nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒05‒28
thirty-two papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Social inequalities in higher education participation in a period of educational reforms and economic recession: Evidence from an Italian province By Loris Vergolini
  2. Public school teacher management in Sri Lanka: issues and options By Raju,Dhushyanth
  3. The effect of ratio between PTA teachers and Government employed teachers on Education outcomes in Kenya Primary Schools By Ayako Wakano
  4. How much do tertiary students pay and what public support do they receive? By OECD
  5. The “true” private school effect across countries using PISA-2012 Mathematics By Chris Sakellariou
  6. Innovations in Knowledge and Learning for Competitive Higher Education in Asia and the Pacific By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  7. Does the Early Bird Catch the Worm or a Lower GPA? Evidence from a Liberal Arts College By Timothy M. Diette; Manu Raghav
  8. Review and Assessment of the Students Grants-in-Aid Program for Poverty Alleviation (SGP-PA) and Expanded SGP-PA By Silfverberg, Denise Valerie; Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.
  9. University merging process: a guideline proposal for excellence-enhancing By Marisa Hidalgo-Hidalgo; Guadalupe Valera
  10. importance of Internationalization and Valorization in technical universities supported by Information systems By Arturs Zeps; Leonīds Ribickis; Juris Iljins
  11. Opportunities in education: are factors outside individual responsibility really persistent? Evidence from Indonesia, 1997-2007 By Rajius Idzalika; Maria C. Lo Bue
  12. Social Policy for Education: Assessing Needs of Turkey By NURULLAH CALIS; SIRIN TARGAN CALIS
  13. Top incomes and human well-being around the world By Richard V. Burkhauser; Jan-Emmanuel De Neve; Nattavudh Powdthavee
  14. “Teaching to teach” literacy By Stephen Machin; Sandra McNally; Martina Viarengo
  15. Universities and RIS3: the case of Catalonia and the RIS3CAT Communities By Elisabetta Marinelli; Susana Elena Pérez; Josep Alias
  16. How an effective leadership and governance supports to achieve institutional vision, mission and objectives By Aithal, Sreeramana
  17. The impact of ex-ante subsidies to researchers on researcher's productivity: Evidence from a developing country By Aboal, Diego; Tacsir, Ezequiel
  18. Does Host-Country Education Mitigate Immigrant Inefficiency? Evidence from Earnings of Australian University Graduates By Dipanwita Sarkar; Trevor Collier
  19. Measuring Teacher and School Value Added in Oklahoma, Spring 2016 By Albert Y. Liu; Elias Walsh; Dallas Dotter
  20. Head Start and the Distribution of Long Term Education and Labor Market Outcomes By de Haan, Monique; Leuven, Edwin
  21. The Future of the University? The voice of young Polish scholars By Anna M. Kola; Krzysztof Leja
  22. Challenges and Opportunities for Skills Development in Asia: Changing Supply, Demand and Mismatches By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  23. Innovative Strategies in Technical and Vocational Education and Training for Accelerated Human Resource Development in South Asia: Nepal By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  24. The Downside of Good Peers: How Classroom Composition Differentially Affects Men’s and Women’s STEM Persistence By Stefanie Fischer
  25. Skill use, skill deficits, and firm performance in formal sector enterprises : evidence from the Tanzania enterprise skills survey, 2015 By Tan,Hong W.; Bashir,Sajitha; Tanaka,Nobuyuki
  26. K-12 Transitions: Approaches and Lessons Learned By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  27. The Effect of Moving during Childhood on Long Run Income: Evidence from Swedish Register Data By Heidrich, Stefanie
  28. The Evolution of Human Capital in Africa, 1730 -1970: A Colonial Legacy? By Baten, Jörg; Cappelli, Gabriele
  29. Large Depreciations: Recent Experience in Historical Perspective By José De Gregorio
  30. Higher Education Policies in Promoting ASEAN Community in Thailand By Ratana Daungkaew; Koolchalee Chongcharoen
  31. Human Capital and Education: The State of the Art in the Economics of Education By Burgess, Simon
  32. Public-Private Partnerships in Information and Communication Technology for Education By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

  1. By: Loris Vergolini
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyse the role of social origins in the shaping of university participation in the province of Trento (North-East of Italy) from 2000 to 2012. This long-term view gives us the chance to test the role played by the Bologna process and by the economic crisis. More precisely, this setting allows us to analyse its effects on inequality of educational opportunity in the face of two opposite situations. The first, subsequent to the Bologna process, is characterised by a huge increase in the enrolment rate at the university. In the second situation, subsequent to the economic crisis, a huge decline in higher education participation can be observed. Using data on upper secondary school graduates in the province of Trento and applying logistic models, we find that inequality of educational opportunity tends to diminish during educational expansion, while it increases with the persistence of the economic crisis.
    Keywords: Higher Education, inequality of educational opportunities, Bologna process, economic crisis, field of study
    JEL: I23 I24 I28
    Date: 2016–05
  2. By: Raju,Dhushyanth
    Abstract: Sri Lanka is increasingly seeking to ensure that its public school system not only delivers greater shares of students who have completed higher secondary and tertiary education, but also that all students obtain a much better education. Raising teacher effectiveness is considered as crucial for achieving these aims. This paper reviews the literature on teacher management in Sri Lanka, and points to what may be critical teacher management issues. The paper also outlines considerations and options for addressing these issues, informed by international evidence on approaches to improve teacher effectiveness.
    Keywords: Education For All,Effective Schools and Teachers,Secondary Education,Tertiary Education,Primary Education
    Date: 2016–04–26
  3. By: Ayako Wakano (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: Do locally hired teachers benefit pupils f school achievements more than governmental employed teachers? This is the question to examine in this paper. Although social experiment results have shown that the marginal product in terms of test score is positive and significant when pupils are taught by PTA teachers, it is not yet known about the grelative h effectiveness between government teacher and locally hired teachers. This paper is going to find whether the PTA teacher ratio (the ratio of locally hired PTA teachers against total number of teachers in one primary school) has statistically significant explanatory power on pupil test score, after controlling various factors. In Republic of Kenya (below referred as Kenya), there are two types of teachers teaching in public primary schools. One is those teachers employed by the government and the other is those hired by the local school community, named gPTA teacher h. Although wage level for PTA teachers in public primary schools in Kenya is one fourth of that of government teachers, school outcomes of pupils taught by locally hired contract teachers are higher than those of pupils taught in controlled group schools, according to the result of social experiment (Duflo et al. 2012). This paper will examine, by using nationally representing observational data, to estimate the relative effect of PTA teachers on school outcome. In the end, by using Propensity Score Matching Estimation method, the result shows that the effect of PTA teacher ratio is positive and significant on school test score in all three subjects for lower standard grade pupils except Kernel and Radius matching and in Kiswahili subject for all seven different matching algorisms, though the magnitude of coefficient is relatively small. Although background mechanism of this finding is not solely determined, this paper is to assume that the effort level of PTA teacher in teaching tends to be higher than that of governmental teachers, based on several reasons.
    Keywords: Absenteeism, PTA teacher, Locally hired teacher, test score
    JEL: I21 I28 J18
    Date: 2016–05
  4. By: OECD
    Abstract: OECD countries differ significantly in the way spending on tertiary education is shared between public and private sources of funding, and in the financial support they provide to students. Countries with high tuition fees tend to also be those where private entities other than households make a more significant contribution to funding tertiary institutions. By contrast, in countries with more progressive tax regimes, students often pay low or no tuition fees and have access to generous public subsidies for tertiary education, but then face high income tax rates. An increasing number of OECD countries charge higher tuition fees for international students than for national students, and many also differentiate tuition fees by field of education, largely because of the divergent returns on wages. In countries with high tuition fees, student financial support systems that offer all students loans with income-contingent repayments combined with means-tested grants can be an effective way to promote access and equity while sharing the costs of tertiary education between taxpayers and students.
    Date: 2016–05–13
  5. By: Chris Sakellariou (Division of Economics, Nanyang Technological University, 14 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637332.)
    Abstract: It is known that in most countries, students of private schools perform better in international assessments compared to students in the public school system. However, when one controls for observable socioeconomic background characteristics at the individual and school level, public school students perform equally well. Furthermore, sorting to private vs. public schools based on unobservable characteristics takes place, which biases econometric estimates. I account for selection on unobservables using an approach based on the idea that the amount of selection on the observed explanatory variables in a model provides a guide to the amount of selection on the unobservables (Altonjie et al. 2005; Oster 2013). I use PISA-2012 data for Mathematics to derive bias-corrected estimates of the “true” private-dependent and independent school effect for 40 countries. With few exceptions, public schools outperform private schools (especially independent schools). Accounting for both peer effects and selection is necessary when evaluating school effectiveness.
    Keywords: School choice, private school advantage, selection
    JEL: C52 I24 L33
    Date: 2016–04
  6. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: Higher education institutions in Asia and the Pacific are modeled on industrial age thinking that promotes routinized capacities and lacks the ability to innovate and create new knowledge enterprises. The transition to a knowledge economy is affecting the purpose, content, pedagogy, and methodologies of higher education. Nontraditional stakeholders such as professional bodies, industry experts, think tanks, research institutes, and field experts/practitioners are now involved not only in planning but in providing higher education services. The traditional model of “knowledge versus skills” is no longer relevant. Higher education programs must consider lived experiences, contextual knowledge, and indigenous knowledge.
    Keywords: education, information resources, electronic information resource, open educational resources, oer, free educational resources, education and oer, education and open educational resources, jouko sarvi, hitendra pillay
    Date: 2015–12
  7. By: Timothy M. Diette (Department of Economics, Washington and Lee University); Manu Raghav (Department of Economics and Management, DePauw University)
    Abstract: Colleges and universities with capacity constraints like to offer early morning classes to maximize the use of classrooms. Moreover, evenings are often reserved for extra-curricular activities. However, research from psychology has shown that a teenager’s mind benefits from additional sleep during early morning hours. We use data from a selective liberal arts college that assigns students randomly to different sections of the same course. This creates a natural experiment. Our paper shows that after controlling for other factors, students in early morning sections earn lower grades than students in sections of the same course offered later in the day. The result holds for all the courses offered at this institution. Grades are especially low for 8 am and 9 am classes for both genders, although the effect is larger for male students. This suggests that trade-offs exist between optimal use of classroom space and learning outcomes for students.
    Keywords: Class time, grades, GPA, student learning
    JEL: I20 I21 I23 A22 Z18
    Date: 2016–03
  8. By: Silfverberg, Denise Valerie; Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.
    Abstract: Making higher education more accessible for the poor serves the equity objective. Until today, the main policy tool to achieve this objective is funding public higher institutions. This has been shown to have no significant correlation on the enrollment of the poor by earlier studies. This paper assesses a new initiative of the Philippine government called the Students Grants-in-Aid Program for Poverty Alleviation (SGP-PA) implemented starting 2012. While there are other grants-in-aid programs, SGP-PA has two important unique features, namely, (a) it is well-targeted to identified Pantawid Pamilya households and (b) it provides a grant amount that is sufficient to cover all normal education expenses including living allowance. The assessment is done by comparing the academic performance of grantees to that of their peers. The results show that their poorer socioeconomic background appears to be reflected only in their poorer grades in the first year. By their second year, they are already performing at par in Math and even better than their peers in Science and English. The study also highlights the importance of entrance exam scores in the academic performance of both grantees and their peers. Finally, the study also documents the challenges that the program is facing and provides recommendations on how to address these challenges.
    Keywords: Philippines, higher education, grants-in-aid (GIAs), affirmative action
    Date: 2016
  9. By: Marisa Hidalgo-Hidalgo (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Guadalupe Valera (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: There is a recent trend toward encouraging universities to merge. This policy is based on the idea that mergers create synergy gains that enhance the prestige of universities by increasing their international visibility. However, this process may reduce competition for both research funds and professors in national higher education markets. This paper analyses whether mergers among universities are optimal from an excellence perspective. We find that the higher the heterogeneity between the initial reputations of potentially merging institutions, the greater the amount of funds required for mergers to achieve higher excellence than competition.
    Keywords: Higher Education, Economics of Science, University Competition, University Mergers
    JEL: H52 I23 I28 J24
    Date: 2016–05
  10. By: Arturs Zeps (Riga Technical University); Leonīds Ribickis (Riga Technical University); Juris Iljins (Riga Technical University)
    Abstract: This article explores the importance of internationalization and valorization in technical Universities as one of core priorities for achieving international excellence and strengthening university – industry collaboration. The World is becoming more interconnected and Higher Education institutions can no more act on their own – they are motivated and even forced to become international. But an important topic for management of each University, especially technical, is to strengthen the collaboration with business in global environment. Valorization or creation of new products and services through innovation process is an important task for all technical Universities that want to maintain strong bond with the industry and capitalize on this process. This article is based on research conducted between technical Universities in Baltic States, where different processes in university internationalization and valorizations have been distinguished as main driving forces of institutional development. The conducted research shows that this task can be achieved by increased international research, student mobility, large scale jointly managed projects and other international activities. After internationalization and valorization processes have been analyzed, establishing the most critical key elements for fostering both of these processes, authors present an evaluation of Riga Technical University’s case as an example on how internal Information Systems provide the possibility for management to both implement strategic settings of the University and accelerate valorization within the University. This can be achieved trough correct strategy development based on key elements of valorization and internationalization, effective strategy implementation, monitoring and creating of appropriate incentive mechanism where IT support pay an important role.
    Keywords: Internationalization, valorization, strategy, information system
    JEL: O32 I23 M15
  11. By: Rajius Idzalika (University of Goettingen, Germany); Maria C. Lo Bue (University of Verona, Italy)
    Abstract: Education is a strong predictor for economic performance. Therefore, educational inequality particularly in opportunity could make significant contribution to earning disparities. Following Ferreira and Gignoux (2014) parametric method, we construct aggregate indices of inequality of educational opportunities for fourteen Indonesian provinces in the years 1997, 2000 and 2007. Our particular and original contribution is to define individual indices of the power of circumstances which measure the strength of the influence that the accumulation of factors outside individual responsibility has in the short and in the long run on individual educational achievements and on earnings. We found that-along the period considered- there has been a declining trend in inequality of educational opportunities but not in all the provinces. Our findings also suggest that parental educational background is the most significant factor for school survival and that the effect that circumstances exert on future individual educational achievements and on early earnings perspectives tend to persist over time, but only to a very small extent. Moreover, our causal model which relates educational budget policy to equality of opportunity shows a negative impact of educational budget for the youngest cohorts, questioning therefore the effectiveness of the allocation of resources to primary and intermediate schools.
    Keywords: Education, Intergenerational Mobility, Inequality of Opportunity, Indonesia
    JEL: D39 D63 I29 O53
    Date: 2016–03
    Abstract: Social policies generally refer to the social welfare interventions aimed to resolve social problems on employment, housing, education, health and social services. Education, as a major field of welfare system, is quite significant for social policy framework. Hence, social welfare state has important responsibilities on providing education facilities and services for whole society. At this point, there is a strong need for effective policies which can resolve problems in education settings and optimise education processes for best learning and teaching. When examining the case of Turkey, it can be seen that there are some social policy practices in education which mainly consist of social assistance programs and social responsibility initiatives. Stipends, course materials and other supports for students, food and housing services of schools, preventive health services are some of welfare practices for education. There are also some education policies pursued by National Education Ministry to increase schooling rates at all education levels, decrease drop-out rates, bring more special education facilities into service and provide technical and material support for all government schools. Besides, some civil initiatives and private institutions conduct various projects to improve vocational education, promote school attending and provide needed equipments for schools. Unfortunately, all these efforts can not be an effective and holistic framework towards solution of school problems. It is obvious that there has been various ongoing social problems in school settings in Turkey such as violence, harassment, substance abuse, family-related problems, mental health problems. There is a remarkable lack of social policy in this field. This actually indicate a need for enhanced social services and social work in schools. In this regard, this study suggests some effective social policies for education and refers to the significance of school social work services in Turkish school settings.
    Keywords: Social policy in education, education in Turkey, government policy in education, school social work
    JEL: I28 I28 I29
  13. By: Richard V. Burkhauser; Jan-Emmanuel De Neve; Nattavudh Powdthavee
    Abstract: The share of income held by the top 1 percent in many countries around the world has been rising persistently over the last 30 years. But we continue to know little about how the rising top income shares affect human well-being. This study combines the latest data to examine the relationship between top income share and different dimensions of subjective well-being. We find top income shares to be significantly correlated with lower life evaluation and higher levels of negative emotional well-being, but not positive emotional well-being. The results are robust to household income, individual’s socio-economic status, and macroeconomic environment controls.
    Keywords: Top income; life evaluation; well-being; income inequality; World top income database; Gallup World Poll
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2016–01
  14. By: Stephen Machin; Sandra McNally; Martina Viarengo
    Abstract: Significant numbers of people have very low levels of literacy in many OECD countries and, because of this, face significant labour market penalties. Despite this, it remains unclear what teaching strategies are most useful for actually rectifying literacy deficiencies. The subject remains hugely controversial amongst educationalists and has seldom been studied by economists. Research evidence from part of Scotland prompted a national change in the policy guidance given to schools in England in the mid-2000s about how children are taught to read. We conceptualise this as a shock to the education production function that affects the technology of teaching. In particular, there was phasing in of intensive support to some schools across Local Authorities: teachers were trained to use a new phonics approach. We use this staggered introduction of intensive support to estimate the effect of the new ‘teaching technology’ on children’s educational attainment. We find there to be effects of the teaching technology (‘synthetic phonics’) at age 5 and 7. However, by the age of 11, other children have caught up and there are no average effects. There are long-term effects only for those children with a higher initial propensity to struggle with reading.
    Keywords: literacy; phonics
    JEL: I21 I23
    Date: 2016–04
  15. By: Elisabetta Marinelli (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Susana Elena Pérez (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Josep Alias (ACUP (Catalan Association of Public Universities))
    Abstract: Regional Smart Specialisation Strategies (RIS3) are aimed at developing nation-al/regional competitive advantages following a vertical prioritisation logic based on the bottom-up identification of a limited set of priorities where regions believe they have potential to obtain a comparative advantage. Priorities are identified and pursued through the interaction of stakeholders across the quadruple helix of government, industry, academia and society at large. This is because entrepreneurial knowledge is most often distributed across a regional system. This cyclical and recursive process of identification and prioritisation is referred to as an Entrepreneurial Discovery Process (EDP). In this context, universities and regions have a unique opportunity to form partnerships, together with the business sector, to maximise the use of European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF), and particularly the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), hence contributing to the local knowledge-based development. Although universities are placed in a good position to contribute significantly to the process of local development, it is difficult to evaluate whether and how such potential can be untapped (Kempton et al., 2013). This report, which is based on collaboration between the JRC-IPTS and the Catalan Association of Public Universities (ACUP), contributes to this debate by exploring universities’ role within RIS3 in the case of Catalonia. The paper first assesses the role of universities in the overall design and implementation of the Catalan RIS3 and EDP, and then goes in depth into one of its key instruments, namely the RIS3CAT Communities. Catalonia’s Smart Specialization Strategy (RIS3CAT) lays the framework under which the Government of Catalonia carries out RDI (Research Development and Innovation) policies in the current programming period (2014-2020) and supports the generation and development of innovative projects aiming to further develop the region. RIS3CAT establishes that the sectors defined as strategic for Catalonia are structured into RIS3CAT Communities. Each community is expected to carry out initiatives to facilitate collaboration among sectorial stakeholders, to improve competitiveness and to generate solutions to society’s changing needs. These communities will be one of the key tools through which universities and other stakeholders in strategic sectors are able to apply for ERDF-funded grants. The case of Catalonia is particularly interesting as the region is home to several public universities displaying remarkable differences in terms of size, scientific specialisation and relationship to the territory. In this respect Catalonia provides the opportunity to test how different types of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) can respond to the RIS3.
    Keywords: universities, smart specialisation strategies, instruments
    Date: 2016–05
  16. By: Aithal, Sreeramana
    Abstract: Effective leadership by setting values and participative decision- making process is key not only to achieve the vision, mission and goals of the institution but also in building the organizational culture. The formal and informal arrangements in the institution to co-ordinate the academic and administrative planning and implementation reflects the institutions efforts in achieving its vision. This paper focus on the vision, mission and the objectives identified for a higher education institution and needs to be addressed through its distinctive characteristics by considering Srinivas Institute of Management Studies as an example. The role of top management, principal and faculty in design and implementation of its quality policy and plans both in Teaching and Services are identified. The involvement of the leadership in ensuring the policy statements and action plans for fulfillment of the stated mission, formulation of action plans for all operations and incorporation of the same into the institutional strategic plan, Interaction with stakeholders, Proper support for policy and planning through need analysis, research inputs and consultations with the stakeholders, Reinforcing the culture of excellence, and Champion organizational change. The various procedures adopted by the institution to monitor and evaluate policies and plans of the institution for effective implementation and improvement from time to time are discussed. Details of the academic leadership provided to the faculty by the top management, the college strategy to groom leadership at various levels, How does the college delegate authority and provide operational autonomy to the departments / units of the institution and work towards decentralized governance system, and the strategy of college to promote a culture of participative management are elaborated.
    Keywords: Effective leadership, Governance in Higher education, Efficiency in higher education institutions
    JEL: I2 I23
    Date: 2015–05
  17. By: Aboal, Diego (Centro de Investigaciones Económicas (CINVE), and Universidad ORT Uruguay, Montevideo, Uruguay); Tacsir, Ezequiel (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.)
    Abstract: In this paper we perform a short-run (two years after the programme) impact evaluation of a programme that provides ex-ante subsidies to researchers in Paraguay. The analysis of the effects of this type of subsidies, that are prevalent in Latin America, has received little attention in the literature. Thanks to the availability of data coming from electronic CVs of applicants we are able to analyse the impact of the programme in dimensions of researchers' productivity that have been mostly overlooked previously, such as technical production, own education, the training of other researchers and other dimensions of the bibliographic production different to published articles. We also provide estimations of the impact on quantity and quality of publications based on more traditional sources of data. We find some positive impacts of the programme. However, some of the results are not robust to alternative methods of estimation.
    Keywords: Economics of Science, Scientific Subsidies, Policy Impact Evaluation
    JEL: O30 O38 H43 C21
    Date: 2016–04–18
  18. By: Dipanwita Sarkar; Trevor Collier
    Abstract: transferability of skills remains a dominant argument in explaining lower earnings of immigrants. Acquisition of host-country education plays a critical role in overcoming this disadvantage. Using a stochastic frontier approach to compare earnings of native and foreign-born graduates from Australian universities, the authors evaluate the importance of host-country education in reducing earnings inefficiency of immigrants. Although immigrants are found to be initially more inefficient than natives, they assimilate towards the earnings frontier over time. Substantial variation in inefficiency and assimilation patterns exist across immigrants with differing residency status and ethnicity. Non-English background increases inefficiency for immigrants, but more so for non-residents. Consistent with the tightening of selection criteria in Australia, recent immigrant cohorts are found to be more efficient.
    Keywords: Immigrant assimilation, tertiary education, stochastic frontier
    JEL: I24 J15 J31
    Date: 2016–05–23
  19. By: Albert Y. Liu; Elias Walsh; Dallas Dotter
    Abstract: This issue brief provides an overview of the approach that Mathematica Policy Research applied to produce the value-added results used in the evaluation system. It also describes updates to the value-added models that were used to produce the results distributed in spring 2016.
    Keywords: teacher, school, value-added, Oklahoma, education
    JEL: I
  20. By: de Haan, Monique (University of Oslo); Leuven, Edwin (University of Oslo)
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the effect of Head Start on long term education and labor market outcomes using data from the NLSY79. The contributions to the existing literature on the effectiveness of Head Start are threefold: (1) we are the first to examine distributional effects of Head Start on long term outcomes (2) we do not rely on quasi-experimental variation in Head Start participation but instead perform a nonparametric bounds analysis that relies on weak stochastic dominance assumptions and (3) we consider education and labor market outcomes observed for individuals in their early 30s. The results show that Head Start has a statistically significant positive effect on years of education, in particular for women, blacks and Hispanics. For wage income we also find evidence that Head Start has beneficial impacts, with effects located at the lower end of the distribution.
    Keywords: Head Start, early intervention, long term outcomes, partial identification
    JEL: H52 I21 J13 J24 J31
    Date: 2016–04
  21. By: Anna M. Kola (Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Education, Torun, Poland); Krzysztof Leja (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland)
    Abstract: Changes of universities should not be a result of administrators’ and university managers’ decisions (as a top-down approach), but of initiatives from the academic community. It is a kind of third way, which goes beyond the liberal discourse of the capitalist, who want to turn universities into companies, but it is not only the realization of the vision of the university officials. Taking into account our research and educational experience, we would like to introduce a wider perspective on the role of the contemporary university – regarding the core-periphery position of universities in a global world. In addition, our aim is to show how strategies of resistance can be built, which will result in effective and sustainable conversion of thinking about the university as an institution in shaping and creating an elite, as well as developing mechanisms of pro-quality, taking into account social factors. To reveal this way of thinking and show possibilities of taking action, we describe the main Polish initiatives that can change the university world in every field. An example of such a social movement is Citizens of Academia (Obywatele Nauki). Its members are young (usually post-doctoral), as well as more experienced scholars, who, despite the fact of achieving scientific and academic success, are working for the common good and the good of the university seen as an important social institution. The university ought to be an institution responsible for the process of social and cultural development.We agree that research on the role and activity of the movement is important to understand the direction of changes of the (post)modern university and society. The goal of such ethnographically inspired research is diagnosis of a specific engaged academic community. The article will present conclusions of the pilot study, conducted among the founders and initiators of the ON movement. Additional important objectives of the paper are to provide practical recommendations for policymakers, academic communities, research institutions and university administration, as well as answers to the question about possibilities of using the intellectual potential of young, talented, rebel and open scholars, to became a catalyst for desired change of the university, as well as development of personal careers of Polish academicians
    Keywords: contemporary university, social movements, Citizens of Academia
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2016
  22. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: This report discusses six key global trends on skills supply and demand in Asia. These are (i) the doubling of the labor pool, (ii) expansion of education access, (iii) economic and industrial transformation, (iv) technological advancement, (v) globalization and regional integration, and (vi) demographic shifts. The report highlights the need for Asia’s education systems to transform. It proposes four pillars on policies to address skills mismatch including (i) developing comprehensive national strategies and planning, (ii) reorienting and rebalancing education systems, (iii) prioritizing reforms in technical vocational education and training relevance and quality, and (iv) advancing international cooperation.
    Keywords: tvet, asian economic growth, skills mismatch, demand for skills, technical education, vocational education, education systems, formal education, trends, skills development, education development, tvet reforms, job markets, labor markets
    Date: 2015–11
  23. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: This publication consists of six country reports on technical and vocational education and training and higher education in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Each report presents current arrangements and initiatives in each of the three countries’ skills development strategies, complemented by critical analysis to reveal key issues, challenges, and opportunities for innovative strategies toward global competitiveness, increased productivity, and inclusive growth. The emphasis is to make skills training more relevant, efficient, and responsive to emerging domestic and international labor markets. The reports were conducted under the Australian AID-supported Phase 1 of Subproject 11 (Innovative Strategies for Accelerated Human Resource Development) of RETA 6337 (Development Partnership Program for South Asia).
    Keywords: nepal tvet, nepal skills development, south asia, human capital, nepal human resources, vocational education, technical education, skills training, global competitiveness, increased productivity, inclusive growth, labor markets, adb ta 6337
    Date: 2015–11
  24. By: Stefanie Fischer (Department of Economics, California Polytechnic State University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether class composition can help explain why women are disproportionately more likely to fall out of the “STEM” pipeline. Identification comes from a standardized enrollment process at a large public university that essentially randomly assigns freshmen to different mandatory introductory chemistry lectures. Using administrative data, I find that women who are enrolled in a class with higher ability peers are less likely to graduate with a STEM degree, while men’s STEM persistence is unaffected. The effect is largest for women in the bottom third of the ability distribution. I rule out that this is driven solely by grades.
    Keywords: Higher Education, Gender, STEM, Classroom Composition Effects
    JEL: I20 I23 I24
    Date: 2016
  25. By: Tan,Hong W.; Bashir,Sajitha; Tanaka,Nobuyuki
    Abstract: Inadequacies in Tanzania's education and training systems compromise the quality of workforce skills, giving rise to skill shortages, and constraining the operations and growth of formal sector firms in the country. This study addressed these concerns using data from a unique Enterprise Skills Survey that asked Tanzanian employers about the education, training, and occupational mix of their workforce, the skill gaps in cognitive, noncognitive, and job-specific competencies affecting their operations, and the strategies they are using to overcome these skill gaps. The study investigates the consequences for firm productivity of employers'choices about their optimal skills mix, and their strategies to mitigate shortfalls in skills supply. Compared with noninnovators and firms primarily serving the domestic market, exporters and innovators face greater skill demand and suffer from skill shortages that are more likely to constrain their operations in such areas as quality assurance, use of new technology, and introducing new products and services. In analyzing firm performance and its relation to skill mix, the study found that firms with higher shares of tertiary-educated workers are more productive; it found no impact, however, from secondary education and technical vocational education and training qualifications, possibly reflecting the universally acknowledged poor quality of secondary education in Tanzania. Employers use a range of strategies to address skill deficiencies, from hiring new workers, to training current workers in-house or externally, using high-skill expatriate workers, or outsourcing professional services. Almost all were associated with higher labor productivity. The exception, employer provided in-house training, had no measurable impact on productivity.
    Keywords: ICT Policy and Strategies,Education For All,Effective Schools and Teachers,Access&Equity in Basic Education,Primary Education
    Date: 2016–05–12
  26. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: Preparing and executing a transition to K–12 requires political commitment and financial investment as well as enough human resources capable of planning, developing, implementing, and sustaining a complex reform. More than 140 countries offer what has become the international norm for pretertiary education, a kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12). Research attests to the long-term learning and social benefits of school readiness programs. Experience in many countries also shows that a K–12 system of schooling is the minimum necessary to acquire the knowledge and expertise for university education, employment training, or decent work.
    Keywords: education, basic education, K-12, K1-12, K-12 and transition, 12 year education, twelve year education, senior highschool, twelfth grade education, grade 12, 12-year education
    Date: 2015–11
  27. By: Heidrich, Stefanie (Department of Economics, Umeå University)
    Abstract: In this paper I study the long-term effects of inter-municipal moving during childhood on income using Swedish register data. Due to the richness of the data I am able to control for important sources of selection into moving, such as parent separation, parents’ unemployment, education, long run income, and immigration background. I find that children’s long run incomes are significantly negatively affected by moving during childhood, and the effect is larger for those who move more often. For children who move once, I also estimate the effect of the timing and the quality of the move. I measure the quality of each neighborhood based on the adult outcomes for individuals who never move; the quality of a move follows as the difference in quality between the origin and the destination. Given that a family moves, I find that the negative effect of childhood moving on adult income is increasing in age at move. Children benefit economically from the quality of the region they move to only if they move before age 12 (sons) and age 16 (daughters).
    Keywords: long-term effects of moving; disruption costs; neighborhood effects; human capital; child development
    JEL: D31 J17 J24 J62 R23
    Date: 2016–05–18
  28. By: Baten, Jörg; Cappelli, Gabriele
    Abstract: How did colonialism interact with the development of human capital in Africa? We create an innovative panel dataset on numeracy across African countries before, during and after the Scramble for Africa (1730 -1970) by drawing on new sources and by carefully assessing potential selection bias. The econometric evidence that we provide, based on OLS, 2SLS and Propensity Score Matching, shows that colonialism had very diverse effects on human capital depending on the education policy of the colonizer. Although the average marginal impact of colonialism on the growth of numeracy was positive, the premium that we find was driven by the British educational system. Especially after 1900, the strategies chosen by the British were associated with faster human-capital accumulation, while other colonies were characterized by a negative premium on the growth of education. We connect this finding to the reliance of British education policy on mission schools, which used local languages and the human capital of local teachers to expand schooling in the colonies. We also show that this, in turn, had long-lasting effects on economic growth, which persist to the present day.
    Keywords: Africa; Colonialism; Education Policy; Human Capital; Numeracy
    JEL: N37 O15
    Date: 2016–05
  29. By: José De Gregorio (Peterson Institute for International Economics)
    Abstract: Data for a large sample of countries dating back to the early 1970s reveal that the large depreciations against the dollar that are occurring in many countries are not unprecedented in magnitude or duration. The pass-through to inflation from exchange rate depreciation has been slightly more muted than in previous occasions, but it is not out of line with experience since the mid-1990s. The current account adjustment has been more limited than in the past, possibly suggesting that the period of weak currencies may be prolonged.
    Keywords: Current account adjustment, depreciation, exchange rate pass-through, inflation
    JEL: E31 F31 F32 F41
    Date: 2016–05
  30. By: Ratana Daungkaew (Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University); Koolchalee Chongcharoen (Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University)
    Abstract: This study aims to explore any relevant information related to higher education policies in Thailand in promoting ASEAN Community. The study was guided by three broad questions: (1) What is the background of current higher education policies in Thailand; (2) What are the key domestic higher education policies currently in place that could be relevant to the AC; and (3) What could be some foreseeable challenges to the implementation of higher education policies promoting the AC? A qualitative approach was employed using document analyses and in-depth interviews with relevant government officials. The findings provide readers with a broad background on higher education in Thailand and the country’s formulation of higher education policies for supporting the AC, as well as an overview of the latest National Education Reform (2009-2018) that emphasizes Thailand’s potential to play a more active role as an higher education hub that develops human resources with the knowledge and skills sought by ASEAN countries. In addition, the study looks at current factors in the existing Thai higher education system that could potentially act as barriers in the implementation of policies promoting the AC, such as the English-language proficiency of Thai graduates; lack of manpower in technical and vocational fields; teacher preparation and quality assessment; and quality of higher education.
    Keywords: Higher education policy; ASEAN community, Thailand
  31. By: Burgess, Simon (University of Bristol)
    Abstract: This review describes the research frontier on human capital and education in economics research. It delineates what is known and largely agreed, and what are the most promising lines for future research. The approach will be to explain clearly and precisely the research evidence, in a way that makes this accessible to a wide audience. The survey has two particular aims. First, it draws out the implications for key education policy issues, highlighting which policy ideas can be supported by the economics research. To do this, my focus is on research that identifies causal effects. Second, it tries to identify some of the big open research questions and policy knowledge gaps in this field.
    Keywords: education, human capital
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2016–04
  32. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: A study of how PPPs have been employed by ADB developing member countries in Asia and the Pacific identified seven initiatives that adopted the underlying principles of PPP in developing and delivering ICT for education services. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have generated a lot of interest from governments around the world for leveraging private sector involvement in developing and sustaining public infrastructure and services. Initially, PPPs were favored by transport, energy, and other large infrastructure-intensive sectors. More recently, the concept has been expanded to include social sectors such as education.
    Keywords: education, public-private partnerships and education, communications technology and education, PPP and education, PPP and ICT, ICT and education
    Date: 2015–11

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