nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒06‒18
twenty papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Innovations in Experimental Learning – A Study of World Top Business Schools By Aithal, Sreeramana
  2. Italian school principals’ managerial behaviors and students’ test scores: an empirical analysis By Tommaso Agasisti; Patrizia Falzetti; Mara Soncin
  3. Peer Quality and the Academic Benefits to Attending Better Schools By Mark Hoekstra; Pierre Mouganie; Yaojing Wang
  4. Methods and Approaches for Employability Skill Generation in Higher Educational Institutions By Aithal, Sreeramana; Kumar, Suresh; Kumari, Pavithra
  5. The Short-Term Impact of Crime on School Enrollment and School Choice: Evidence from El Salvador By Juan Nelson Martinez Dahbura
  6. Analysis of Choice Based Credit System in Higher Education By Aithal, Sreeramana; Kumar, Suresh
  7. How English domiciled graduate earnings vary with gender, institution attended, subject and socio-economic background By Jack Britton; Lorraine Dearden; Neil Shephard; Anna Vignoles
  8. Study of Annual Research Productivity in Indian Top Business Schools By Aithal, Sreeramana
  9. Institutional Governance, Education and Growth By Jellal, Mohamed; Bouzahzah, Mohamed; Asongu, Simplice
  10. “Retaking a course in Economics: Innovative methodologies to simulate academic performance in large groups” By Gemma Abió; Manuela Alcáñiz; Marta Gómez-Puig; Gloria Rubert; Mónica Serrano; Alexandrina Stoyanova; Montserrat Vilalta-Bufí
  11. College Attrition and the Dynamics of Information Revelation By Peter Arcidiacono; Esteban Aucejo; Arnaud Maurel; Tyler Ransom
  12. Gender bias in education during conflict Evidence from Assam By Prakarsh Singh; Sutanuka Roy
  13. The wage premium from parents’ investments in the education of their children in Poland By Emilia Bedyk; Jacek Liwiński
  14. Non-Take-Up of Student Financial Help: A Microsimulation for Germany By Stefanie P. Herber; Michael Kalinowski
  15. Learning Through Team Centric Exercise & Key Point Pedagogy- An Effective Learning Model for Slow Learners in Social Work Higher Education Training By M. D., Pradeep; Aithal, Sreeramana
  16. Investment in Education: Private and Public Returns By Joshua Hall
  17. Cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills, and family background: Evidence from sibling correlations By Anger, Silke; Schnitzlein, Daniel D.
  18. A Day at the Museum: The Impact of Field Trips on Middle School Science Achievement By Emilyn Ruble Whitesell
  19. Quasi-experimental evidence on the effects of mother tongue-based education on reading skills and early labour market outcomes By Bethlehem A. Argaw
  20. Efectos del centro educativo secundario en las trayectorias estudiantiles de FCEA. Una aplicación del análisis de supervivencia By Santiago Burone; María Andrea Lado

  1. By: Aithal, Sreeramana
    Abstract: Innovations in higher education include improvements in existing pedagogies and developing new pedagogies based on the subject to be taught. Depending on the age, gender, regional background, the effective teaching and learning methods may be different. Business schools are providing higher education to improve the necessary skills of the student either to start new a business or to manage an existing business effectively by means of making effective decisions on a business problem by considering the business environments effectively. Experimental learning is a new pedagogy in business management learning method where students are exposed to real business problems and made them as part of decision-making team. Such exposure in real-world problems will improve the risk taking ability and the confidence of the students while becoming an entrepreneur after their graduation. Based on the success of experimental learning method introduced in many business schools, the method is becoming more and more popular and is finding a place in the pedagogy of many top level Business schools in the world. In this paper, we have made an empirical study on adopting experimental learning scenario in some identified top business schools in the world. We have collected information from the website of top 25 Business schools based on recently announced B-school ranking and studied their effort and results of such method adoption in a curriculum.
    Keywords: Innovations in higher education, Experimental learning in Business Schools, National institutional ranking framework, Factors affecting ranking framework.
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2016–05
  2. By: Tommaso Agasisti (Politecnico di Milano); Patrizia Falzetti (INVALSI); Mara Soncin (Politecnico di Milano)
    Abstract: This research investigates the impact of managerial practices implemented by Italian school principals on students’ outcomes. We use micro-data provided by the National Evaluation Committee for Education (INVALSI) for 2013/14 school year. Employing an educational production function, we regress a set of student and school’s characteristics, enriched by information from a questionnaire filled by school principals to estimate student’s score at grade 8 (last year of junior secondary school), also taking into account student’s prior achievement (at grade 6 – first year of junior secondary school). We find that the model well fits for student’s characteristics, while managerial practices tend to have positive effects, but low statistical significance. Stronger associations between management variables and test scores are detected for low-SES schools.
    Keywords: policy analysis, school principals, school managerial practices, Value Added Model
    JEL: I21 I28
  3. By: Mark Hoekstra; Pierre Mouganie; Yaojing Wang
    Abstract: Despite strong demand for attending high schools with better peers, there is mixed evidence on whether doing so improves academic outcomes. We estimate the cognitive returns to high school quality using administrative data on a high-stakes college entrance exam in China. To overcome selection bias, we use a regression discontinuity design that compares applicants barely above and below high school admission thresholds. Results indicate that while peer quality improves significantly across all sets of admission cutoffs, the only increase in performance occurs from attending Tier I high schools. Further evidence suggests that the returns to high school quality are driven by teacher quality, rather than peer quality or class size.
    JEL: I21 I24 I26 J24
    Date: 2016–06
  4. By: Aithal, Sreeramana; Kumar, Suresh; Kumari, Pavithra
    Abstract: The vision of any higher education institution is extension of opportunity to all aspirants of education, and expansion across all realms of knowledge. Keeping in line with this vision, institutions of higher education should ideally offer opportunity to take any course to eligible aspirant in any stream of study that it offers. The vision also encompasses a self reliant society where all people are educated and productively engaged, with the objective of creating academically empowered and ready-for-the-job professionals in diverse fields. To realize this curriculum should provide for building employability skills among students. It is widely agreed that curriculum per se and real job performance do not match and there is need to incorporate skill supplements to boost employability. This paper attempts to outline the measures undertaken to create employment preparedness among students at Srinivas Institute of Management Studies (SIMS), Mangalore.
    Keywords: Employability skill, Innovations in higher education,
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2015–06
  5. By: Juan Nelson Martinez Dahbura (Faculty of Economics, Keio University)
    Abstract: This research employs household survey data from El Salvador to evaluate the short-term impact of several measures of crime and a truce between gangs during 2012 on school enrollment and the choice between public and private education for individuals 7 to 22 years old in 2013. The results show that homicides, thefts, robberies and extortions are significantly associated with lower school enrollment and higher attendance to public schools among boys in several age brackets. A robust positive impact of homicide rates and school enrollment for girls under 15 years old, and a positive association between property crimes and the choice of private schools for older girls is observed, possibly reflecting selective investment choices of parents.
    JEL: D13 I24 I25
    Date: 2016–05–16
  6. By: Aithal, Sreeramana; Kumar, Suresh
    Abstract: The institutions of higher education are in need of an infusion of a new model of education in order to keep the curriculum in pace with changing environment which includes technology adoption, changing industry requirement, changing aspiration of students and changing expectations of society. It is expected that two models and two systems of higher education are going to get importance in this changing environment. The two models of higher education which are going to be relevant in future days are (1) Conventional classroom-based education model and (2) Technology supported online ubiquitous education model. The two higher education systems which are expected to be attractive to the learners are Choice Based Credit system and Competency based Credit system. University Grants Commission has come up with the Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) programme in which the students have a choice to choose from the prescribed courses, which are referred as core, elective or minor or soft skill courses and they can learn at their own pace and the entire assessment is graded based on a credit system. The basic idea is to look into the needs of the students so as to keep up-to-date with the development of higher education in India and abroad. CBCS aims to redefine the curriculum keeping pace with the liberalisation and globalisation in education. CBCS allows students an easy mode of mobility to various educational institutions spread across the world along with the facility of transfer of credits earned by students. In this paper, we have attempted to make a comparative analysis of "Choice Based Credit System" using SWOC analysis and ABCD analysis.
    Keywords: SWOC analysis, ABCD analysis, Choice Based Credit system, Higher education model
    JEL: I21 I23
    Date: 2016–05–19
  7. By: Jack Britton (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Lorraine Dearden (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies and Department of Quantitative Social Science Institute of Education, University of London); Neil Shephard (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Harvard University); Anna Vignoles (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute of Education)
    Abstract: This paper uses tax and student loan administrative data to measure how the earnings of English graduates around 10 years into the labour market vary with gender, institution attended subject and socioeconomic background. The English system is competitive to enter, with some universities demanding very high entrance grades. Students specialise early, nominating their subject before they enter higher education (HE). We find subjects like Medicine, Economics, Law, Maths and Business deliver substantial premiums over typical graduates, while disappointingly, Creative Arts delivers earnings which are roughly typical of non-graduates. Considerable variation in earnings is observed across diff erent institutions. Much of this is explained by student background and subject mix. Based on a simple measure of parental income, we see that students from higher income families have median earnings which are around 25% more than those from lower income families. Once we control for institution attended and subject chosen this premium falls to around 10%.
    Keywords: Graduate, Earnings, University, Higher Education
    Date: 2016–04–13
  8. By: Aithal, Sreeramana
    Abstract: Institutional Ranking in higher educational institutions became common practice and business schools are highly benefitted by announced ranks based on various ranking criterions. The ranking is usually announced based on the criterions like pedagogy, placement salary, research output, faculty-student ratio, international linkage, management of technology, infrastructural facilities etc. Recently, we have developed a model of calculating research productivity of higher educational institution based on calculating institutional research index and weighted research index. The institutional research productivity is calculated using a metric model called ABC model which consists of four institutional parameters identified as number of Articles published in peer reviewed journals (A), number of Books published (B), number of Case studies and/or Book Chapters (C) published, and the number of full-time Faculty members (F) in that higher education institution during a given time of observation. In this paper, we have used ABC model of institutional research productivity to calculate research productivity of some of the Indian top business schools. The publication data is collected from the institutional website for the year 2015. The research productivity of these institutions are determined and compared. Based on research productivity index, the Business Schools are re-ranked.
    Keywords: Business school ranking, Faculty productivity, Institutional productivity, Institutional publication index.
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2016–05
  9. By: Jellal, Mohamed; Bouzahzah, Mohamed; Asongu, Simplice
    Abstract: This study articulates the interaction between institutional governance, education and economic growth. Given the current pursuit of education policy reforms and knowledge economy around the world, it is of policy relevance to theoretically analyze the main mechanisms by which the macroeconomic impact of education on growth (and economic development) occurs. Our theoretical model demonstrates how incentives offered by the government affect human capital accumulation which ultimately engenders positive economic development externalities. We articulate two main channels through which education affects economic growth. The first channel highlights direct positive effect of educational quality on the incentive to accumulate human capital by individuals, which makes them more productive. The second channel appears in the explicit function of the economic growth rate. As a policy implication, we have shown that the growth rate depends on the rate of return on human capital or that this rate of return itself depends on the quality of governance, which further increases growth. As a result, institutional quality has a double dividend, which suggests considerable benefits to educational reforms.
    Keywords: Institutions, Human capital, Education, Growth
    JEL: H11 O15 O43
    Date: 2015–12
  10. By: Gemma Abió (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona); Manuela Alcáñiz (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona); Marta Gómez-Puig (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona); Gloria Rubert (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona); Mónica Serrano (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona); Alexandrina Stoyanova (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona); Montserrat Vilalta-Bufí (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: Students who have to retake courses at university are often not only low-achieving, but also unmotivated and lacking self-confidence. These problems may be accentuated in large groups of repeater students. In this context, the implementation of new teaching approaches to cater for their needs is a priority. This paper reports the experience of a teaching strategy based on the implementation of flipped classroom, team-based learning, and frequent testing methodologies in large groups of students retaking a subject. The study was carried out during the academic years 2013/14 and 2014/15 at the Faculty of Economy and Business, University of Barcelona (Spain). The results reflect a significant increase in the motivation and academic performance of these students, and validate the application of this strategy in large groups.
    Keywords: Teaching innovation; flipped classroom;team based learning; frequent testing; large groups; retake subjects; economics. JEL classification: A20; A22
    Date: 2016–04
  11. By: Peter Arcidiacono; Esteban Aucejo; Arnaud Maurel; Tyler Ransom
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role played by informational frictions in college and the workplace. We estimate a dynamic structural model of schooling and work decisions, where individuals have imperfect information about their schooling ability and labor market productivity. We take into account the heterogeneity in schooling investments by distinguishing between two- and four-year colleges, graduate school, as well as science and non-science majors for four-year colleges. Individuals may also choose whether to work full-time, part-time, or not at all. A key feature of our approach is to account for correlated learning through college grades and wages, whereby individuals may leave or re-enter college as a result of the arrival of new information on their ability and productivity. Our findings indicate that the elimination of informational frictions would increase the college graduation rate by 9 percentage points, and would increase the college wage premium by 32.7 percentage points through increased sorting on ability.
    JEL: C35 D83 J24
    Date: 2016–06
  12. By: Prakarsh Singh; Sutanuka Roy
    Abstract: Using a large-scale novel panel dataset (2005.14) on schools from the Indian state of Assam, we test for the impact of violent conflict on female students. enrollment rates. We find that a doubling of average killings in a district-year leads to a 13 per cent drop in girls. enrollment rate with school fixed effects.Additionally, results remain similar when using an alternative definition of conflict from a different dataset. Gender differential responses are more negative for lower grades, rural schools, poorer districts, and for schools run by local and private unaided bodies.
    Keywords: Education, Equality and inequality, Human capital, Social conflict
    Date: 2016
  13. By: Emilia Bedyk (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Jacek Liwiński (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to determine whether parents’ investments in the education of children in Poland have an impact on the wages of the latter in adulthood. To answer this question, an extended Mincer wage equation was estimated using OLS on the basis of data from the nationwide tracer survey of Polish graduates conducted in 2007. The results of the analysis show that parents’ investments in the education of their children have a strong, positive impact on the first earnings after the end of formal education. This relationship is observed when the investment is depicted with the education level of each parent, as well as when represented by the child’s participation in various extra-curricular activities. Furthermore, if any of the above measures of parents’ investment is included in the equation, the wage premium from formal education decreases. In particular, when both these measures of parents’ investments are included in the model, the tertiary education premium declines by about one quarter, while the secondary vocational education and secondary general education are no longer significant determinants of the graduates’ wages (as compared to basic vocational education).
    Keywords: investment in human capital, formal education, extra-curricular activities, wage premium, wage equation
    JEL: I26 J24
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Stefanie P. Herber; Michael Kalinowski
    Abstract: This paper estimates the percentage of students who do not take up their federal need-based student financial aid entitlements and sheds light on determinants of this behavior. Against the background that educational mobility in Germany islow although extensive student financial aid for needy students is available, it is crucial to know whether students assert their claims for student aid at all. To investigate non-take-up, we set up a microsimulation model for the German Socio-Economic Panel Study 2002–2013 and estimate the respective aid amounts students would have received, had they filed an application for need-based aid. The results indicate that about 40% of the eligible low-income students do not take up their entitlements. We employ instrumental variable techniques and a sample selection model to consider several potential explanatory factors for this behavior. Our results suggest that non-take-up is inversely related to the level of benefits, though the elasticity is rather low. Apart from that, a shorter expected duration of benefit receipt is related to a higher non-take-up rate, whereas the possibility to draw upon older siblings’ experience with completing the complex application for aid is associated with higher probabilities to claim. Moreover, we find robust evidence that significantly more students socialized in the former socialist East Germany choose to take up student aid than similar West German students. Finally, in line with behavioral economic theory, debt aversion of highly impulsive and impatient students is associated with higher rates of non-take-up.
    Keywords: Non-take-up of social benefits; welfare program participation; federal student aid; student loans; microsimulation; behavioral economics; debt aversion; self-control
    JEL: I22 I23 I24 I38
    Date: 2016
  15. By: M. D., Pradeep; Aithal, Sreeramana
    Abstract: Information collected by the human mind will be correlated with the aware concepts and skills to satisfy the desired purpose. Knowledge guides to assume, use, adopt and control both physical and societal changes. Application of knowledge encourages critical or experimental understanding to constitute wisdom. The potentiality and usage of knowledge depend on upon the utilization of information. Higher education institutions have to ensure transmission and dissemination of information among students who aspires to take up social work as their career. The postgraduate students should be oriented towards theoretical, ideological, legal, ethical and practical implications of each subject prescribed under their curriculum. Labour Legislation is very important subject for the Human Resource and Industrial Relation specialization students, who are willing to become HR professionals in corporate sectors. The subject comprises legal intricacies’ of welfare, wage, industrial relation, social security and environmental speculations for the institutionalized labour force in India hence, the subject seems to be difficult for the students who perceived their under-graduation in other than English medium. The teacher should make the teaching effective and interesting by adopting innovative pedagogy to facilitate learning in this subject. ‘Team Centric Exercise & Key Point Pedagogy’ a new learning Model for the slow learners in social work subjects is developed and presented in this research paper, named as ‘Pradeep consistent learning Model' which inter-link learning environment, pedagogy, and interest of learners thereby improve learning abilities of the average and slow learners consistently.
    Keywords: Information, Knowledge, Higher Education, Labour Legislation, Legal Intricacies, Pedagogy.
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2015–08
  16. By: Joshua Hall (West Virginia University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: There is a strong consensus among economists that formal education is an important determinant of individual earnings as well as economic growth. The importance of formal education has been magnified by recent economic trends underlying U.S. labor market demand for skilled workers. The following is an analysis of the importance of education to both the individuals acquiring education and of the benefits received by society resulting from increased educational attainment.
    Keywords: education, private returns, public returns
    Date: 2016–06
  17. By: Anger, Silke; Schnitzlein, Daniel D.
    Abstract: This paper estimates sibling correlations in cognitive and non-cognitive skills to evaluate the importance of family background for skill formation. Based on a large representative German dataset including IQ test scores and measures of non-cognitive skills, a restricted maximum likelihood model indicates a strong relationship between family background and skill formation. Sibling correlations in non-cognitive skills range from 0.22 to 0.46; therefore, at least one-fifth of the variance in these skills results from shared sibling-related factors. Sibling correlations in cognitive skills are higher than 0.50; therefore, more than half of the inequality in cognition can be explained by shared family background. Comparing these findings with those in the intergenerational skill transmission literature suggests that intergenerational correlations capture only part of the influence of family on children's cognitive and non-cognitive skills, as confirmed by decomposition analyses and in line with previous findings on educational and income mobility.
    Keywords: sibling correlations,family background,non-cognitive skills,cognitive skills,intergenerational mobility
    JEL: J24 J62
    Date: 2016
  18. By: Emilyn Ruble Whitesell
    Abstract: Field trips are an important feature of the United States’ education system, although in the current context of high-stakes tests and school accountability, many schools are shifting resources away from enrichment.
    Keywords: achievement, field trips/excursions, informal science, museum education, urban education
    JEL: I
  19. By: Bethlehem A. Argaw
    Abstract: Prior to the introduction of mother tongue-based education in 1994, the language of instruction for most subjects in Ethiopia's primary schools was the official language (Amharic)- the mother tongue of only one third of the population. This paper uses the variation in individual's exposure to the policy change across birth cohorts and mother tongues to estimate the effects of language of instruction on reading skills and early labour market outcomes. The results indicate that the reading skills of birth cohorts that gained access to mother tongue-based primary education after 1994 improved significantly by about 11 percentage points. The provision of primary education in mother tongue halved the reading skills gap between Amharic and non-Amharic mother tongue users. The improved reading skills seem to translate into gains in the labour market in terms of the skill contents of jobs held and the type of payment individuals receive for their work. An increase in school enrolment and enhanced parental educational investment at home are identified as potential channels linking mother-tongue instruction and an improvement in reading skills.
    Keywords: language of instruction, mother tongue, reading skills, labour market, policy evaluation
    Date: 2016
  20. By: Santiago Burone (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración.); María Andrea Lado (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración.)
    Abstract: Using microdata from cohorts of students who entered FCEA between the years 2002 and 2014, survival analysis is used with the aim of identify characteristics asociated to different students pathways. Different risk models are used following Scott and Kennedy (2005) and Arias and Dehon (2011), specially rewarding high school effects on the expected students pathways. The results show that once control variables are included, those students who have less probability of desertion are the ones who went to Montevideo Public High School Institutions, followed by the ones who went to Montevideo Private High School Institutions, the ones who did technological High School, the ones from Public High School not in Montevideo and the ones from Private High School not in Montevideo. The High School of procedence is it no significative to explain the completion of studies (getting a degree).
    Keywords: Education, Survival Analysis, Uruguay
    JEL: I20 I23
    Date: 2016–03

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