, bequests, mid-life wealth
    JEL: D31 J62
    Date: 2016–08
  14. By: Anya Samek
    Abstract: The gender difference in competitiveness has been cited as an important factor driving the gender gap in labor market outcomes. Using a natural field experiment with 35,000 university students, I explore the impact of compensation scheme on willingness to apply for a job. I find that competitive compensation schemes disproportionately deter women from applying, which cannot be explained by differences in risk preferences alone. I also vary whether the job is introduced as helping a non-profit, which increases application rates, suggesting a role for social preferences in application decisions. Finally, I observe a correlation between competitiveness preferences and career choice.
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Bijwaard, Govert (NIDI - Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute); Myrskylä, Mikko (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research); Tynelius, Per (Karolinska Institutet); Rasmussen, Finn (Karolinska Institutet)
    Abstract: Education is negatively associated with mortality for most major causes of death. The literature ignores that cause-specific hazard rates are interdependent and that education and mortality both depend on cognitive ability. We analyze the education-mortality gradient at ages 18-63 using Swedish register data. We focus on months lost due to a specific cause of death which solves the interdependence problem, and use a structural model that derives cognitive ability from military conscription IQ scores. We derive the educational gains in months lost and the selection effects for each cause of death, and quantify the selection contribution of observed characteristics and unobserved cognitive ability. In a standard Cox model that controls for observed IQ, primary education was associated with 6 months lost when compared to secondary education. In a structural model that accounts for cognitive ability the difference was 43% larger. In addition, the largest educational gains were achieved for the lowest education group in the reduction of external cause mortality. The educational gains in cardiovascular mortality was small, mainly due to large selection effects. These results suggest that educational differences in cause specific mortality may be biased by conventional Cox regression analyses.
    Keywords: cause specific mortality, causal effect of educational, cognitive ability
    JEL: C41 C32 I14 I24
    Date: 2016–08
  16. By: Darleen Opfer
    Abstract: A key lever for improving teaching is provision of effective professional development. This paper uses TALIS 2013 data to consider personal and school-level factors associated with teacher participation in effective professional development and reports of impact on instruction. Results of the analyses indicate that levels of teacher co-operation and instructionally-focused leadership in schools are associated with higher levels of effective professional development participation and reported instructional impact. Systems also vary significantly on the percentage of teachers in schools with supportive conditions and this is associated with differences in teacher participation in professional development types and reported instructional impact. Offrir des possibilités de formation continue constitue assurément un levier efficace pour améliorer la qualité de l’enseignement. Ce document utilise les données issues de l’enquête TALIS 2013 pour étudier les facteurs, tant au niveau des individus qu’au niveau des établissements scolaires, qui interviennent dans la participation des enseignants à des programmes de formation continue. Il rend compte également de l’effet de ces programmes sur l’enseignement. Les résultats de cette étude indiquent que la coopération entre enseignants et un leadership des chefs d’établissement centré sur l’instruction sont associés à une plus grande participation des enseignants à des programmes de formation continue et à de plus grandes retombées pour l’enseignement. Le pourcentage d’enseignants qui bénéficient de conditions favorables dans leur environnement de travail varie de manière significative d’un système d’éducation à l’autre. Cette réalité est associée à des niveaux différents de participation à des programmes de formation continue et à des effets différents sur l’enseignement.
    Keywords: school leadership, Teacher professional development, teacher co-operation, TALIS 2013
    Date: 2016–08–10
  17. By: Annie Tubadji (Department of Economics, University of Bologna, Italy); Enrico Santarelli (Department of Economics, University of Bologna, Italy); Roberto Patuelli (Department of Economics, University of Bologna, Italy; The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis, Italy)
    Abstract: Intention toward any occupational choice can be widely categorized as a rational choice process combined with a subjective attitude function. There is extensive literature dealing with the formation of intention toward entrepreneurship in adolescents, in particular as a result of either parental (vertical) transmission of social capital or network effects from peers or neighbours (the latter two being two different levels of horizontal transmission varying in proximity in terms of bonding and bridging). We contribute to this literature by considering the joint effect of all these three levels simultaneously, in order to avoid an underspecification of the model due to omission of important cultural factors. We hypothesize that such three levels identify a mechanism where the individual perception of their importance interacts with their objective characteristics. With data for second-year high-school students, and employing empirical triangulation through Logit and 3SLS methods, we find evidence for a strong parental effect and of secondary peer effects on student intention. We also detect clear endogenous effects from the neighbourhood and the overall cultural context. Moreover, entrepreneurship is confirmed to be perceived, even by students, as a buffer for unemployment and social mobility.
    Date: 2016–08
  18. By: Todd, Jessica E.; Scharadin, Benjamin
    Abstract: Understanding where U.S. households acquire food, what they acquire, and what they pay is essential to identifying which food and nutrition policies might improve diet quality. USDA’s National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS) provides a complete picture of where households acquire food, what they acquire, and how much they pay during a 7-day period in 2012. Nearly all households acquire food at least once during the week; 87 percent visited large grocery stores and supermarkets, and 85 percent visited restaurants and other eating places at least once. Households acquired food at no cost on 22 percent of occasions, and these events occurred mainly at food pantries/Meals on Wheels, schools, meals with family or friends, community events, and workplaces.
    Keywords: FoodAPS, food acquisitions, free food, SNAP, food expenditure, food away from home, supermarkets, restaurants, school meals, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Health Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016–07

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