nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒05‒21
twenty-one papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Education curriculum and student achievement : theory and evidence By Su, Xuejuan; Andrietti, Vincenzo
  2. Social Promotion in Primary School: Immediate and Cumulated Effects on Attainment By Margaret Leighton; Priscila Souza; Stéphane Straub
  3. Multifaceted Aid for Low-Income Students and College Outcomes: Evidence from North Carolina By Charles T. Clotfelter; Steven W. Hemelt; Helen F. Ladd
  4. What You Don’t Know... Can’t Hurt You? A Field Experiment on Relative Performance Feedback in Higher Education By Ghazala Azmat; Manuel Bagues; Antonio Cabrales; Nagore Iriberri
  5. Higher Education Policies in Promoting ASEAN Community: The case of Myanmar By Koolchalee Chongcharoen; Ratana Daungkaew
  6. Position of Entrepreneurial Thinking in Iran's Education System By Mohammad Alizadeh Jamal; Habib Safarzadeh; seyed Jalal Langari; Mouna bibi Langari
  7. Technology and Education: Computers, Software, and the Internet By George Bulman; Robert W. Fairlie
  8. Ready to learn: the role of childcare attendance on children's school outcomes in Italy By Gloria Di Caprera
  9. A Student’s Dilemma: Is There a Traoff-off Between a Higher Salary or Higher GPA By Timothy M. Diette; Manu Raghav
  10. Catching-up: The educational mobility of migrants’ and natives’ children in Europe By Daniel Rais
  11. The contribution of education to economic growth: Evidence from Nepal By Gangadhar Dahal
  12. Maternal Education, Parental Investment and Non-Cognitive Skills in Rural China By Jessica Leight; Elaine M. Liu
  13. Labor Market Rigidities and Production Efficiency in Public Schools By Dongwoo Kim; Cory Koedel; Shawn Ni; Michael Podgursky
  14. The impact of welfare benefits on natives’ and immigrants’ attitudes towards immigration By Daniel Rais
  15. Does Family Background Affect Earnings through Education? A Generalised Approach to Mediation Analysis By Mendolia, Silvia; Siminski, Peter
  16. Parental Alcohol Consumption and Adult Children's Educational Attainment By Lucia Mangiavacchi; Luca Piccoli
  17. Intergenerational Mobility under Education-Effort Complementarity By Jaime Alonso-Carrera; Jordi Caballé; Xavier Raurich
  18. The Cost of Decentralization: Linguistic Polarization and the Provision of Education By Cinnirella, Francesco; Schueler, Ruth M.
  19. Gender Matters By Kimberly V. Smith; Claire Dye; Elizabeth Cook; Kristina Rosinsky; Mindy Scott
  20. Increased Trade of Education Services for Regional Labor Market Integration By El-Hakim, Nadine; Rogers, Glenn
  21. The Effect of Out-of-School Activities on Selected Future Outcomes, Using Path Analysis By Seira Suzuki

  1. By: Su, Xuejuan; Andrietti, Vincenzo
    Abstract: This paper proposes a theory of education curriculum and analyzes its distributional impact on student learning outcomes. Different curricula represent horizontal differentiation in the education technology, thus a curriculum change has distributional effects across students. We test the model using the quasi-natural experiment of the G8 reform in Germany. We find evidence of heterogeneous reform effects consistent with our theory. While the reform improves student test scores on average, such benefits are more pronounced for well-prepared students. In contrast, less-prepared students do not benefit from the reform.
    Keywords: Unconditional quantile regression; Conditional quantile regression; Difference-in-differences; Distributional effects; Horizontal differentiation; Education curriculum
    JEL: D04 I28 I21
    Date: 2016–04
  2. By: Margaret Leighton (University of St Andrews); Priscila Souza (Climate Policy Initiative/Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro); Stéphane Straub (Toulouse School of Economics)
    Abstract: Does social promotion perpetuate shortfalls in student achievement, or can low-achieving students catch up with their peers when they are pushed ahead? Using data from Brazilian primary schools, this paper presents evidence of substantial catch up among socially promoted students. After documenting sorting across schools in response to the policy, in particular away from gated- promotion private schools, we show that social promotion cycles has no significant effect on municipality enrolment figures or on the percentage of students dropping out mid-year. Cohorts of students exposed to episodes of social pro- motion display higher rates of age-appropriate study than their peers who faced the threat of repetition each year: by age eleven, 5.6 fewer students out of 100 have fallen behind in their studies, while 5.1 fewer students out of 100 are two or more years delayed. These gains, which arise mechanically during the period of social promotion, are highly persistent over time – even through educational stages which are typically high-stakes. This evidence suggests that, absent the social promotion policy, retention rates in Brazilian primary schools are inefficiently high: many promoted students successfully pass gateway exams after being pushed ahead, and go on to complete junior primary school on time.
    Keywords: education policy, primary school, grade repetition, grade retention; social promotion; automatic promotion; Brazil
    JEL: I21 I28 I25
    Date: 2016–04–26
  3. By: Charles T. Clotfelter; Steven W. Hemelt; Helen F. Ladd
    Abstract: Launched in 2004, the Carolina Covenant combines grant-heavy financial aid with an array of non-financial supports for low-income students at an elite public university. We find that the program increased four-year graduation rates by about 8 percentage points for eligible students in the cohorts who experienced the fully developed program. For these cohorts, we also find suggestive effects on persistence to the fourth year of college, cumulative earned credits, and academic performance. We conclude that aid programs targeting low-income, high-ability students are most successful when they couple grant aid with strong non-financial supports.
    JEL: I22 I23
    Date: 2016–05
  4. By: Ghazala Azmat (Queen Mary University of London and Centre for Economic Performance, LSE); Manuel Bagues (Aalto University and IZA); Antonio Cabrales (University College London); Nagore Iriberri (University of the Basque CountryU PV/EHU, IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of providing feedback to college students on their position in the grade distribution by using a randomized control experiment. This information was updated every six months during a three-year period. In the absence of treatment, students' underestimate their position in the grade distribution. The treatment significantly improves the students' self-assessment. We find that treated students experience a significant decrease in their educational performance, as measured by their accumulated GPA and number of exams passed, and a significant improvement in their self-reported satisfaction, as measured by survey responses obtained after information is provided but before students take their exams. Those effects, however, are short lived, as students catch up in subsequent periods. Moreover, the negative effect on performance is driven by those students who underestimate their position in the absence of feedback. Those students who overestimate initially their position, if anything, respond positively.
    Keywords: Relative performance feedback, Ranking, Randomized field experiment, School performance
    JEL: J71 J44
    Date: 2016–03
  5. By: Koolchalee Chongcharoen (Sukhothai Thammatirat Open University); Ratana Daungkaew (Sukhothai Thammatirat Open University)
    Abstract: The purposes of this paper were to present a general overview of the background of Myanmar higher education, the higher education policy formulation, and the faced challenges related to its higher educational policies for promoting ASEAN community. In order to achieve the purposes, two research methods; documentary research and in-depth interviews were employed. The purposive random sampling was used to select the participants. The key informants were the executives in higher educational policy setting and the stakeholders. The data were analyzed by content analysis. The study demonstrated that higher institutions in Myanmar have been under the supervision of 13 ministries and are allocated budgets by Ministry of Education. At the same time, the universities are concerned with their own governance, administration, and respective ministries. The findings showed that the policy development process of the higher education has gradually transition from the highly centralized to be the part of the participation of many relevant groups from educational stakeholders. The research also revealed the faced challenges related to Myanmar higher educational policies for promoting ASEAN community. The major challenges were concern with student equity, access, autonomy and choices; language; information technology and facilities; human resource; financial; research; and quality assurance and credit transfer.
    Keywords: higher education policy; ASEAN community; Myanmar
  6. By: Mohammad Alizadeh Jamal (Emam Mohammad Bagher Branch, Farhangian University, Bojnord, Iran); Habib Safarzadeh (Emam Mohammad Bagher Branch, Farhangian University, Bojnord, Iran); seyed Jalal Langari (Emam Mohammad Bagher Branch, Farhangian University, Bojnord, Iran); Mouna bibi Langari (Emam Mohammad Bagher Branch, Farhangian University, Bojnord, Iran)
    Abstract: Objectives of education systems of various societies will face new challenges through the path leads them into new and variable situation of new industrial technologies of the third millennium in which philosophical, scientific, cultural, social and economic foundations of societies will experience deep developments. The education system can play a key role to adapt societies to the new situation. The education system should pave the way for developing certain features such as independence-seeking, risk-taking, innovation, self-esteem and foresight in students through proposing proper training programs. Based on promoting entrepreneurial thinking, the education system can provide a condition in which the educated may act as producers instead of job seekers and may start businesses not only for themselves, but also for others. Thus, this study tries to analyze the position of entrepreneurial thinking in Iran's education system using examining the entrepreneurial features of students. To do so, a number of 335 students (third grade of high school) were selected through stratified random sampling based on discipline and gender. Then a questionnaire was used to collect and analyze the required data. The results gained from analysis of data imply that the educational programs of Iran's education system have failed to provide a proper condition to improve the entrepreneurial features of students. The results of the analysis of the variance, used to compare the performance of training programs in different schools, indicate that there was no difference among various schools in improving entrepreneurial spirit for students. There was no significant difference between students of various schools in terms of having entrepreneurial spirit, as well. Likewise T-test, used to compare the entrepreneurial spirit of girl and boy students in average, showed that there is no significant relationship between gender and entrepreneurial spirit.
    Keywords: Education System, Entrepreneurial Spirit, Students, Schools
  7. By: George Bulman; Robert W. Fairlie
    Abstract: A substantial amount of money is spent on technology by schools, families and policymakers with the hope of improving educational outcomes. This paper explores the theoretical and empirical literature on the impacts of technology on educational outcomes. The literature focuses on two primary contexts in which technology may be used for educational purposes: i) classroom use in schools, and ii) home use by students. Theoretically, ICT investment and CAI use by schools and the use of computers at home have ambiguous implications for educational achievement: expenditures devoted to technology necessarily offset inputs that may be more or less efficient, and time allocated to using technology may displace traditional classroom instruction and educational activities at home. However, much of the evidence in the schooling literature is based on interventions that provide supplemental funding for technology or additional class time, and thus favor finding positive effects. Nonetheless, studies of ICT and CAI in schools produce mixed evidence with a pattern of null results. Notable exceptions to this pattern occur in studies of developing countries and CAI interventions that target math rather than language. In the context of home use, early studies based on multivariate and instrumental variables approaches tend to find large positive (and in a few cases negative) effects while recent studies based on randomized control experiments tend to find small or null effects. Early research focused on developed countries while more recently several experiments have been conducted in developing countries.
    JEL: I20 I24
    Date: 2016–05
  8. By: Gloria Di Caprera (CEIS,University of Rome "Tor Vergata")
    Abstract: This work investigates the casual effect of childcare attendance on children's school achievements. We analyse data about children's school outcomes in mathematics and language focusing on pupils attending second and fifth grade in Italian primary school in conjunction with data providing public childcare coverage at provincial level. Using IV identification strategy, we show that childcare attendance leads to better school outcomes and early investment in education boosts both mathematics and language skills. For both school grades our results highlight a positive and significant effect of childcare attendance on children's school achievements which does not dissipate over time.
    Keywords: Early investment in education, childcare attendance, children's cognitive outcomes
    JEL: J13 I26 H75
    Date: 2016–05–09
  9. By: Timothy M. Diette (Department of Economics, Washington and Lee University); Manu Raghav (Department of Economics and Management, DePauw University)
    Abstract: While students typically want to earn high grades in college, they also, and perhaps even more so, want to earn high salaries after graduating college. In this paper, we explore whether there is a relationship between average grades earned in classes and the future salaries earned by graduates with the major associated with that course. Using student level data from a selective private liberal arts college, we find an inverse relationship between grades in courses offered by different departments and the national average mid-career salaries of college graduates from these majors. This suggests students face a trade-off between current grades while in college versus higher expected earnings in the future. Furthermore, students with low Math SAT scores are likely to get much worse grades in majors with higher salaries and students with low Verbal SAT scores are likely to get higher grades in majors with higher salaries, even after controlling for whether the individual is an international student. Finally, the advantage that females have over males in average course grade diminishes significantly in majors with higher salaries.
    Keywords: Grades; Earnings.
    JEL: A22 I21 J31
    Date: 2014–12
  10. By: Daniel Rais
    Abstract: Abstract The research highlights that immigrants’ dependence on welfare assistance negatively affects immigration attitudes. Such dependence is often related to the relatively low education of immigrants as compared to natives. Thus, it is important to understand whether immigrants’ offsprings are able to catch-up in education to their native peers.
    Date: 2015–05–18
  11. By: Gangadhar Dahal (University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the long run relationship between education and economic growth in Nepal between 1995 and 2013 through application of Johansen Cointegration technique and OLS. The results from OLS show that secondary and higher education contributes significantly to the Real GDP Per Capita in Nepal. The elementary education also positively influences economic growth but the results are statistically less significant. The cointegration test results confirmed the existence of long run relationship in education (a well-educated human capital) and Real GDP Per Capita. It is therefore, suggested to keep education on top priority in public policies, make serious efforts for Universalization of Primary Education and discourage the drop-out rate at all levels of education to achieve sustained economic growth.
    Keywords: Education, Economic growth, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS)
    JEL: I21 O40 C32
  12. By: Jessica Leight; Elaine M. Liu
    Abstract: The importance of non-cognitive skills in determining long-term human capital and labor market outcomes is widely acknowledged, but relatively little is known about how educational investments by parents may respond to non-cognitive skills early in life. This paper evaluates the parental response to variation in non-cognitive skills among their children in rural Gansu province, China, employing a household fixed effects specification; non-cognitive skills are defined as the inverse of both externalizing challenges (behavioral problems and aggression) and internalizing challenges (anxiety and withdrawal). The results suggest that on average, parents invest no more in terms of educational expenditure in children who have better non-cognitive skills relative to their siblings. However, there is significant heterogeneity with respect to maternal education; less educated mothers appear to reinforce differences in non-cognitive skills between their children, while more educated mothers compensate for these differences. Most importantly, there is evidence that these compensatory investments lead to catch-up in non-cognitive skills over time for children of more educated mothers.
    JEL: D13 I24 O15
    Date: 2016–05
  13. By: Dongwoo Kim (Department of Economics, at the University of Missouri, Columbia); Cory Koedel (Department of Economics and Truman School of Public Affairs, at the University of Missouri, Columbia); Shawn Ni (Department of Economics, at the University of Missouri, Columbia); Michael Podgursky (Department of Economics, at the University of Missouri, Columbia)
    Abstract: Economic theory predicts that incomplete licensing reciprocity and mobility penalties built into teacher pension plans create costly labor frictions for schools operating near state boundaries. We empirically test for boundary effects on production efficiency in public schools by comparing achievement across otherwise similar schools that differ by the extent to which a state line divides the local labor market area. We find highly localized but robust negative effects of state boundaries on student achievement. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to link labor-market rigidities to a direct measure of output in any sector.
    Keywords: labor mobility, labor frictions, teacher labor market, teacher pensions, teacher licensing
    JEL: H7 I2 J6
    Date: 2016–05
  14. By: Daniel Rais
    Abstract: Abstract As migrants’ dependence on social assistance from the welfare state which is often related to the relatively low skill level of immigrants acts as a main driver of immigration attitudes, we investigate whether migrants’ children are able to catch up in education to their native peers and compare their degree of intergenerational educational upward mobility to those of natives.
    Date: 2015–05–18
  15. By: Mendolia, Silvia (University of Wollongong); Siminski, Peter (University of Wollongong)
    Abstract: We seek to quantify the role of education as a mechanism through which family background affects earnings. To this end, we propose a generalisation of statistical 'mediation analysis'. In our approach, the treatment and mediator can be multidimensional. This allows us to directly and flexibly account for a range of background characteristics which affect child earnings through the pathway of education and through other mechanisms. The results suggest that educational attainment explains 24%-39% of the overall family background effect on earnings in Australia. The mediating role of education seems to be larger for Australia than for the UK.
    Keywords: mediation analysis, intergenerational mobility, equality of opportunity
    JEL: I24 C49 J62
    Date: 2016–04
  16. By: Lucia Mangiavacchi (Universitat de les Illes Balears); Luca Piccoli (Universitat de les Illes Balears)
    Abstract: This study analyses whether parents' alcohol consumption can affect long run children's educational attainments. Using 19 waves of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), where individuals and their families are followed from childhood to adulthood, this study analyses how parental alcohol consumption during childhood (between 1994 and 2001) may affect children's educational attainment about twelve years later (from 2006 to 2014). Panel estimations show that mother total grams of alcohol consumption during childhood is consistently negatively associated with adult children educational outcomes, as the probability of having an university degree, the highest level of education achieved and years of schooling. By using direct observation of past parental behaviour, the proposed empirical strategy avoids endogeneity issues that may arise when using contemporaneous retrospective information, while endogeneity deriving from unobserved characteristics determining both parental drinking and adult children educational attainment is addressed using an Hausman-Taylor estimator. This permits the identification of a negative causal relationship between mother alcohol consumption during childhood and long-run children's educational attainment. The study also explores the transmission mechanisms suggested by the literature, identifying a possible role for possible excessive prenatal exposure to alcohol, family disruption, health issues during childhood, parental care needs and intergenerational transmission of drinking habits of the father.
    Keywords: alcohol consumption, children education, parents problem-drinking, intergenerational transmissions, RLMS, Russia.
    JEL: D1 I1 I2 I3
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Jaime Alonso-Carrera; Jordi Caballé; Xavier Raurich
    Abstract: In this paper, we build a model that, according to the empirical evidence, gives raise to oscillations in wealth within a dynasty while keeping intergenerational persistence in education attainment. The mechanism that we propose is based on the interaction between effort and wealth suggested by the Carnegie effect, according to which wealthier individuals make less effort than the poorer. The oscillations in wealth arise from changes in the effort exerted by different generations as a response to both inherited wealth and college premium. Our mechanism generates a rich social stratification with several classes in the long run as a consequence of the combination of different levels of education and effort. Furthermore, we generate a large mobility in wealth among classes even in the long run. Our model highlights the role played by the minimum cost on education investment, the borrowing constraints, and the complementarity between effort and education.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility, education, effort
    JEL: I24 J62
    Date: 2016–05
  18. By: Cinnirella, Francesco; Schueler, Ruth M.
    Abstract: In this paper we argue that different preferences in a decentralized system lead to under provision of public goods. We analyze the provision of public primary education in nineteenth-century Prussia which was characterized by a linguistically polarized society and a decentralized education system. Using unique county-level data on education spending we show that linguistic polarization has a negative impact on local spending. Instrumental variable estimates using distance to the eastern border suggest that the relationship can be causally interpreted. Exploiting a reform of education spending, we show that centralization increases the provision of primary education relatively more in linguistically polarized counties.
    Keywords: Centralization; Decentralization; education; Polarization; Prussia; Public Goods
    JEL: H41 H75 I22 N13 N33
    Date: 2016–05
  19. By: Kimberly V. Smith; Claire Dye; Elizabeth Cook; Kristina Rosinsky; Mindy Scott
    Abstract: Gender Matters program, an innovative comprehensive sexuality education curriculum that aims to reduce teen pregnancy and associated sexual risk behaviors.
    Keywords: teen pregnancy, sex education, adolescents, PPA
    JEL: I
  20. By: El-Hakim, Nadine; Rogers, Glenn
    Abstract: Services trade is crucial for growth of labor productivity and total factor productivity. Regional integration is growing the size of markets for trade in services and regional trade in education services promises to be an increasingly critical component of achieving the post-2015 development goals. This paper frames the role of trade in education services to accelerate inclusive economic growth as labor markets become regionalized. African regional integration efforts, growth of trade in education services, and the benefits of these trends are summarized in context of the global shift to a services-based economy. Selected questions for discussion at the Organized Symposium in Milan are included in the conclusions of this pre-conference paper.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Marketing,
    Date: 2015
  21. By: Seira Suzuki (Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University)
    Abstract: It is common for Japanese children and adolescents to dedicate themselves to out-of-school activities such as dancing, playing sports and studying at cram schools. These activities are divided into three categories: cultural experiences, sports experiences, and educational (specialized-school) experiences. So far, the effects of these activities have been analyzed separately, especially sports experiences, and educational experiences were focused on. However, the effect of those activities are well connected and because of the recent trend, many people experience the multiple activities in their childhood. In order for the appropriate analysis, those three categories should be analyzed totally. As a result, it was found that experiences in cultural activities have an influence on participants' future. In the case of women, cultural activities enhanced their academic progress along with income. In the case of men, cultural activities have a synergy with other activities and affect educational progress.
    Keywords: out-of-school activities, cultural activities, path analysis, cultural capital, effect on income
    Date: 2016–05

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