nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒07‒02
29 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Value of Private Schools: Evidence from Pakistan By Pedro Carneiro; Jishnu Das; Hugo Reis
  2. How Innovations and Best Practices can Transform Higher Education Institutions : A Case Study of SIMS By Aithal, Sreeramana; Rao, Srinivas; Kumar, Suresh
  3. Application of ABCD Analysis Framework on Private University System in India By Aithal, Sreeramana; V.T., Shailashree; Kumar, Suresh
  4. Credit where credit is due: An approach to education returns based on shapley values By Bilal Barakat; Jesus Crespo Cuaresma
  5. Returns to vocational education. Evidence from Poland By Paweł Strawiński; Paulina Broniatowska; Aleksandra Majchrowska
  6. The Educational Success of China’s Young Generation of Rural-to-Urban Migrants By Pamela Lenton; Lu Yin
  7. Is it the way they use it? Teachers, ICT and student achievement By Simona, Comi; Marco, Gui; Federica, Origo; Laura, Pagani; Gianluca, Argentin;
  8. Are immigrants overeducated in Germany? Determinants and wage effects of educational mismatch By Schwientek, Caroline
  9. Teacher Quality and Learning Outcomes in Kindergarten By M. Caridad Araujo; Pedro Carneiro; Yyannú Cruz-Aguayo; Norbert Schady
  10. Cognitive Ability and Games of School Choice By Christian, Basteck; Marco, Mantovani
  11. Academic Support through Information System : Srinivas Integrated Model By Aithal, Sreeramana; Kumar, Suresh
  12. The education revolution on horseback II: Using the Napoleonic Wars to elicit the effect of tracking on student performance By Korthals, Roxanne
  13. Keeping College Options Open: A Field Experiment to Help All High School Seniors Through the College Application Process By Philip Oreopoulos; Reuben Ford
  14. Market Signals: Evidence on the Determinants and Consequences of School Choice from a Citywide Lottery By Steven Glazerman; Dallas Dotter
  15. Employment status and educational attainment among disabled Ghanaians By Clifford Afoakwah; Fatima Dauda
  16. What are the benefits from early childhood education? By OECD
  17. How to Increase Research Productivity in Higher Educational Institutions –SIMS Model By Aithal, Sreeramana
  18. Protecting Unsophisticated Applicants in School Choice through Information Disclosure By Christian, Basteck; Marco, Mantovani;
  19. Are disadvantaged students given equal opportunities to learn mathematics? By OECD
  20. Do pensions foster education? An empirical perspective By Gianko Michailidis; Concepció Patxot; Meritxell Solé Juvés
  21. Should Value-Added Models Control for Student Absences? By Gershenson, Seth
  22. On the Role of Community Management in Correcting Market Failures of Rural Developing Areas: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment of COGES Project in Burkina Faso By Sawada, Yasuyuki; Aida, Takeshi; Griffen, Andrew; Kazianga, Harounan; Kozuka, Eiji; Nogushi, Haruko; Todo, Yasuyuki
  23. Academic Entrepreneurship: Bayh-Dole versus the 'Professor's Privilege' By Astebro , Thomas B; Braguinsky , Serguey; Braunerhjelm , Pontus; Broström , Anders
  24. The power to choose Gender balance of power and intra-household educational spending in India By Smriti Sharma; Christophe Nordman
  25. Information and Preferences for Public Spending: Evidence from Representative Survey Experiments By Philipp Lergetporer; Guido Schwerdt; Katharina Werner; Ludger Woessmann
  26. Junior Farmer Field Schools, Agricultural Knowledge and Spillover Effects: Quasiexperimental Evidence from Northern Uganda By Jacopo, Bonan; Laura, Pagani;
  27. What to teach, when teaching economics as a minor subject? By Martin Kniepert
  28. Regional human capital inequality in Europe in the long run, 1850 – 2010. By Claude Diebolt; Ralph Hippe
  29. Quality Thresholds, Features, and Dosage in Early Care and Education: Methods By Margaret Burchinal; Yange Xue; Anamaire Auger; Hsiao-Chuan Tien; Andrew Mashburn; Elizabeth W. Cavadel; Ellen Peisner-Feinberg

  1. By: Pedro Carneiro (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London); Jishnu Das (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Hugo Reis (Institute for Fiscal Studies)
    Abstract: Using unique data from Pakistan we estimate a model of demand for diff erentiated products in 112 rural education markets with signi ficant choice among public and private schools. Our model accounts for the endogeneity of school fees and the characteristics of students attending the school. As expected, central determinants of school choice are the distance to school, school fees, and the characteristics of peers. Families are willing to pay on average between 75% and 115% of the average annual private school fee for a 500 meter reduction in distance. In contrast, price elasticities are low: -0.5 for girls and -0.2 for boys. Both distance and price elasticities are consistent with other estimates in the literature, but at odds with a belief among policy makers that school fees deter enrollment and participation in private schooling. Using the estimates from the demand model we show that the existence of a low fee private school market is of great value for households in our sample, reaching about 25% to 100% of monthly per capita income for those choosing private schools. A voucher policy that reduces the fees of private schools to $0 (from an average annual fee of $13) increases private school enrollment by 7.5 percentage points for girls and 4.2 percentage points for boys. Our demand estimates and policy simulations, which account for key challenges specifi c to the schooling market, help situate ongoing debate around private schools within a larger framework of consumer choice and welfare.
    Keywords: Education, School Choice, Pakistan, Characteristics Model
    JEL: I20 I21
    Date: 2016–05–13
  2. By: Aithal, Sreeramana; Rao, Srinivas; Kumar, Suresh
    Abstract: Education has become competitive so as the educational institutions. In order to survive the competition, institutions have to improve the quality of their services. Changes in culture, aspiration and levels of skills required in securing employment for students, force higher education institutions today to rework on their educational models and add value to each and every aspect of their service. Innovations and best practices serve to enhance quality and add value. Srinivas Institute of Management Studies (SIMS), which combines technology, management and social service education has identified and implemented innovations and best practices to differentiate itself among the competitors and to add value in its educational services. In this paper, we have discussed innovations, small and big, developed indigineously and implemented during last four years. They are broadly classified under six key aspects namely "curricular aspects, teaching-learning and evaluation, research, consultancy and extension, infrastructure and learning resources, student support and progression, and governance, leadership, and management". The paper also contains some of the institutional and individual faculty best practices having visible impact on the quality of higher education imparted by the institution. The best practices concern admission, fees, attendance, teaching, performance, skill building, employability, student involvement, collective learning, value addition, ensuring transparency, information dissemination etc. Finally two institutional best practices are elaborated with its aim of practice, underlying principles and concepts, particular contextual features or challenging issues that have had to be addressed in designing and implementing the practice, and its implementation, including its uniqueness in Indian higher education, evidence of success, identifying the problems encountered and resources required to implement the practice.
    Keywords: Best practices in higher education, Innovations in Higher education
    JEL: M1
    Date: 2015–02
  3. By: Aithal, Sreeramana; V.T., Shailashree; Kumar, Suresh
    Abstract: Private Universities recently introduced in Indian educational system, have enhanced the scope of innovations in Higher education in India due to their autonomy and zeal to excel. In this paper, we have analyzed its merits and limitations using the analyzing framework called ABCD technique. For these six determinant issues which relate to the functioning of a University has been chosen. These are Organizational aspects, Students Progression, Faculty development, Societal & other stakeholders issues, Governance, Leadership, and Issues on Innovations and Best Practices. Further, four key issues were identified under each of these and critical constituent elements under these factors are worked out. Through this analysis, 192 critical constituent elements which satisfy the success of a private university have been explored.
    Keywords: ABCD analysis framework, Opportunities for Private universities, Challenges for private universities.
    JEL: M1 M10
    Date: 2016–04
  4. By: Bilal Barakat (Vienna Institute for Demography); Jesus Crespo Cuaresma (Department of Economics, Vienna University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: We propose the use of methods based on the Shapley value to assess the fact that private returns to lower levels of educational attainment should incorporate prospective returns from higher attainment levels, since achieving primary education is a necessary condition to enter secondary and tertiary educational levels. We apply the proposed adjustment to a global dataset of private returns to different educational attainment levels and find that the corrected returns to education imply a large shift of returns from tertiary to primary schooling in countries at all income levels.
    Keywords: Returns to education, Shapley value
    JEL: I26 I25 C71
    Date: 2016–06
  5. By: Paweł Strawiński (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Paulina Broniatowska (Warsaw School of Economics); Aleksandra Majchrowska (University of Lodz)
    Abstract: Vocational education in upper-secondary school has been perceived for many years as being inferior to general education, in spite of the fact that vocational education graduates enjoy a faster transition from school to work and are more likely to have a permanent first job. As a consequence of the reform of the educational system that took place in Poland in 1999, the enrolment ratio in vocational schools has fallen dramatically. The empirical evidence in the literature on the returns to vocational education is limited. This study fills that gap and looks into wage premium for workers with vocational education in Poland before and after the reform of the educational system. The relative returns to different types and levels of education were estimated using a standard Mincerian wage equation framework. The empirical analysis concentrated on a comparison of the relative benefits of vocational and non-vocational education. The results showed that vocational education graduates have, on average, a higher probability of finding a permanent job, and secondary-vocational education graduates receive higher earnings than secondary general education graduates in Poland. However, wages of vocational education graduates are lower than those of secondary general education. In spite of this, the decreasing number of vocational education graduates post-reform has contributed to reducing this gap.
    Keywords: educational economics, wages, wage differentials, returns to education, vocational education, general education, tertiary education, Poland
    JEL: I21 I26 J24 J31
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Pamela Lenton (Department of Economics, University of Sheffield); Lu Yin (Department of Economics, University of Sheffield)
    Abstract: The education policies introduced in the rural areas of China following the end of the ‘cultural revolution’ resulted in an improved provision of educational institutions along with better quality teachers which increased the educational attainment of young rural migrants and raised their career aspirations. This paper uses data from the Rural-Urban Migration in China (RUMiC) dataset for 2009, in a novel examination of the wage returns to schooling for young and old generations of rural-migrant and urban workers in order to ascertain whether the improved schooling has led to better outcomes. Another novel feature is the examination of the wage returns to over-, required and under-education. We find evidence that the wage return to schooling for young rural-to-urban migrants is larger than that for older migrant workers and that the return to schooling for young urban residents is lower than that of older workers. There is evidence of young migrants receiving a wage premium where they are overeducated for their job.
    Keywords: Human Capital; Rural-to-Urban Migration; Discrimination; Wage returns
    JEL: I26 J24 J71
    Date: 2016–06
  7. By: Simona, Comi; Marco, Gui; Federica, Origo; Laura, Pagani; Gianluca, Argentin;
    Abstract: We provide evidence on whether ICT-related teaching practices affect student achievement. We use a unique student-teacher dataset containing variables on very specific uses of computer and ICT by teachers matched with data on national standardized tests for 10th grade students. Our identification strategy relies on a within-student between-subject estimator and on a rich set of teacher’s controls. We find that computer-based teaching methods increase student performance if they help the teacher to obtain material to prepare lectures, if they channel the transmission of teaching material, if they increase students’ awareness in ICT use and if they enhance communication. Instead, we find a negative impact of practices requiring an active role of the students in classes using ICT. Our findings suggest that the effectiveness of ICT at school depends on the actual practice that teachers make of it and on their ability to integrate ICT into the teaching process.
    Keywords: Teaching practices, Student performance, ICT, Between-subject variation
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2016–06–10
  8. By: Schwientek, Caroline
    Abstract: This paper investigates determinants and wage effects of educational mismatch for both natives and immigrants in Germany. Using the GSOEP panel data from 1991 to 2013, I find that conditional on educational attainment immigrants face a higher incidence of overeducation compared to their native counterparts. Among immigrants German language skills as well as education and experience gained in Germany are negatively correlated with the risk of overeducation. Results from the wage regression indicate that required education is equally rewarded for natives and immigrants, whereas immigrants suffer from a higher penalty from overeducation, but face a lower penalty from undereducation.
    Keywords: educational mismatch,wages,immigrants
    JEL: I21 I26 J15 J24 J31
    Date: 2016
  9. By: M. Caridad Araujo (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Pedro Carneiro (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London); Yyannú Cruz-Aguayo (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Norbert Schady (Institute for Fiscal Studies)
    Abstract: We assigned two cohorts of kindergarten students, totaling more than 24,000 children, to teachers within schools with a rule that is as-good-as-random. We collected data on children at the beginning of the school year, and applied 12 tests of math, language and executive function (EF) at the end of the year. All teachers were filmed teaching for a full day, and the videos were coded using a wellknown classroom observation tool, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (or CLASS). We find substantial classroom effects: A one-standard deviation increase in classroom quality results in 0.11, 0.11, and 0.07 standard deviation higher test scores in language, math, and EF, respectively. Teacher behaviors, as measured by the CLASS, are associated with higher test scores. Parents recognize better teachers, but do not change their behaviors appreciably to take account of differences in teacher quality.
    Keywords: Teacher quality, learning, test scores
    JEL: I24 I25
    Date: 2016–03–03
  10. By: Christian, Basteck; Marco, Mantovani
    Abstract: We take school admission mechanisms to the lab to test whether the manipulable Boston mechanism disadvantages students of lower cognitive ability and whether this leads to ability segregation across schools. Results show this is the case: lower ability participants receive a lower average payoff and are over-represented at the worst school. Under the strategy-proof Deferred Acceptance mechanism, payoff differences between high and low ability participants are reduced, and distributions by ability across schools are harmonized. Hence, we find support for the argument that a move to strategy-proof mechanisms would “level the playing field†. However, we document a trade-off between equality and efficiency in the choice of school admission mechanisms since average payoffs are larger under Boston than under Deferred Acceptance.
    Keywords: laboratory experiment, school choice, strategy-proofness, cognitive ability, mechanism design
    JEL: C78 C91 D82 I24
    Date: 2016–06–21
  11. By: Aithal, Sreeramana; Kumar, Suresh
    Abstract: As part of imparting quality higher education for undergraduate and postgraduate students, Srinivas Institute of Management Studies (SIMS) developed an education service model for integrated academic support known as Srinivas Integrated Model. Backed by the presumption that knowledge is power and information is fundamental to knowledge building and knowledge sharing, this model is aimed to provide information support to students for improved academic performance. Information on the college and courses in the form of prospectus, information on curriculum, rules and regulations through college calendar, individual course wise pamphlets on value additions through certificate programmes, workshops and skill development programmes, teaching plan booklet enabling a student to forecast the outline of the curriculum, printed study material simplified to gain understanding and straight entry into the curriculum, provision to download examination related information through college website, and opportunity to get information related to individual attendance, examination marks, instructions from the faculty etc. through the unique college intranet service called Srinivas Information and Management System, are all integral part of this information system model. This paper discusses Srinivas Integrated Model as a best practice of regularizing and managing a complex network of communication traffic using a combination of print, digital and IT enabled techniques and how it serves academic support.
    Keywords: Best practice in higher education, Srinivas Integrated Model
    JEL: I2 I23
    Date: 2016–05
  12. By: Korthals, Roxanne (General Economics 2 (Macro))
    Abstract: Previous literature has found inconsistent effects of tracking students in secondary school on student performance using various ways to alleviate the endogeneity in tracking. Sociological literature argues that the threat for war with and invasion by the French around the 1800s induced European countries to introduce mass public education systems. I use this theory to estimate the effect of tracking on student performance in Europe, instrumenting tracking by the political pressure caused by the Napoleonic Wars. The relation between political pressure by Napoleon and tracking is strong and leads in the second stage to a consistent positive effect of tracking on student performance. One important limitation of this analysis is that it is reasonable to assume that political pressure from Napoleon influenced many facets of European countries.
    Keywords: tracking, educational policy, PISA
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2016
  13. By: Philip Oreopoulos; Reuben Ford
    Abstract: Recent research suggests that the college application process itself prevents access. This paper reports results from a large school-based experiment in which application assistance is incorporated into the high school curriculum for all graduating seniors at low-transition schools. Over three workshops, students were guided to pick programs of interest that they were eligible for, apply for real, and complete the financial aid application. The goal was to create a college option for exiting students to make the transition easier and more salient. On average, the program increased application rates from 64 to 78 per cent. College enrolment increased the following school year by 5.2 percentage points with virtually all of this increase in two-year community college programs. The greatest impact was for students who were not taking any university-track courses in high school: the application rate for these students increased by 24 percentage points with a nine per cent increase in two-year college enrolment. A second experiment was conducted two years later to explore several variations of the program. Offering personal assistance without waiving application fees had a negligible or even negative impact on applications and enrollment. Using laptops in homeroom classrooms instead of sending students to computer labs while combining the initial 2 workshops into one full-morning session increased application rates. However, subsequent enrollment effects were negligible. We provide some evidence consistent with the possibility that decreased guidance in choosing eligible programs was responsible for the second-experiment's decline in enrollment impacts.
    JEL: I20 I23 I28 J20
    Date: 2016–06
  14. By: Steven Glazerman; Dallas Dotter
    Abstract: In this paper, we estimate school-choice preferences revealed by the rank-ordered lists submitted by more than 22,000 applicants to a citywide lottery for more than 100 traditional and charter public schools in Washington, DC.
    Keywords: school choice, segregation, lottery, education, district of Columbia, market signals
    JEL: I
  15. By: Clifford Afoakwah; Fatima Dauda
    Abstract: People with disabilities in Ghana and other developing economies are discriminated against in many fundamental elements of human empowerment such as education and employment. While some employers are unwilling to hire, the educational systems do not provide enabling environment for a good education. This paper explores employment and educational attainment among people with disabilities. Although, people with disabilities have low employment probabilities, our finding suggests that education increases their chance of employment. Moreover, while women with disabilities are dually disadvantaged in the labour market, educational facilities far from home lead to improvement in disabled children.s educational achievements.
    Keywords: people with disabilities, paid employment, basic education, Ghana
    Date: 2016
  16. By: OECD
    Abstract: Early childhood education and care programmes (ECEC) have become more accessible in recent years, with high enrolment rates in both early childhood educational development and preprimary education. The educational results of students at the age of 15 may be partially explained by attendance at pre-primary education, which sharply decreases the likelihood of low performance in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Pre-primary education can play a strong role in promoting equality at an early age, particularly by targeting disadvantaged groups such as first- and second-generation immigrants. Assuring and monitoring the quality of programmes is key to guaranteeing that early childhood education and care has a positive impact on both equity and performance in education.
    Date: 2016–06–16
  17. By: Aithal, Sreeramana
    Abstract: Institutional Ranking in higher educational institutions became common practice and business schools are highly benefited by announcing worldwide ranks based on various ranking criteria. Ranking at higher educational institutions which have already accredited with minimum required infrastructure, innovative curriculum design, should depend on their ability to produce new knowledge as the output of the institutions. Based on the postulates of ABC model of institutional performance measurement, we have devised a model of improving the higher educational output. This model contains the idea on how to involve students and faculty members in improving organizational research output. By means of adopting a curriculum model of research focussed curriculum design and adoption in which students are made to work on industry projects and research projects in each semester along with the study of core and elective subjects, and by means formulating strategy on active involvement of faculty members in intensive research, we have developed a method of increasing research performance and hence enhancing the research productivity in higher educational institutions. We have analysed this model by considering our recent experience and efforts of increasing the research productivity at Srinivas Institute of Management Studies as the case example. The strategies to be followed to increase the number of research publications and subject book publications by effective faculty involvement and business case development by student involvement are discussed.
    Keywords: Higher educational institutional performance, Research productivity, Institutional productivity, Strategy to improve institutional productivity.
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2016–05
  18. By: Christian, Basteck; Marco, Mantovani;
    Abstract: Unsophisticated applicants can be at a disadvantage under manipulable and hence strategically demanding school choice mechanisms. Disclosing information on applications in previous admission periods makes it easier to asses the chances of being admitted at a particular school, and hence may level the playing field between applicants who differ in their cognitive ability. We test this conjecture experimentally for the widely used Boston mechanism. Results show that, absent this information, there exist a substantial gap between subjects of higher and lower cognitive ability, resulting in significant differences in payoffs, and ability segregation across schools. The treatment is effective in improving applicants’ strategic performance. However, because both lower and higher ability subjects improve when they have information about past demands, the gap between the two groups shrinks only marginally, and the instrument fails at levelling the playing field.
    Keywords: laboratory experiment, school choice, strategy-proofness, cognitive ability, mechanism design
    JEL: C78 C91 D82 I24
    Date: 2016–06–16
  19. By: OECD
    Abstract: Some 65% of socio-economically advantaged students reported that they know well or have often heard of the concept of quadratic function, on average across OECD countries; but only 43% of disadvantaged students so reported. On average across OECD countries, the 20% of students who are most exposed to pure mathematics tasks (equations) score, on the PISA mathematics test, the equivalent of almost two school years ahead of the 20% of students who are least exposed. Exposure to simple applied mathematics tasks is much less strongly associated with better performance. About 19% of the performance difference between socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students can be attributed to differences in familiarity with mathematics. In Austria and Korea, more than 30% of the performance gap between these two groups of students is related to differences in familiarity with mathematics. In other words, there are clear indications that disadvantaged students systematically receive mathematics instruction of lower quality than advantaged students.
    Date: 2016–06–20
  20. By: Gianko Michailidis (Universitat de Barcelona); Concepció Patxot (Universitat de Barcelona); Meritxell Solé Juvés (Universitat de Barcelona)
    Abstract: In this paper we examine the effect of the demographic transition on public education, pension spending and the interaction between them. In particular, we investigate the theoretical prediction that the structure of PAYG pension systems, alongside population ageing, offers incentives for the working-age generation to invest in the public education of the young in order to "reap" the benefits of their higher productivity in the future, translated into higher income tax/contributions. The empirical evidence resulting from the application of the fixed effects approach to panel data for OECD countries shows that the increasing share of elderly people has non-linear effects on both retirement and education spending. The former suggests that political pressure to increase benefits turns out to have no effect when the ageing process is strong enough to compromise the fiscal budget and the latter indicates a certain degree of generational conflict. Nevertheless, our results suggest that a positive link arises when examining the connection between education and pensions by using the projected old dependency ratio. A more detailed analysis of total education expenditure shows that only the non-mandatory educational levels benefit from the future population ageing.
    Keywords: Public Finance, Population ageing, Education, Pension Politics, PAYG, Macroeconomics.
    JEL: H52 H53 H55 I22 J11
    Date: 2016
  21. By: Gershenson, Seth (American University)
    Abstract: Whether or not value-added models should control for contemporaneous student absences is theoretically ambiguous, as such absences are only partly outside of teachers' control. Teachers often feel strongly that value-added models should account for student attendance, and many districts' value-added models condition on lagged student absences as a result. Using matched teacher-student administrative data from a state-wide longitudinal data system, this note investigates the practical importance of this modeling decision for value-added measures of teacher effectiveness (VAMs). This is done by comparing VAM-based rankings of teacher effectiveness generated by value-added models that either control for current absences, control for lagged absences, or exclude student absences altogether. Regardless of how between-school differences are accounted for, VAM-based rankings of teacher effectiveness are insensitive to how, and whether, student absences enter the value-added model's conditioning set. Spearman Rank Correlations are always larger than 0.99 for both math and reading VAMs, suggesting that whether or not value-added models control for annual student absences is a relatively unimportant modeling decision, at least in the context of self-contained primary school classroom teachers. These results are consistent with recent research suggesting that simply conditioning on lagged achievement yields approximately unbiased VAMs. Moreover, these findings suggest that controlling for student absences in teacher evaluation systems' value-added models is a relatively inexpensive way to increase teacher buy-in.
    Keywords: teacher effectiveness, value added models, student absences, teacher evaluation
    JEL: I2
    Date: 2016–05
  22. By: Sawada, Yasuyuki; Aida, Takeshi; Griffen, Andrew; Kazianga, Harounan; Kozuka, Eiji; Nogushi, Haruko; Todo, Yasuyuki
    Abstract: We estimate the short-term impacts of a school-based management program in Burkina Faso in a range of outcomes that include education, voluntary contribution to public goods, participation in informal saving groups, and health. Evaluated at the control average, COGES increases the voluntary contributions to public goods by 15.90%. Participation in informal saving groups increases by 0.016 percent for the lowest income group, and enrollment in school increases by 7.1%. Overall the findings are consistent with the observation that social capital, strengthened by SBM, plays a critical complementary role in correcting financial market failures in low income economies. The results also demonstrate that impact evaluation of SBM that focus only on education are likely to undervalue the overall effects of SBMS.
    Keywords: School Based Management, Public Goods, Education, Informal Saving Groups, Health, Developing Countries, Burkina Faso, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, International Development, Public Economics, O12, D14, H41, I1, I2,
    Date: 2016–05–30
  23. By: Astebro , Thomas B; Braguinsky , Serguey; Braunerhjelm , Pontus; Broström , Anders
    Abstract: Should society encourage scientists at universities to become entrepreneurs? Using data on U.S. university-employed scientists with a Ph.D. in STEM disciplines leaving their university to become entrepreneurs during 1993-2006 and similar data from Sweden we show evidence suggesting that owning your idea outright (the “Professor’s Privilege”) rather than sharing ownership with your university employer (the Bayh-Dole regime) is strongly positively associated with the rate of academic entrepreneurship but not with apparent economic gain for the entrepreneur. Further analysis show that in both countries there is too much entry into entrepreneurship, and selection from the bottom of the ability distribution among scientists. Targeted policies aimed at screening entrepreneurial decisions by younger, tenure-track academics may therefore produce more benefits for society than general incentives.
    Keywords: Academic entrepreneurship; economic incentives; Bayh-Dole; Professor’s Privilege
    JEL: J20 L26 N32
    Date: 2016–02
  24. By: Smriti Sharma; Christophe Nordman
    Abstract: We assess the effect of female bargaining power on the share of educational expenditures in the household budget in India. We augment the collective household model by endogenizing female bargaining power and use a three-stage least squares approach to simultaneously estimate female bargaining power, per capita household expenditure and budget share of education.Our key results are: (i) female bargaining power has a positive and significant effect on the household budget share of educational spending; (ii) this bargaining power is associated positively (negatively) with education spending in urban (rural) areas; (iii) female bargaining power has a uniformly positive effect on educational expenditure of girls in urban areas among all caste groups, but the observed negative association in rural areas appears to be driven by one of the lower caste groups; and (iv) a pro-male bias exists in educational spending for all age groups, with some differentiation by location and caste.
    Keywords: Collective bargaining, Education, Feminist economics, Households
    Date: 2016
  25. By: Philipp Lergetporer (Ifo Institute, University of Munich, Germany; CESifo); Guido Schwerdt (Department of Economics, University of Konstanz, Germany; CESifo, IZA); Katharina Werner (Ifo Institute, University of Munich, Germany); Ludger Woessmann (Ifo Institute, University of Munich, Germany; CESifo, IZA, and CAGE)
    Abstract: The electorates’ lack of information about the extent of public spending may cause misalignments between voters’ preferences and the size of government. We devise a series of representative survey experiments in Germany that randomly provide treatment groups with information on current spending levels. Results show that such information strongly reduces support for public spending in various domains from social security to defense. Data on prior information status on school spending and teacher salaries shows that treatment effects are strongest for those who initially underestimated spending levels, indicating genuine information effects rather than pure priming effects. Information on spending requirements also reduces support for specific education reforms. Preferences on spending across education levels are also malleable to information.
    Keywords: Public spending, Information, Preferences, Education spending, Survey experiment
    JEL: H11 D83 D72 H52 I22 P16
    Date: 2016–05–31
  26. By: Jacopo, Bonan; Laura, Pagani;
    Abstract: We analyse the impact of a junior farmer field school (JFFS) project in Northern Uganda on students' agricultural knowledge and practices. Assuming that children are induced to transmit their newly acquired knowledge to their parents and guardians, we also test for the presence of spillover effects at household level. The empirical analysis is based on two sources of panel data: a household survey and a dataset containing results of a test on agricultural knowledge administered to treated and control students before and after the program by the project’s staff. We use matching difference-in-differences estimators, comparing the key outcomes across matched samples of treated and non-treated groups before and after the project intervention. We find that the program had positive effects on students’ agricultural knowledge and adoption of good practices and that it produced some spillover effects in terms of improvements of household agricultural knowledge and food security. However, we find no impact on the propensity to introduce new agricultural good practices and on household agricultural production. Overall, our results point to the importance of adapting the basic principles of farmer field schools to children through junior farmer field schools, as they could improve short and long-term food security and well-being of both children and their households.
    Keywords: junior farmer field schools, agricultural extension, Uganda
    JEL: O13 O22 O55 C93
    Date: 2016–05–31
  27. By: Martin Kniepert (Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna)
    Abstract: Over the last few years, demands from student organisations for pluralism in teaching economics gave quite a stir to neoclassical economics; at least in the media, and at some selected universities. On the other hand, university teachers show considerable inertia. Sometimes they are pointing out that economic theory was not as streamlined as asserted. But mostly they insist on mainstream teaching as a basic prerequisite, possibly to be complemented later by some elective courses. While a dispute about the adequacy of this will certainly continue, it has to be stated that the typical syllabus for economics as a minor subject leaves the respective students with a very narrow notion of economics. This paper elaborates on this aspect. It outlines specific restrictions and requirements an economics-minor syllabus has to comply with in order to have a realistic chance for a wider dissemination at universities. Taking account of this, it is shown that pluralist intentions are covered to a considerable extent by the broader perspective of (new) institutional economics as developed by North, Williamson, Ostrom, and others. At the same time it allows for a coherent and commonly shared body of economic knowledge. To circumstantiate this, this paper resorts to important steps in the history of economic thinking, to its epistemological foundations, as well as to rather practical needs of mutual recognition of exams.
    Keywords: : Institutional Economics, economics-minor syllabus
    JEL: A2 B0 B5
    Date: 2016–06
  28. By: Claude Diebolt; Ralph Hippe
    Abstract: Human capital is an important factor for economic and social development, as has been underlined by recent theoretical models. A range of contributions has focused on the international evolution of human capital over the last decades and beyond. However, the regional dimension of human capital in Europe remains insufficiently explored, particularly in a long-run perspective. For this reason, this paper addresses this gap in the literature and highlights the regional evolution of human capital in Europe between 1850 and 2010 by using numeracy, literacy and educational attainment proxies. The results show that intranational inequalities in human capital have always been important and are in a number of cases more important than international differences.
    Keywords: Human Capital, Regional Development, Inequality, Europe.
    JEL: N33 N93 O18
    Date: 2016
  29. By: Margaret Burchinal; Yange Xue; Anamaire Auger; Hsiao-Chuan Tien; Andrew Mashburn; Elizabeth W. Cavadel; Ellen Peisner-Feinberg
    Abstract: To address the issues regarding quality thresholds, features, and dosage identified in the literature review, secondary data analyses were conducted using data from eight large-scale ECE research projects.
    Keywords: quality thresholds, early education, early care, methods
    JEL: I

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