nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒06‒09
twenty-two papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Gender, institutions and educational achievement: a cross-country comparison By Helena Marques; Oscar Marcenaro-Gutiérrez; Luis Alejandro López-Agudo
  2. Does Learning Beget Learning Throughout Adulthood? Evidence from Employees' Training Participation By Kramer, Anica; Tamm, Marcus
  3. The Effect of a Compressed High School Curriculum on University Performance By Dörsam, Michael; Lauber, Verena
  4. Understanding student performance beyond traditional factors: Evidence from PISA By Rolando Avendaño; Felipe Barrera-Osorio; Sebastián Nieto Parra; Flora Vever
  5. The causal effects of an intensified curriculum on cognitive skills: Evidence from a natural experiment By Andrietti, Vincenzo
  6. The effect of locally hired teachers on school outcomes (the Dose response function estimation evidence from Kenya) By Ayako Wakano
  7. LATE for the Meeting: Gender, Peer Advising, and College Success By Ellis, Jimmy R.; Gershenson, Seth
  8. The Founding of an Urban Charter School: Three Years of Academic Growth and Key School Characteristics By Cleo Jacobs Johnson; Ava Madoff; Scott Richman; Matthew Johnson; Claudia Gentile
  9. Job Performance: Structural Modelling the Relationship of Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership By Nurul Hudani Md. Nawi; Redzuan Ma'rof; Balan Rathakrshnan; Rajiv Gandhi
  10. Features of Development of Regional Research and Innovation Systems (On the Example of Russia and Kazakhstan) By Kleeva, Lyudmila Petrovna; Kleev, Ivan Vladimirovitch; Nikitova, Anna; Krotov, Alexander Yurievitch
  11. Gainfully Employed? Assessing the Employment and Earnings of For-Profit College Students Using Administrative Data By Stephanie Riegg Cellini; Nicholas Turner
  12. Height and Cognition at Work: Labor Market Productivity in a Low Income Setting By Daniel LaFave; Duncan Thomas
  13. College Students on the Job Market and the Screening of Prospective Employers: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in China By Zhang, Jian; Li, Tao; Wang, Haigang
  14. An Update of the Returns to Education in Kenya: Accounting both endogeneity and sample selection biases By Kentaro Shimada; Zeba Khan; Suguru Mizunoya; Ayako Wakano
  15. Pi Day Equation for Politicians: Big Data Helps You Make Better Decisions By Paul Decker
  17. Knowledge shocks diffusion and the resilience of regional inequality By Lopez-Cermeño, Alexandra
  18. What determines fruit and vegetables intake of primary school children?- An analysis of personal and social determinants - By Haß, Julia; Hartmann, Hartmann
  20. Exports diversification and knowledge sharing from south-south and south-north economic cooperation: evidence from the Central and West Africa By Ndambendia, Houdou
  21. Reshaped for Higher Order Learning: Student Outcomes in the Redesign of an Undergraduate Macroeconomics Course By Josephson, Anna; DeBoer, Lawrence; Nelson, David; Zissimopoulos, Angelika
  22. Effectiveness of Food Subsidies in Raising Healthy Food Consumption: Public Distribution of Pulses in India By Chakrabarti, Suman; Avinash, Kishore; Devesh, Roy

  1. By: Helena Marques (Universitat de les Illes Balears); Oscar Marcenaro-Gutiérrez (Universitat de Málaga); Luis Alejandro López-Agudo (Universitat de Málaga)
    Abstract: An issue in the literature on educational production functions is the contribution of variables related to students’ lifestyles towards explaining the gender gap in terms of educational achievement. We intend to shed further light on this issue by means of empirical evidence based on international data from 22 countries. In order to carry out this research, we analyze the effect of a set of variables from different international surveys that allow the study of the potential country-level factors which could influence this gap. Our results show that it is essential to foster entrepreneurship attitudes among tertiary education students. On the contrary, until high school education years it could be counterproductive. It is also relevant to enhance girls’ self-confidence in business management abilities, as they show a higher average risk-aversion than boys and they are also more affected by a range of gender stereotypes.
    Keywords: gender, institutions, education, achievement, PISA
    JEL: J16 I21 B54
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Kramer, Anica (RWI); Tamm, Marcus (RWI)
    Abstract: Individuals with more years of education generally acquire more training later on in life. Such a relationship may be due to skills learned in early periods increasing returns to educational investments in later periods. This paper addresses the question whether the complementarity between education and training is causal. The identification is based on exogenous variation in years of education due to a reform of the schooling system and the buildup of universities. Results confirm that education has a significant impact on training participation during working life.
    Keywords: training, lifelong learning, returns to schooling
    JEL: I21 I24 I26 J24
    Date: 2016–05
  3. By: Dörsam, Michael; Lauber, Verena
    Abstract: A recent education reform in Germany reduced the duration of academic high school education by one year but left the curriculum, and total class time unchanged. We use a unique data set of university students to investigate the e ects of this reduction in years of schooling on academic achievements at the tertiary level. By exploiting variation in the implementation of the reform across school types over time, we isolate the reform e ect from cohort, state, and school type e ects. Our results suggest that the reform lowers the opportunity costs of schooling and facilitates an earlier labor market entry as we nd no detrimental e ects while students are one year younger on average.
    Keywords: School Duration,Academic Achievement,Difference-in-Differences,Germany
    JEL: I21 H52 C21
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Rolando Avendaño; Felipe Barrera-Osorio; Sebastián Nieto Parra; Flora Vever
    Abstract: This paper studies the linkages between schools’ inputs and students’ performance in Latin America. We exploit the richness of PISA 2012 questionnaires at the student and school level to study the association between a different set of inputs and students’ performance in mathematics. First, this research shows that students’ characteristics and their environment (i.e. sex, age and economic, social and cultural status of students and schools) explain close to 30% of the variation in education performance in Latin America, a higher percentage than in OECD and other economies which participated in PISA 2012. Second, after controlling for students’ characteristics and their environment, our results show that in Latin America, some non-traditional school inputs, such as the feedback provided by the principal to the teacher, weekly instructional time or the attitude and motivation of teachers, are associated with student performance, whereas more traditional inputs (e.g. school infrastructure, share of certified teachers and teacher qualifications) are not always related to better learning outcomes. These findings suggest that some pedagogical initiatives, which are also more cost-effective, could improve students’ performance in the region. Cet article étudie les liens entre les politiques en matière d’éducation et la performance des étudiants en Amérique latine. Nous exploitons la richesse de la base de données de PISA 2012 générée à partir des questionnaires soumis aux étudiants et aux écoles visant à analyser l'association entre certaines variables liées aux politiques éducatives avec la performance des élèves en mathématiques. Tout d'abord, cette recherche montre que les caractéristiques des élèves et leur environnement (sexe, âge et situation économique, sociale et culturelle des élèves et des écoles) expliquent près de 30% de la variation de la performance des étudiants en Amérique latine, un pourcentage plus élevé que dans les pays de l’OCDE et d'autres économies participant à PISA 2012. Deuxièmement, après avoir contrôlé les caractéristiques des étudiants et leur environnement, nos résultats montrent qu'en Amérique latine certaines politiques « non traditionnelles » pratiquées par certaines écoles, telles que les évaluations des enseignants réalisées par le principal, le temps d'enseignement hebdomadaire ou l'attitude et la motivation des enseignants, ont une influence sur la performance des élèves, alors que certaines politiques traditionnelles, telles que les infrastructures scolaires, la part des enseignants certifiés, les qualifications des enseignants n’en ont pas. Ces résultats suggèrent que des initiatives pédagogiques présentant un bon rapport en termes de coûts et d’efficacité peuvent être mises en oeuvre en Amérique latine pour améliorer la performance des élèves dans la région.
    Keywords: Latin America, secondary education, PISA, educational performance, Amérique latine, PISA, éducation secondaire
    JEL: H41 H52 I21 I25
    Date: 2016–05–18
  5. By: Andrietti, Vincenzo
    Abstract: This paper exploits a unique universal educational policy - implemented in most German states between 2001 and 2008 - that compressed the academic-track high school curriculum into a (one year) shorter time span, thereby increasing time of instruction and share of curriculum taught per grade. Using 2000-2012 PISA data and a quasi-experimental approach, I estimate the impacts of this intensified curriculum on cognitive skills. I find robust evidence that the reform improved, on average, the reading, mathematical, and scientific literacy skills acquired by academic-track ninth graders upon treatment. However, I also provide evidence that the reform widened the gap in student performance with respect to parental migration background and student ability. Finally, although the reform did not affect, on average, high school grade retention, I find that the latter increased for students with parental migration background. Taken together, these findings suggest that moving to a compressed high-school curriculum did not compromise and benefited, on average, students' cognitive skills. However, they also raise equity concerns that policy-makers should be aware of.
    Keywords: G8 reform,Intensified curriculum,Instruction time,Learning intensity,Cognitive skills,Academic-track high school,Grade retention,Remedial education
    JEL: I21 I28 D04
    Date: 2016–04–01
  6. By: Ayako Wakano (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: Do locally hired teachers benefit pupils f school achievements more than governmental employed teachers? In Republic of Kenya (below referred as Kenya), there are two types of teachers in public primary schools. One is those employed by the government and the other is those hired by the local school community, named gPTA teacher h. Though locally hired teachers are in general less qualified in terms of educational background and paid substantially lower than that of governmentally employed teachers, past randomized experiment results show that the marginal product in terms of test score is positive and significant when pupils are taught by PTA teachers (Duflo et al. 2012, and Bold et al., 2013). By using a nationally representative rich data set, with the Generalized propensity score matching method, the present study examines the effect of PTA teacher ratio (ratio of PTA teachers out of total number of teachers) on education outcome. The question of this study is gif PTA teachers have superior performance, proved by the Randomized Controlled trial in Kenya, should higher PTA teacher ratio in one school bring better educational outputs? h. With the nationally representative dataset containing rich educational school inputs as well as individual pupils f background and household information, this paper estimates the dose response function of school average outcomes. Provided that government teachers f allocation and school selection by the parents can be an endogenous to pupils f school outcomes, this paper utilizes the generalized propensity score method by Hirano and Imbens (2004) which enable us to estimate the function of the continuous treatment effect, PTA teacher ratio. The result consistently shows that the PTA teacher ratio affects school outcomes nonlinearly.
    Keywords: Continuous treatment, Generalized propensity score, Program evaluation
    JEL: C30 C32
    Date: 2016–05
  7. By: Ellis, Jimmy R. (American University); Gershenson, Seth (American University)
    Abstract: Many male and first-generation college goers struggle in their first year of postsecondary education. Mentoring programs have been touted as a potential solution to help such students acclimate to college life, yet causal evidence on the impact of such programs, and the factors that influence participation in them, is scant. This study leverages a natural experiment in which peer advisors (PA) were quasi-randomly assigned to first-year university students to show that: (i) male students were significantly more likely to voluntarily meet their assigned PA when the PA was also male and (ii) these compliers were significantly more likely to persist into the second year of postsecondary schooling. We find no effect of being assigned to a same-sex PA on female students' use of the PA program, nor do we find any evidence that the PA program affected subsequent academic performance (GPAs).
    Keywords: higher education, peer advising, mentoring, gender gap, retention, demographic mismatch
    JEL: I21 I23 I28
    Date: 2016–05
  8. By: Cleo Jacobs Johnson; Ava Madoff; Scott Richman; Matthew Johnson; Claudia Gentile
    Abstract: After years of operating programs focused on improving education in Kansas City, Kauffman Foundation leaders decided to establish charter school. The path they followed and the lessons they learned may be of interest to those working to found and/or improve charter schools.
    Keywords: Kauffman, Charter School, Academic growth, education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2016–03–16
  9. By: Nurul Hudani Md. Nawi (University Malaysia Sabah); Redzuan Ma'rof (Universiti Putra Malaysia); Balan Rathakrshnan (Universiti Malaysia Sabah); Rajiv Gandhi (National Institute of Youth Development)
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the effects of emotional intelligence and the impact of transformational leadership behaviour towards job performance. Sample of the study was comprised of 306 (Male =132; Female =174) public school personnel as leaders in their respective environments, such as principal, senior administrative assistant, senior assistant student affairs (HEM), senior assistant curriculum, the heads of the four departments set by the Ministry of Education i.e. Heads of Humanities and Religion, Science and Math, English, and Engineering & vocational as well as members of general committee from High Performance Schools (SBT) in Malaysia. Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI), Transformational Leadership Behaviour (Multi-factor leadership questionnaire) (MLQ) and job performance were used to measure EI, transformational leadership and job performance accordingly. The structural equation modelling (SEM, a multivariate technique, via Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) computer software version 20.0 was utilised to empirically test and estimate the hypothesised relationship between constructs. Results revealed that emotional intelligence is positively related to transformational leadership behaviour, and transformational leadership behaviour has a significant and positive relationship with job performance. Among the two predictors, transformational leadership was found to have a greater direct impact on job performance and exist direct impact of emotional intelligence was found in this empirical analysis on job performance. On a practical note, the assessment of psychological constructs in school setting e.g.; EQ and leadership behaviour could possibly assist in enhancing the work performances in delivering huge benefits to the society especially in the educational contexts. Finding of the present research can help to improve overall organizational behaviour and productivity resulting in optimum service delivery to the stakeholders within educational system in Malaysia.
    Keywords: Emotional intelligence, personality traits, leadership behaviour, job performance, educator leader.
  10. By: Kleeva, Lyudmila Petrovna (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Kleev, Ivan Vladimirovitch (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Nikitova, Anna (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Krotov, Alexander Yurievitch (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of regional research and educational facilities for the development of Russia and Kazakhstan. Revealed their negative impact on the development of depressed regions, and this applies not only underdeveloped complexes Kostroma (Russian Federation) and Kyzylorlinskoy (Republic of Kazakhstan) regions, but also a well-developed scientific and educational complex in Irkutsk region. Research has shown that this paradox is due to the fact that the development of science and education in the region is associated not only with all the elements of regional research and innovation system (including research and development, education, innovation infrastructure, real production and regional governments), but and with the elements of research and development and education of a higher level: the national economy, and even megaekonomiki. Because communication within the spheres of science and education are professional, they're pretty close. Therefore, in the case where there is no effective system of functioning of the regional research and innovation system as a whole, the achievements of science and education sector (skilled workers) as a result of professional contacts within the framework of science and education leave the region, reducing its capacity, and are used in other regions and countries. The findings make it possible to generate proposals for a regional research and innovation policy.
    Keywords: Russia, Kazakhstan, depressed regions, development, innovation
    Date: 2016–04–05
  11. By: Stephanie Riegg Cellini; Nicholas Turner
    Abstract: We draw on population-level administrative data from the U.S. Department of Education and the Internal Revenue Service to quantify the impact of for-profit college attendance on the employment and earnings of over 1.4 million students. We characterize both the within-student earnings effects and joint distributions of earnings effects and increases in student debt. Our descriptive analysis of degree-seeking students suggests that on average associate’s and bachelor’s degree students experience a decline in earnings after attendance, relative to their own earnings in years prior to attendance. Master’s degree students and students who complete their degrees appear to experience better outcomes, with positive earnings effects. Our difference-in-difference analysis of certificate students suggests that despite the much higher costs of attendance, earnings effects are smaller in the for-profit sector relative to the effects for comparable students in public community colleges—a result that holds for all but one of the top ten fields of study. In absolute terms, we find no evidence of improved earnings post-enrollment for students in any of the top ten for-profit fields and we can rule out that average effects are driven by a few low-performing institutions.
    JEL: I2 I23 I26 J01 J24
    Date: 2016–05
  12. By: Daniel LaFave; Duncan Thomas
    Abstract: Taller workers earn more, particularly in lower income settings. It has been argued that adult height is a marker of strength which is rewarded in the labor market, a proxy for cognitive performance or other dimensions of human capital such as school quality, a proxy for health status or a proxy for family background characteristics. As a result, the argument goes, height is rewarded in the labor market because it is an informative signal of worker quality to an employer. It has also been argued that the height premium in the labor market is driven by occupational and sectoral choice. This paper evaluates the relative importance of these mechanisms that potentially underly the link between adult stature and labor market productivity. Drawing on twelve waves of longitudinal survey data collected in rural Central Java, Indonesia, we establish that height predicts hourly earnings after controlling education, multiple indicators of cognitive performance and physical health status, measures of family background, and sectoral and occupational choice. The height premium is large and significant in both the wage and self-empoyed sectors indicating height is not only a signal of worker quality. Since adult stature is largely determined in the first few years of life, we conclude that exposures during this critical period have an enduring impact on labor market productivity.
    JEL: I15 J24 O15
    Date: 2016–05
  13. By: Zhang, Jian; Li, Tao; Wang, Haigang
    Abstract: In this paper, relying on an experiment, we find that among all the student characteristics, only gender plays a significant role in determining the probability obtaining an onsite interview. Other things being equal, male students are much more likely to be invited for a job interview. In addition, the other characteristics of a female applicant, for example, excellence in academic performance, student leadership and strong English skill, cannot mitigate the female disadvantage.
    Keywords: Gender, College Student Characteristics, Screening of Prospect Employers, Randomization of Resume, China, International Development, Labor and Human Capital, J71,
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Kentaro Shimada (Graduate School of International Cooperation Studies, Kobe University); Zeba Khan (Faculty of Social Science, Chinese University of Hong Kong); Suguru Mizunoya (Faculty of Social Science (Global Studies), Chinese University of Hong Kong); Ayako Wakano (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: The study is latest to estimate returns to education after the introduction of free primary education in 2003 in Kenya, simultaneously addressing two sources of biases due to endogeneity of schooling and earnings, and sample selection. Using the 2005-2006 Kenya Integrated Household and Budget Survey, the paper finds that (a) returns to additional year of schooling are 14.9% for males and 13.5% for females with a continuous education variable, but the returns to females are consistently higher than males when returns are estimated by level of education, (b) returns to education increases for higher levels of education i.e., the classical pattern of diminishing return to schooling does not hold true for both males and females in Kenya, and (c) the use of joint IV-Heckman method adjust the endogeneity and sample selection biases introduced by OLS and IV.
    Keywords: Returns to Education; Education Policy; Human Capital; Gender; Kenya
    JEL: I26 I25 O55
    Date: 2016–05
  15. By: Paul Decker
    Abstract: Pi Day has become a joyous national symbol of the importance of math, science and education. But as much fun as it is, Pi Day also offers an opportunity for serious reflection upon the power of numbers and data—and why they must be embraced by more policymakers in making decisions that affect us today and in the future.
    Keywords: Pi Day, Big Data, data analytics
  16. By: Muge Akyildiz Munusturlar (Anadolu University)
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to present the results of a study examining the different ways of experiencing the leisure meanings of the undergraduate students studying in a state University in Turkey. Leisure Meanings Inventory (LMI) was used to collect data which was developed by Schulz and Watkins (2007). The first part was comprised of 23 statements related to meanings of leisure. These meanings of leisure included four dimensions which were passing time, exercising choice, escaping pressure, and achieving fulfillment. In the second part of the questionnaire, students were asked to indicate their demographic characteristics (age, gender, education level). A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed, 265 of which were completely answered, resulting in a return rate of 88 percent. According to the results, the sample profile indicates the gender of respondents is dominated by females (52%) and 40% were aged between 21-22 years old. The results of the study revealed that 34% of the participants were freshmen; 22% of them were sophomore and about 21% of the participants were junior, and about 22% of the participants were senior. It was also revealed that the most experienced meaning of leisure was escaping pressure (Mean=4.00; SD=0.91). Passing time (Mean: 3.98; SD=1.01) had the second highest mean scores whereas achieving fulfillment (Mean: 3.89; SD=0.91) and exercising choice (Mean: 3.81; SD=1.01) had the lowest mean scores in regard to experienced meaning of leisure by the undergraduate students. Overall, when all meanings of leisure are evaluated together, escaping pressure and stresses of daily life come to the fore as the most experienced way of leisure.
    Keywords: leisure, experience, leisure meanings, undergraduate students
  17. By: Lopez-Cermeño, Alexandra
    Abstract: This paper provides a simplified method of exploring the geographical limits of a knowledge shock over the long run. Using a geographically decomposable distance weighed sum of world GDPs by county, differences in differences regression analysis shows that a new university will not only have a positive impact on the local economy, but also on the GDP of nearby counties. Furthermore, challenging the conventional wisdom that knowledge spillovers affect the local economy, this study provides evidence that the effect expands to the whole national though its strength dilutes with distance. Consistent with the education literature, this investigation provides evidence that the shock will make the relative GDP of foreign competitors worse-off. Results are persistent in the long run, although the effect of time is also decreasing. Resultsare robust to potential endogeneity related to the self-selection of prosperous allocations for new academic institutions.
    Keywords: U.S. Counties; Spillovers; New Economic Geography
    JEL: O18 R11 N72 L8
    Date: 2016–04
  18. By: Haß, Julia; Hartmann, Hartmann
    Abstract: Background: High prevalence of childhood obesity is a major concern in developed as well as in developing countries. An increase of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is seen as one of numerous strategies to prevent and reduce the risk for adiposity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relevance of different personal and social determinants for explaining children’s F&V intake. Method: Data were collected by means of a self-administered, written questionnaire among 48 primary school classes at 12 schools (3th and 4th graders) during August and September 2012. Hierarchical linear regression models were developed to assess the impact of different personal and social determinants on children F&V intake. Results: Regression models focusing on personal and social determinants, respectively, revealed that the most promising personal determinants were ‘knowing different types of F&V’ ‘liking different types of F&V’ as well as ‘preferences towards F&V’. Looking only at social determinants showed that ‘parental modeling’ and ‘peer influence’ had a significant positive, the factor ‘reminding encouragement to eat F&V’ a significant negative influence on children’s F&V intake. In combination, personal and social determinants yielded an improvement of model fit, whereby the following four determinates proved to be significant: ‘knowing different types of F&V’, ‘parental modeling’, ‘reminding encouragement’ and ‘preferences towards F&V’. Conclusion: The results show that personal as well as social determinants are associated with children’s F&V intake, whereby both groups of determinants seem to be of equal importance. Therefore, interventions aimed to improve children’s F&V intake should strength children’s preferences towards F&V, impart knowledge about the variety of F&V and encourage parents in acting as role models instead of putting pressure on their children.
    Keywords: nutrition, diet, health, children, fruit, vegetables, determinants, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2016
    Date: 2016
  20. By: Ndambendia, Houdou
    Abstract: In this paper, we address the issue of knowledge sharing from FDI inflows and imports from the north and south on exports diversification of selected African economies. Applying Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and Random-Effects Probit with control of endogeneity, we find that FDI inflows and imports from the north and the south affect differently horizontal and vertical exports diversification. Indeed, FDI inflows have the strongest effect on vertical diversification whereas imports impact strongly horizontal export diversification. Moreover, imports from the south have the strongest impact on horizontal exports diversification whereas only FDI from the north significantly affect exports diversification irrespective of its nature. In addition, we find no evidence of knowledge sharing through education, meaning that lack of education significantly reduces the marginal effects of FDI inflows and imports on exports diversification. However, taking knowledge separately, we find that higher education is required to vertically diversify an economy. As policy recommendation, further human capital investment and set up of incentive mechanisms to attract FDI are needed to truly diversify economies of selected countries.
    Keywords: exports diversification, knowledge, FDI, imports, endogeneity
    JEL: C23 C26 F14 I25 O55
    Date: 2014
  21. By: Josephson, Anna; DeBoer, Lawrence; Nelson, David; Zissimopoulos, Angelika
    Abstract: We consider the impact on student learning outcomes of a re-design of an undergraduate macroeconomics course. Changes were made to move from lower- to higher-order taxonomic dimensions, with emphasis on application and analysis. We use 13 questions which appeared on final exams before and after the re-design to evaluate changes in student learning outcomes. The analysis shows that after the re-design students improved performance on questions classified as higher-order, while performance suffered on questions classified as lower-order. These results suggest that the re-design was a shift of teaching and learning resources, not an overall improvement that impacted equally all taxonomic dimensions. The course before the re-design may have used its resources well, but in pursuit of improving application and analysis over memorization and understanding.
    Keywords: undergraduate instruction, Bloom’s taxonomy, higher-order taxonomy, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession, A20, A22,
    Date: 2016
  22. By: Chakrabarti, Suman; Avinash, Kishore; Devesh, Roy
    Abstract: Abstract There is an increasing demand to add pulses to the basket of subsidized goods in the public distribution system (PDS) of India—the world’s largest food-based social safety-net program. Would subsidizing pulses through PDS lead to a significant increase in its consumption? We study the case of subsidy on pulses in select Indian states and its impact on consumption and ultimately nutrition (in terms of protein intake) by exploiting an exogenous variation in prices to answer this question. Between 2004–2005 and 2009/2010, four Indian states introduced subsidized pulses through the country’s food-based social safety-net program, the Public Distribution System (PDS), while other states did not. We exploit exogenous price variations to examine whether the price subsidy on pulses achieves its goal of increasing pulse consumption, and by extension protein intake, among India’s poor. Using several rounds of consumption expenditure survey data and difference-in-difference estimation, we find that the change in consumption of pulses due to the PDS subsidy, though statistically significant, is of a small order, and not large enough to meet the goal of enhancing the nutrition of beneficiaries.
    Keywords: Food Subsidy, Pulses, Public Distribution System, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Security and Poverty, International Development,
    Date: 2016–04

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