nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒07‒23
thirty-two papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Why does he get award? Comparison of innovative thinking points By Jen Chia Chang; Hsi Chi Hsiao; Su Chang Chen; Tien Li Chen; Pei Jou Chiu
  2. Research for Motivational Persistence Levels of Prospective Teachers in Terms of Different Variables By Selin CENBERCÄ°(Ä°NAG); Adiviye Beyhan
  3. Deserving poor? Are higher education bursaries going to the right students? By Gill Wyness
  4. Flexible Frameworks for Blended Learning in Higher Education By Bob Fox
  5. A Case Study of Blended Learning in Higher Education in Malaysia: Flipped, Flopped or Forgotten? By Michelle Jones
  6. The Effects of State Merit Aid Programs on Attendance at Elite Colleges By David L. Sjoquist; John V. Winters
  7. Engineering problems in mathematics lessons in higher education By Nárcisz Kulcsár
  8. Advancing Girls' Education in Developing Countries By Emilie Bagby; Anca Dumitrescu; Cara Orfield; Matt Sloan
  10. Updating Human Capital Decisions: Evidence from SAT Score Shocks and College Applications By Bond, Timothy N.; Bulman, George; Li, Xiaoxiao; Smith, Jonathan
  11. Work versus School? The Effect of Work on Educational Expenditures for Children in Mexico By Kaletski, Elizabeth
  12. Redistribution without Distortion: Evidence from an Affirmative Action Program at a Large Brazilian University By Fernanda Estevan; Thomas Gall; Louis-Philippe Morin
  13. The Evaluation Methods for Evidence-based Nursing Teaching By YAN WANG
  14. A Workshop for the accreditation of the University. Preliminary evaluations of an experience of individual and collective training at UNIMORE (Il Laboratorio per l’accreditamento di Ateneo. Prime valutazioni di un’esperienza di formazione personale e collettiva a UNIMORE) By Elisa Gibertini; Paolo Silvestri
  15. Paternal Unemployment During Childhood: Causal Effects on Youth Worklessness and Educational Attainment By Müller, Steffen; Riphahn, Regina T.; Schwientek, Caroline
  16. Gender bias in education during conflict: Evidence from Assam By Sutanuka Roy; Prakarsh Singh
  17. The Causal Impact of Human Capital on R&D and Productivity: Evidence from the United States By Veronica Mies; Matias Tapia; Ignacio Loeser
  18. Nuns and the Effects of Catholic Schools Evidence from Vatican II By Rania Gihleb
  19. Impact of Affirmative Action in Higher Education for the Other Backward Classes in India By Basant, Rakesh; Sen, Gitanjali
  20. Teaching Macroeconomics after the Financial Crisis By Anca Voicu; Somnath Sen
  21. An Comparative study on informatics curriculum : focused on Korea, United states, and United Kingdom By Youngjun Lee; seognwon Kim; Seounghey Paik
  22. Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation of the Household Welfare Impacts of Conditional and Unconditional Cash Transfers Given to Mothers or Fathers By Richard Akresh; Damien de Walque; Harounan Kazianga
  24. Economic Impact of International Students on the Host City: Case of University of Economics in Bratislava By Tetyana Nestorenko
  25. Some Economic Consequences of Higher Education Expansion in Turkey By Polat, Sezgin
  26. The challenges of reflective practice amongst colleagues in Higher Education By Danielle Tran
  27. Causas de las diferencias en desempeño escolar entre los colegios públicos y privados: Colombia en las pruebas SABER11 2014 By Geovanny Castro Aristizabal; Marcela Diaz Rosero; Jairo Tobar Bedoya
  28. Hit or Miss? Test Taking Behavior in Multiple Choice Exams By Ş. Pelin Akyol; James Key; Kala Krishna
  29. Enhancing Student Learning by Narrowing the Gap between Feedback Giving and Feedback Receiving By Eileen Goold
  30. The SDGs and inclusive education for all: From special education to addressing social inequalities By Rambla, Xavier; Langthaler, Margarita
  31. The Reflections of Smartphone Use and Recreational Use of Internet by High School Students to Leisure Boredom and Academic Achievement By beyza merve akgül; ali selman özdemir; suat karaküçük
  32. Mobility across generations of the gender distribution of housework By J. Ignacio Giménez-Nadal; Lucia Mangiavacchi; Luca Piccoli

  1. By: Jen Chia Chang (Graduate Institute of Technological & Vocational Education, National Taipei University of Technology); Hsi Chi Hsiao (Department of Business Administration, Cheng Shiu University); Su Chang Chen (Institute of service management, National Penghu University of Science and Technology); Tien Li Chen (Department of Industrial Design, National Taipei University of Technology); Pei Jou Chiu (Graduate Institute of Technological & Vocational Education, National Taipei University of Technology)
    Abstract: Innovation is an important basis for successfully gaining global market shares in the era of technological changes. In order to maintain national competitiveness, the government attaches great importance to innovative thinking ability. To this end, throughout various stages of education in Taiwan, creativity competitions are held. Among them, at universities and colleges, annual innovation and entrepreneurship competitions are held; at vocational high schools, national creativity project work competitions are held. In this study, award-winning students from the two competitions were selected. The creative concept design capability scale was adopted to compare the award winners and non-winners in terms of differences in innovative thinking points. The creative concept design capability scale was used to assess the gap among students who received training, college project instructors, and student innovative thinking points. Findings show that the overall innovative thinking points are mostly concentrated in the appearance. University/college of technology or vocational high school competition award winners alike have a significantly higher total score compared to the total innovative thinking points score of regular university/college of technological teachers and students. However, as to the innovative thinking points for different categories, university and college award winners of innovation entrepreneurship competitions tend to put the chemical change of innovative thinking points to better uses; vocational high school award winners of creativity project work competitions tend to put the external size and external texture layout of innovative thinking points to better uses. The university and college students on the project team are better able to use the physical changes, structural complexity, operability, shape changes, functional enhancement, and usage enhancement of the innovative thinking points. This study recommends that students select more related professional practical courses to “learn by doing†. Students are encouraged to participate in off-campus learning activities or creativity competitions so that they can broaden their horizons. As for teaching, teachers may lead students in site visits to learn about innovative products in the industry. The course design combines theory and practice, case discussions are examples of which.
    Keywords: Innovative thinking points, Competition award winner, Creativity
    JEL: I20 I23 I29
  2. By: Selin CENBERCİ(İNAG) (Konya NE.University, A.K. Education Faculty, Mathematics Teaching Programme Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences,); Adiviye Beyhan (Selcuk University, Faculty of Art and Desıgn, Department of Hand Crafts Desıgn and Productıon,)
    Abstract: The meaning of the motivation has been much discussed and theorized in educational psychology. According to the Keller (2006), motivation is measured by the amount of effort the student makes in order to achive the instructional goal. In addition to this, Sıng (2011) clarified the motivation is one of the most important prerequisities for learning also persistence of motivation is a key for achievement (Ushioda 2015). Persistence of motivation is as important as having motivation (Constantin, Holman and Hojbota 2011). Motivational persistence as core component of the strenght of goal striving (Constantin 2008). Teaching is a profession that requires motivational persistence. Motivational persistence level of prospective teachers and development of it are important in their education term. In this research future teachers’ motivational persistence is examined according to the different variables. In this research descriptive model was used aiming to bring about the different variables effect on the motivational persistence. In 2015-2016 Education Year Spring Term in NEU Education Faculty 250 different students in different departments participated in this research. Motivational persistence scale was developed by Constantin, Holman and Hojbota (2011) and adapted to Turkish by Sarıçam et al. (2013). And also in research these tecniques are used to analyse datas; frekans, percentage average, standard deviation and t test. The datas gathered as a result of measurements during research was done in computer by SPSS programme. The conclusıon and suggestıos ll be anouced at the end of research.
    Keywords: motivation, motivational persistence, performance
    JEL: I21 I23
  3. By: Gill Wyness (UCL Institute of Education and Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics)
    Abstract: After the abolition of student maintenance grants in 2016, higher education bursaries will be the major source of non-repayable aid for poor students in England. But are bursaries going to the students most likely to benefit from them – the bright poor – or are they simply subsidising low ability students? Using data collected from 22 universities, I show that, as a direct consequence of the decentralized nature of the bursary system, there are vast inequalities in aid receipt among poor students. Nevertheless, I find that the brightest, poorest students tend to receive the most bursary aid, suggesting the system is working efficiently. My analysis also shows that the students most likely to drop out or perform poorly in their degrees are those from disadvantaged backgrounds, with weak A levels. This suggests that these students could gain more from bursary aid if it was coupled with academic support.
    Keywords: Widening Participation; Higher Education Funding Policies; Higher Education Bursaries; Decentralisation
    JEL: I21 I22 I28
    Date: 2015–10–14
  4. By: Bob Fox (University of New South Wales)
    Abstract: Pressures to adopt new technology-based online solutions to enable increased flexibility in delivering higher education have accelerated in pace. The primary reasons for this growth concern ongoing debates about costs of residential on-campus courses and resulting economies of scale; demands for more student-centred and flexible approaches, providing students with more choices in learning; technology ubiquity, portability and their affordances providing solutions to identified student needs; and the impact of MOOC experiences and lessons learnt, rolling back into mainstream open and on-campus teaching. Based on case study analysis, this paper examines experiences in developing open and blended learning solutions for predominantly campus-based education and identifies longer-term impacts on changing core practices. The first case explores the impact of distance and open education courses and course resources and activities re-purposed to replace conventional on-campus teaching; the second a re-engineered continuing professional education course converted to distance and blended learning; the third describes how a conventional course structure, quality assurance and sustainable improvements were made through the introduction of blended and online solutions; and the forth case explores the impact of an institution’s use of MOOCs as a catalyst to effect changes in mainstream courses and programs. Arising from the cases described, the paper identifies key concepts that support improved opportunities for success in adopting open and blended learning. The paper concludes by outlining a curriculum design framework, based on recent research and practice that facilitates sustainable and transferable improvements to learning and teaching in universities adopting open and blended learning strategies.
    Keywords: online learning; blended learning, technology affordance, curriculum design
    JEL: I29 O33 I23
  5. By: Michelle Jones (Institute of Educational Leadership, University of Malaya)
    Abstract: Every day, in Universities across the globe, more and more courses are being created to embrace blended learning approaches. Classes are now being ‘flipped’ in the pursuit of more effective learning and better student outcomes. However, the concept of blended and flipped learning in Malaysia is relatively new. This paper outlines an exploratory study of blended learning in a higher education institution (HEI) in Malaysia. The focus of this paper is an investigation of the pedagogical processes associated with blended and flipped learning in a Higher Education context. The paper provides a discussion of the implementation challenges associated with delivering a new blended learning programme. The paper concludes that there are significant benefits to students from learning in a learning environment that uses blended and flipped approaches.
    Keywords: Higher Education, blended and flipped learning, Malaysia
    JEL: I29
  6. By: David L. Sjoquist (Georgia State University); John V. Winters (Oklahoma State University)
    Abstract: State merit aid programs have been found to reduce the likelihood that students attend college out-of-state. Using the U.S. News & World Report (USNWR) rankings of colleges and universities to measure college quality and Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System data to measure enrollment, we explore how this reduction in out-of-state enrollment differs by the academic quality of the institution. Our difference-in-differences results suggest that state merit aid programs do not induce students to forgo attending top 15 ranked schools. However, state merit aid does induce some students to forgo attending out-of-state schools ranked below the top 15 and shifts them toward lower quality in-state schools, so that the net effect is a reduction in academic quality, as measured by USNWR. These effects may have long-term implications for students’ degree completion rates and labor market earnings.
    Keywords: merit aid; college choice; college quality; elite colleges
    JEL: H31 I22 J24
    Date: 2016–06
  7. By: Nárcisz Kulcsár (Széchenyi István University, Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences)
    Abstract: It is a well-known problem that numerous disciplines and the connected labour market suffer from the lack of experts despite mass higher education. In the field of engineering and natural sciences especially physics, chemistry and mathematics faces the biggest problems, interest of students turns away from these sciences. In engineering education in higher education mathematics is a basic course in which students do not like immerse deeply. Is there any way to recapture their interest in mathematics? A possible way could be teaching real-life problems which can complete traditional education. As engineers solve real-life problems in their daily work their education should be practice-oriented full of real-life problems.In my presentation I would like to present some possibilities how can we connect mathematics with real life, what are the advantages and difficulties of using real life problems in lessons, what kind of technical mediators can help teachers to illustrate mathematical problems, what is the role of visualization in calculus, how can we make relations between an abstract science and real world.
    Keywords: visualisation, real-life problems, higher education, mathematics teaching
  8. By: Emilie Bagby; Anca Dumitrescu; Cara Orfield; Matt Sloan
    Abstract: The IMAGINE project, an effort to improve school infrastructure in Niger, helped strengthen academic performance, particularly among girls.
    Keywords: international, education, girls, infrastructure, literacy, Niger
    JEL: F Z I
  9. By: Burcu Cabuk (Ankara University)
    Abstract: In-class debate has been used starting from the older grades of primary school and above educational levels but it is not common in younger students’ classes. Research shows that in-class debate used in higher education levels has a positive effect on students’ development. It gives students the opportunity of cooperative learning and peer tutoring. This way, in-class debates cultivate the active engagement of the participating students. When teachers use debates as a daily activity in their classes, they can easily observe the students’ developmental levels in different areas and may plan activities for students who show low performance. Since it is an influential technique for both students and teachers when used in the older grades, it was thought that, after giving suitable education to kindergarteners, in-class debate can also be used in kindergarten level. The purpose of this qualitative study was to analyze teacher candidates’ perceptions on this new technique used in preschools: in-class debate. Based on this purpose, for 4 weeks, the researcher worked with 12 teacher candidates who have been teaching in the classrooms of 60 to 72-month-old-children. Before the study, the researcher conducted a one-week workshop for these teacher candidates on how in-class debate can be used in kindergartens. After the workshop, the teacher candidates prepared their two-week plans where they added “in-class debate games†in their daily activities. These plans were examined ahead by the researcher and conducted in the classes by the teacher candidates under the supervision of the researcher. For the last two week, the teacher candidates observed the children focusing on their cognitive, socio-emotional and language development. Finally, the teacher candidates were interviewed based on their comparisons of their observations of the children and what their perceptions about in-class debate technique used in kindergarten. The teacher candidates explained that in-class debates used as daily activities scaffold children’s development in different areas. They also mentioned that they learned how to involve children actively in their own learning and they overall evaluated the study as successful. According to findings of the study, suggestions were given to teachers and academicians who are working with teacher candidates.
    Keywords: In-class debate, kindergarten, teacher candidate
    JEL: I23 I29
  10. By: Bond, Timothy N.; Bulman, George; Li, Xiaoxiao; Smith, Jonathan
    Abstract: We estimate whether students update their collegepplication portfolios in response to large, unanticipated information shocks generated by the release of SAT scores -- a primary component of admissions decisions. Exploiting new population data on the timing of college selection and a policy that induces students to choose colleges prior to taking exam, we find that the release of scores causes students to update their portfolios in terms of selectivity, tuition, and sector. However, the magnitude of updating is too modest to significantly reduce unexplained variation across students, suggesting that non-academic factors may be the dominant determinants of college choice.
    Keywords: college choice; learning; SAT
    JEL: D83 I20 J24
    Date: 2016–07–04
  11. By: Kaletski, Elizabeth (Ithaca College)
    Abstract: This paper explores the impact of child labor on child welfare, with a specific focus on the relationship between working and education. I look at the empirical relationship between working and educational expenditure budget shares for children age 5-14 in Mexico. I accomplish this using a household fixed effects model and data from two waves of the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS). The results indicate that working increases school expenditure shares for working children. In particular, on average, girls engaged in paid work have total annual education expenditure shares that are 48.6% higher than girls who do not work. This relationship varies significantly with characteristics of both the individual and the household, including the child's gender and type of work performed, as well as the household's income, location, and relative female bargaining power. The results indicate that working does not appear to translate into a decrease in welfare and the additional expenditure is directed towards goods that improve the quality of education.
    Keywords: child labor, education, child welfare, child incentives, household decision making
    JEL: D13 I21 J22 O15
    Date: 2016–07
  12. By: Fernanda Estevan (Department of Economics, University of Sao Paulo); Thomas Gall (Department of Economics, University of Southampton); Louis-Philippe Morin (Department of Economics, University of Ottawa)
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine an innovative affirmative action policy designed to increase the representation of underprivileged students at UNICAMP, a large and highly ranked Brazilian university. The university awarded bonus points to targeted applicants (i.e., public high school applicants) on their admission exam, as opposed to imposing a typical quota system. Using a rich set of administrative data from UNICAMP, we assess the effect of this policy on the composition of admitted students, and investigate for possible behavioral responses at the extensive (participation) and intensive (preparation effort) margins. We find that the admission probability of public high school applicants, the targeted applicants, significantly increased following the adoption of the affirmative action program. The policy was also associated with sizable redistribution in the composition of admitted students, with a shift towards students from families with lower socio-economic status. Surprisingly, we find little evidence of behavioral reactions to the affirmative action policy, in terms of test performance or application decision.
    Keywords: post-secondary education, affirmative action, university admission, inequality
    Date: 2016
  13. By: YAN WANG (Macao Polytechnic Institute)
    Abstract: Objective: Nurses educator used evidence-based methods to improve students critical-thinking and problem-solving ability. But there were no standard methods to evaluate the effects of evidence-based teaching. This article was to reviewed the evaluation methods used in recently evidence-based nursing teaching. Method: Using the keywords of " evidence-based nursing ","education", "evaluation", related papers published in recent five years were researched in the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Science Direct, OVID, and Chinese Academic Database. Result: Ninety-two paper were found. The evaluation methods used in these researches were classified into Defocused and Focused methods. The Defocused methods, was to evaluate the mastering of nursing theory or the degree of nursing skills efficiency, or the nursing quality index. It was not to test students' evidence-based ability directly. The Focused methods, focusing on the steps of evidence-based practices, strived for evaluate the evidence-based ability. The evidence-based ability training maybe complex, for it involved the basic theories form medical-surgical nursing, statistics and research design. The evaluation method should be choose according to the students' degree. At the beginning, the teaching object was to build up the evidence-based idea in students' head, so defoused method was suitable for the junior bachelor students. At the end, the teaching object required students to practice evidence-based ability, focused method was suitable for the senior bachelor students, master or doctoral students, or clinical nurses.Conclusion: Nursing educators should choose suitable evaluation methods according to different teaching objectives.
    Keywords: Evidence-based nursing teaching, Effects, Evaluation
  14. By: Elisa Gibertini; Paolo Silvestri
    Abstract: The paper presents the results of the Workshop for the accreditation of the University, organized by the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE). The workshop is devoted to the students that are members of the Joint docents - students committees and consists of several educational activities ranging from lessons to practical exercises. The workshop is based on a principle established in the Document for QA of the education of UNIMORE, that is the commitment of the University "to act deliberately so that students are involved, individually and collectively, as partners in quality assurance and in strengthening their educational experience". The work considers some problematic aspects that gradually have emerged in the course of its implementation; it develops some critical reflections on the experience and concludes by outlining possible developments of this work, which seems to be unique on the national scene.
    Keywords: Italian university; quality assurance; student engagement
    Date: 2016–06
  15. By: Müller, Steffen; Riphahn, Regina T.; Schwientek, Caroline
    Abstract: Using long-running data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (1984-2012), we investigate the impact of paternal unemployment on child labor market and education outcomes. We first describe correlation patterns and then use sibling fixed effects and the Gottschalk (1996) method to identify the causal effects of paternal unemployment. We find different patterns for sons and daughters. Paternal unemployment does not seem to causally affect the outcomes of sons. In contrast, it increases both daughters' worklessness and educational attainment. We test the robustness of the results and explore potential explanations.
    Keywords: youth unemployment,educational attainment,intergenerational mobility,causal effect,Gottschalk method,sibling fixed effects
    JEL: C21 C26 J62
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Sutanuka Roy (London School of Economics, London, UK); Prakarsh Singh (Amherst College, Amherst, MA, US)
    Abstract: Using a large-scale novel panel dataset (2005–14) on schools from the Indian state of Assam, we test for the impact of violent conflict on female students’ enrollment rates. We find that a doubling of average killings in a district-year leads to a 13 per cent drop in girls’ enrollment rate with school fixed effects. Additionally, results remain similar when using an alternative definition of conflict from a different dataset. Gender differential responses are more negative for lower grades, rural schools, poorer districts, and for schools run by local and private unaided bodies.
    Keywords: conflict, education, gender discrimination, human capital, India
    JEL: I2 J1 O1
    Date: 2016–07
  17. By: Veronica Mies (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile); Matias Tapia (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile); Ignacio Loeser (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile)
    Abstract: We use census micro data aggregated at the state level data for US cohorts born between 1915 and 1939 to test the impact of secondary and tertiary schooling in the US at the state-cohort level on R&D and TFP growth across industries in 1970. We instrument our measures of schooling by using the variation in compulsory schooling laws and differences in mobilization rates in WWII, which we relate to the education benefits provided by the GI Bill Act (1944). This novel instrument provides a clean source of variation in the costs of attending college. Two-stage least squared regressions find no effect of the share of population with secondary schooling on outcomes such as n R\&D per worker or TFP growth. On the other hand, the share of population with tertiary education has a significant effect on both R&D per worker or TFP growth.
    Date: 2016
  18. By: Rania Gihleb
    Abstract: This paper examines the causal effects of Catholic schooling on educational attainment.Using a novel instrumental-variable approach that exploits an exogenous shockto the Catholic school system, we show that the positive correlation between Catholicschooling and student outcomes is explained by selection bias. Spearheaded by theuniversal call to holiness, the reforms that occurred at the Second Vatican Councilproduced a dramatic exogenous change in the cost/benefit ratio of religious life in theCatholic Church. Using the abrupt decline in the number of Catholic sisters as aninstrument for Catholic schooling, we find no evidence of positive effects on studentoutcomes.
    Date: 2015–01
  19. By: Basant, Rakesh; Sen, Gitanjali
    Abstract: This paper measures the impact of quota-based affirmative action in higher education (HE) in India for Other Backward Classes (OBC), implemented from 2008. Since the immediate impact would be felt by OBCs who were eligible to go to college at the time of the implementation, we compare the differences in participation in HE by the younger (18-23 years) and the older (24-29 years) age groups within eligible OBCs, with similar differences in the general caste population. The same double difference is also compared across states with different histories of affirmative action to ascertain if there are regional variations in the impact of the policy, with the expectation that the impact would be higher in regions with no history of affirmative action. Our results from the Difference in Difference (DD) estimates based on National Sample Survey data for 2011-12 do not show a positive impact of the policy on the participation of OBCs. In fact, the impact seems to be negative in all regions, though statistically insignificant, except the East which lacks the long history of affirmative action. A comparison of the East without a long history of affirmative action with the South having a long history of such policy, using triple difference method, produces positive treatment effects, but the estimate loses statistical significance once we control for observable covariates. Our results suggest that the generalized nation-wide policy of this kind may not be relevant for issues which are more regional in nature. (JEL Codes: H75, I23, I24, I25, I28, J15, O15).
  20. By: Anca Voicu (Rollins College); Somnath Sen (The University of Birmingham)
    Abstract: There is considerable dissatisfaction in the profession regarding the teaching of macroeconomics after the financial crisis. The ‘Great Recession’ highlighted the inadequacy of traditional macroeconomic modelling, based on real business cycle theory and rational expectations, to appropriately explain why the contraction world-wide was so widespread and why it has been so persistent. Textbooks have been slow to respond to these concerns, possibly because it was believed that this recession would be temporary. In addition, new policy measures such as quantitative easing and the possibility of the zero lower bound in interest rates required a re-orientation of macroeconomics pedagogy. The purpose of this paper is three-fold. First, we sketch and highlight how some of these policy issues could be explained within a traditional Keynesian macromodel. However, such formal presentation to students quickly becomes arid, so to sustain interest we need to supplement the core analytical material with innovative pedagogic strategies which needs interactive student participation. The second purpose of the paper is to give examples of such teaching methods that we have used: the use of video material; utilization of websites from news media; film screening and in-class discussion (Inside the Meltdown); flipping the classroom; playing monetary policy games; as well as, organizing a debate between the proponents of Keynesian ideas and neoclassical models in solving the long recession. Our approach is a synthesis of traditional teaching of economic models with blended learning methods. The third purpose of the paper is to evaluate an early presentation of this method and content to students and how they responded to such an approach. Our pedagogic approach is not vastly different from what policy institutions such as Central Banks are thinking. Consider the following quote from a highly rated British macroeconomist, Professor Wilhem Buiter, on the applications of monetary policy by the Bank of England: “The Bank of England in 2007 faced the onset of the credit crunch with too much Robert Lucas, Michael Woodford and Robert Merton in its intellectual cupboard. A drastic but chaotic re-education took place and is continuing. I believe that the Bank has by now shed the conventional wisdom of the typical macroeconomics training of the past few decades. In its place is an intellectual potpourri of factoids, partial theories, empirical regularities without firm theoretical foundations, hunches, intuitions and half-developed insights. It is not much, but knowing that you know nothing is the beginning of wisdom†.
    Keywords: macroeconomics, Great Recession, teaching methods
    JEL: A00 A22
  21. By: Youngjun Lee (Korea National University of Education); seognwon Kim (Korea National University of Education); Seounghey Paik (Korea National University of Education)
    Abstract: Since the importance of software in society, software education has been globally introduced. Korean government is also trying to promote talents by the revision of curriculum; however, due to the lack of lesson hour, education course is not enough to foster sufficient software focused talents. Thus, by supplementation of present curriculum, the development of new curriculum model has been needed. In this study, as a basic research of this development of curriculum model, curriculum revised in 2015 of Korea was compared with that of U. S. A. and that of England. Through the comparison, it was possible to find out what is needed to make up for informatics curriculum. This result could be used as an advanced research for the development of software curriculum model with Korean education context.
    Keywords: computer science curriculum, comparative study, International Study, secondary school curriculum
    JEL: I21 I29
  22. By: Richard Akresh; Damien de Walque; Harounan Kazianga
    Abstract: We conducted a randomized control trial in rural Burkina Faso to estimate the impact of alternative cash transfer delivery mechanisms on education, health, and household welfare outcomes. The two-year pilot program randomly distributed cash transfers that were either conditional or unconditional and were given to either mothers or fathers. Conditionality was linked to older children enrolling in school and attending regularly and younger children receiving preventive health check-ups. Compared to the control group, cash transfers improve children's education and health and household socioeconomic conditions. For school enrollment and most child health outcomes, conditional cash transfers outperform unconditional cash transfers. Giving cash to mothers does not lead to significantly better child health or education outcomes, and there is evidence that money given to fathers improves young children's health, particularly during years of poor rainfall. Cash transfers to fathers also yields relatively more household investment in livestock, cash crops, and improved housing.
    Date: 2016
  23. By: Mustafa YAVUZ (Necmettin Erbakan University); Deniz GÜLMEZ (Necmettin Erbakan University)
    Abstract: Learning is a dynamic process. There are some factors that affect learning positively or negatively and in other words, facilitate or complicate learning. Learner, learning methods, types of issues to be learned and the learning environment are some of these factors. The purpose of this research to determine students’ opinions studying at the university which course they have seen until this time how they learn best. The working group consists of totally 140 students studying in 2015-2016 academic year at Necmettin Erbakan University. The study conducted in the form of qualitative research method and data were collected by semi-structured interviews. In the form of student interviews were asked to write the lessons they have learned best and explain how they learn best. The data were analyzed by content analysis. According to findings it has found that students have learned mathematics, history, literature and Turkish lessons the best. It has revealed that they learned better via expression, problem solving and through experience.
    Keywords: Learning, learning methods, teaching methods, students.
  24. By: Tetyana Nestorenko (Berdyansk State Pedagogical University)
    Abstract: Typical university impact studies in Slovak Republic have taken into account only economic impact of domestic students. But increased globalization processes contribute the growth the number of international students and increase their impact on the economy of a host city. Using data obtained on 2015/2016 academic year during questioning of international full-time students of the University of Economics in Bratislava (Slovak Republic) we estimate their direct economic impact on the host city – Bratislava. We compare this economic impact to those obtained for the University of Economics in Bratislava domestic students in previous researches. We estimate the direct spending by international students studied at the University of Economics in Bratislava in 2015/2016 as 322.5 thousand euros on an annualized basis.
    Keywords: economic impact, international students, domestic students, Bratislava
    JEL: I23 I29 R12
  25. By: Polat, Sezgin
    Abstract: This article discusses recent structural changes in Turkish higher education to draw attention to a number of social and economic consequences of this expansion in terms of mobility and inequality over the last ten years. First, we outline the institutional background of the expansion of higher education in order to identify various re-distributive dimensions of the policy. Compared to 2004, creating new universities and increasing the existing capacity almost doubled the college enrollment rates. Subsidies facilitating more education grants and fee waivers were followed by heavy investment in public student accommodation. This policy was initiated as a political move targeting regional development, taking on a redistributive character by reorienting public funds toward poorer eastern regions. In this paper, we limit our focus to the impacts of these policies on the local labor market. By using household labor force surveys between 2004 and 2014, firstly, we explored how college proximity had an effect on access to college for the local families. Our results from a difference-in-difference model provide evidence that this policy had an equity-enhancing effect for daughters of low-educated families in some regions with largescale expansion. The results also indicate that the regional mobility of educated workers may be slowed by this expansion. Secondly, we investigated whether the compositional change has affected local returns to college degrees and relative convergence across regions. Estimation results show that despite the increase in college graduates, returns in terms of wages at the local level are increasing and that some regional convergence was attained.
    Keywords: Higher education, Returns to education, regional labor markets, College proximity, Turkey
    JEL: I23 I26 R23
    Date: 2016–05
  26. By: Danielle Tran (University of Greenwich)
    Abstract: Much has been written about the value of participating in the process of reflective practice as part of one’s continuing professional development. Within the Higher Education (HE) sector, this practice can be used to help formally evidence an individual’s impact on teaching and learning. While colleagues understand the benefits of critical reflection, there is sometimes a reluctance to participate in the process of formalised reflection amongst colleagues in HE. This formalised process involves having to put forth a written record of one’s critical reflection as evidence that an individual has successfully engaged with the practice. While many university programmes and courses embed lessons and assessments focused around the topic of reflection, there remains a question around the extent to which academics themselves and colleagues in HE positively and productively participate in reflective practice regularly enough so that our encouragement of students to engage with this practice does not seem hypocritical. This presentation considers a few common obstacles behind participating in reflective practice amongst colleagues in Higher Education and considers how reviewing one’s general approach to engaging with activities and peers in the workplace can help in part to overcome these specific challenges. As well as considering how a change in approach to working dynamics may affect one’s engagement with reflective practice, the presentation also considers a few practical suggestions which can be implemented at individual and departmental level to help encourage participation and commitment to reflective practice in HE institutions. The recommendations made in this presentation are not put forth as ‘new’ ideas. Rather, the points and suggestions raised are based on informal discussions and observations with HE colleagues in a context in which reflective practice was the issue of focus. In this way, the points raised here are based on my own reflection. The examples discussed in this paper were selected as common issues that colleagues tend to grapple with when engaged in the process of reflective practice.
    Keywords: Higher Education, reflective writing, reflective practice, challenges
    JEL: I23
  27. By: Geovanny Castro Aristizabal; Marcela Diaz Rosero; Jairo Tobar Bedoya (Faculty of Economics and Management, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali)
    Abstract: This paper identifies the causes that give rise to gaps in school performance between public and private schools in Colombia and five major cities. For this purpose, the information on tests SABER 11 of 2014 is used, and the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition is applied, combined with estimates of educational production function, based on the methodology proposed by Heckman, for correct selection bias. In the national context, significant differences were found in all areas assessed in these tests, in favor of private schools. Particularly in the area of English, the greatest divergence occurs. Private schools get, on average, 6.1 points more than the public. These gaps originate mainly by the endowment effect. Specifically, it must, first, by differences in school resources, followed by differences in socioeconomic and cultural status of the home, and finally, by differences in individual characteristics. Regarding the results for cities, it is determined that Cartagena is the city with greater educational inequality in the five skills assessed, and Medellin is the lowest. For Cali, performance gaps were in favor of public schools. These differences are caused, significantly, the observed part of the model, except in Cali, where gaps in favor of public schools in general are explained the net effect model (unobserved variables). Finally, in these cities, the difference in school resources remains the most significant in the private-public gaps followed by differences in individual and family characteristics factor.
    Keywords: academic achievement, educational production function, Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, Heckman selection bias, public and private education, SABER 11.
    JEL: C29 I21 I24 I28 I29
    Date: 2016–07
  28. By: Ş. Pelin Akyol; James Key; Kala Krishna
    Abstract: We model and estimate the decision to answer questions in multiple choice tests with negative marking. Our focus is on the trade-off between precision and fairness. Negative marking reduces guessing, thereby increasing accuracy considerably. However, it reduces the expected score of the more risk averse, discriminating against them. Using data from the Turkish University Entrance Exam, we find that students' attitudes towards risk differ according to their gender and ability. Women and those with high ability are significantly more risk averse: nevertheless, the impact on scores of such differences is small, making a case for negative marking.
    JEL: I21 J24 D61 C11
    Date: 2016–07
  29. By: Eileen Goold (Institute of Technology Tallaght Dublin)
    Abstract: Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement. However the mere provision of feedback to students does not necessarily lead to improved learning. Feedback is ineffective if it does not close the gap between learning goals and students’ performance. Often students do not have clear goals and they do not know what learning activities will improve their learning performance. Consequently the opportunity to learn from the feedback is lost. Learning is a social process and while young people have increasingly strong social needs they struggle with academic language. This study investigates the influence of lecturers’ feedback on students’ learning and whether first year electronic engineering students at the Institute of Technology Tallaght Dublin (ITTD) benefit from a peer evaluation environment where students are enabled to detect and communicate quality criteria for specific coursework. A qualitative approach is used to capture students’ views. The results show that the opportunity to learn from lecturer feedback is not fully utilised. Instead learning is best achieved interactively and in a non-threatening environment. Students willingly engage in both giving and receiving feedback and clarifying misunderstandings and they show improved motivation. Engagement in a guided peer feedback environment additionally improves self-regulation, critical thinking skills and communications.
    Keywords: Feedback, Assessment, Communications, Language, Self-Regulated Learning
    JEL: I21 I29
  30. By: Rambla, Xavier; Langthaler, Margarita
    Abstract: This briefing paper draws on the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals and the previous statements regarding inclusive education so as to propose guidelines for international aid in the area of education. Basically, both concepts stand for a wide-ranging view of education in the frame of correlative challenges and objectives. A key point is that crucial opportunities emerge from positive synergies between initiatives addressing social inequalities and catering to special needs. Four guidelines are suggested for both international donors and governments interested in ensuring inclusive, lifelong, quality education for all. The paper illustrates these general guidelines with a few observations regarding two middle-income countries as Albania and Moldova, and two low-income countries such as Burkina Faso and Ethiopia. In all of them, children and youth suffer from powerful deprivations derived from social inequalities associated to the socio-economic status of parents, gender, ethnicity and ability. In these four countries the available sources also report on shortcomings in institutional capacity that have to be urgently addressed.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals,Inclusive Education,Education for All,Albania,Moldova,Burkina Faso,Ethiopia
    Date: 2016
  31. By: beyza merve akgül (gazi university); ali selman özdemir (Bülent Ecevit University); suat karaküçük (gazi university)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between, on the one hand, smartphone and recreational internet use, and on the other hand, students’ academic success, life satisfaction and boredom in leisure time. The study sample contains 439 randomly selected high school students in Cankaya District, Ankara, Turkey. The questionnaire used to collect data is composed of five parts. These are the “Personal Information Form†, ‘’Smartphone addiction scale’, “Addiction Profile Index Internet Scan Form (BAPINT)†, ‘’leisure boredom scale’’ and ‘’life satisfaction scale’’. Frequency and percentage calculations, Pearson Correlations, multiple regression analysis and One-Way ANOVA test were utilized in the analysis .Consequently, it is observed that there is no meaningful difference between students’ perceived academic success levels in terms of their smartphone use, F(4, 434)= 2.32, p>0.05. However, it is determined that there is a meaningful difference between students’ perceived academic success levels with regard to their recreational internet use, F(4,434)=5.36, p
    Keywords: smartphone addiction, recreational use of internet, leisure boredom, academic achievement
  32. By: J. Ignacio Giménez-Nadal (University of Zaragoza, CTUR and BIFI, Spain); Lucia Mangiavacchi (University of the Balearic Islands, Spain); Luca Piccoli (University of the Balearic Islands, Spain)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the relationship between the gender division of housework time of parents, with children living in the parental home, and that of the same children when they become adults and form their own families. Using the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), we exploit its panel structure jointly with detailed information on children and parent’s time use, to analyse the time devoted by parents during their children’s adolescence (between 1994 and 1999) and that of the same children about ten years later (from 2006 to 2009). The results suggest that a greater involvement of fathers in the domestic activities traditionally done by mothers is related to a reduction in gender inequality in their children’s future families: father’s involvement in domestic activities has a significant impact on their sons’ time spent in the same activities. These findings shed light on the persistence of parental behaviour across generations.
    Keywords: Time Use, Housework, Gender Roles, Attitudes, Intergenerational Transmission, Russia.
    JEL: D13 J16 J22 P13
    Date: 2016–05

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