nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒05‒08
23 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Long-term Consequences of Teacher Discretion in Grading of High-stakes Tests By Rebecca Diamond; Petra Persson
  2. Profile of second-level students exempt from studying Irish By Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer
  3. Treating schools to a new administration: Evidence from South Africa of the impact of better practices in the system-level administration of schools By Martin Gustafsson; Stephen Taylor
  4. Falling Behind: Socio-demographic profiles of educationally disadvantaged youth. Evidence from PISA 2000-2012 By Zlata Bruckauf; UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
  5. University differences in the graduation minorities in STEM fields: evidence from California By Peter Arcidiacono; Esteban M. Aucejo; V. Joseph Hotz
  6. The causal effects of an intensified curriculum on cognitive skills : evidence from a natural experiment By Andrietti, Vincenzo
  7. Redistribution without distortion: Evidence from an affirmative action program at a large Brazilian university By Fernanda Estevan; Thomas Gall, Louis-Philippe Morin
  8. The 'Pupil' Factory: Specialization and the Production of Human Capital in Schools By Roland G. Fryer, Jr
  9. Dynamic Equality of Opportunity By John E. Roemer; Burak Unveren
  10. Addressing the challenges in higher education in Norway By Vassiliki Koutsogeorgopoulou
  11. Entrepreneurial skills and wage employment By Aleksander Kucel; Montserrat Vilalta-Bufí
  12. Studying Alone or Together: How do the incentives make students more productive? (Japanese) By NAKAMURO Makiko; KAYABA Yutaka
  13. The Impact of Investment in Human Capital on Economic Development: An Empirical Exercise Based on Height and Years of Schooling in Spain (1881-1998) By Enriqueta Camps
  14. In-school savings accounts enhance effective financial education: learnings from OpportunityTexas By Hubbert Doyle, Molly
  15. High times: The effect of medical marijuana laws on student time use By Chu, Luke Yu-Wei; Gershenson, Seth
  16. High Times: The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on Student Time Use By Chu, Yu-Wei Luke; Gershenson, Seth
  18. Augmenting Food Security Through Agricultural Input Subsidy: Anevaluation of National Agricultural Input Voucher Scheme (NAIVS) with impact on Female-headed Households in Tanzania By Kriti, Malhotra
  19. Impact of Vegetable Integration and Consumption in the National School Lunch Program By Dunn, Caroline; Shelnutt, Karla; House, Lisa; Karavolias, Joanna
  20. Maternal Education, Divorce, and Changes in Economic Resources: Evidence from Germany By Liliya Leopold; Thomas Leopold
  21. Economic Impacts of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Farmer Field Schools (FFS): Evidence from Onion Farmers in the Philippines By Sanglestsawai, Santi; Rejesus, Roderick M.; Yorobe, Jose M. Jr.
  22. Food Buying Practices of College Students By Hardy, Deric; Ejimakor, Godfrey; Amoakon, Joel; Ralph, Okafor
  23. Child Access Prevention Laws, Youth Gun Carrying, and School Shootings By Anderson, D. Mark; Sabia, Joseph J.

  1. By: Rebecca Diamond; Petra Persson
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the long-term consequences of teacher discretion in grading of high-stakes tests. Evidence is currently lacking, both on which students receive test score manipulation and on whether such manipulation has any real, long-term consequences. We document extensive test score manipulation of Swedish nationwide math tests taken in the last year before high school, by showing significant bunching in the distribution of test scores above discrete grade cutoffs. We find that teachers use their discretion to adjust the test scores of students who have "a bad test day," but that they do not discriminate based on gender or immigration status. We then develop a Wald estimator that allows us to harness quasi-experimental variation in whether a student receives test score manipulation to identify its effect on students' longer-term outcomes. Despite the fact that test score manipulation does not, per se, raise human capital, it has far-reaching consequences for the beneficiaries, raising their grades in future classes, high school graduation rates, and college initiation rates; lowering teen birth rates; and raising earnings at age 23. The mechanism at play suggests important dynamic complementarities: Getting a higher grade on the test serves as an immediate signaling mechanism within the educational system, motivating students and potentially teachers; this, in turn, raises human capital; and the combination of higher effort and higher human capital ultimately generates substantial labor market gains. This highlights that a higher grade may not primarily have a signaling value in the labor market, but within the educational system itself.
    JEL: I20 J24
    Date: 2016–04
  2. By: Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer
    Abstract: Drawing on curriculum differentiation theory, this paper discusses exemptions from learning Irish granted to Irish post-primary students. In order to explore the profile of students granted such exemptions, the study utilises data from a national longitudinal study, Growing Up in Ireland. Additional information is provided by administrative data collected by the Department of Education and Skills to show trends in the number of exemptions granted over time. The findings show that factors impacting on being exempt include gender, social class, having a special educational need at primary school and being born outside Ireland.
    Date: 2016–03
  3. By: Martin Gustafsson (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch); Stephen Taylor (Department of Economics and Department of Basic Education)
    Abstract: School examination results are far from ideal measures of progress in schooling systems, yet if analysed with sufficient care these data, which are common in education systems, can serve this purpose. The paper partly deals with how various student selection and year-on-year comparability issues in examinations data can be dealt with. This is demonstrated using South African student-level results, aggregated to the school level, for Grade 12 mathematics in the years 2005 to 2013. This was a period during which provincial boundaries changed, creating a quasi-experiment which is amenable to impact evaluation techniques. Value-added school production functions and fixed effects models are used to establish that movement into a better performing province was associated with large student performance improvements, equal in magnitude to around a year’s worth of progress in a fast improving country. Improvements were not always immediate, however, and the data seem to confirm that substantial gains are only achieved after several years, after students have been exposed to many grades of better teaching. The institutional factors which might explain the improvements are discussed. Spending per student was clearly not a significant explanatory variable. What did seem to matter was more efficient use of non-personnel funds by the authorities, with a special focus on educational materials, the brokering of pacts between stakeholders, including teacher unions, schools and communities, and better monitoring and support by the district office. Moreover, the education department in one province in question, Gauteng, has for many years pursued an approach which is unusual in the South African context, of hiring a substantial number of senior managers within the bureaucracy on fixed term contracts, as opposed to on a permanent basis, the aim being to improve accountability and flexibility at the senior management level.
    Keywords: South Africa, school improvement, mathematics education, impact evaluation
    JEL: C21 H11 I21
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Zlata Bruckauf; UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
    Abstract: Early identification of students who fail to reach basic, age-appropriate literacy skills is the first step to ensure timely support of their learning. Understanding those drivers of low achievement that are beyond students’ control enables policy makers to foster equal opportunity for achievement. Drawing on the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 to 2012 data, this paper examines the risk factors of low achievement, defined here as scoring below the 10th percentile of the distribution, and their evolution over time, across 39 industrialized nations. These include an aggregate measure of socio-economic status (SES), immigration background, non-test language spoken at home, living in a single parent household, and gender. We find that family SES, is one of the most consistent predictors of low-achievement (across a diverse range of educational systems) and most persistent (across time). Amongst other results, we also find no evidence that the gender gap in reading – in favour of girls – narrowed over time, leaving boys at risk of educational disadvantage in the majority of countries.
    Keywords: adolescents; disadvantaged children; immigration; low income; socio-economic background;
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Peter Arcidiacono; Esteban M. Aucejo; V. Joseph Hotz
    Abstract: We examine differences in minority science graduation rates among University of California campuses when racial preferences were in place. Less-prepared minorities at higher-ranked campuses had lower persistence rates in science and took longer to graduate. We estimate a model of students' college major choice where net returns of a science major differ across campuses and student preparation. We find less-prepared minority students at top- ranked campuses would have higher science graduation rates had they attended lower-ranked campuses. Better matching of science students to universities by preparation and providing information about students' prospects in different major-university combinations could increase minority science graduation.
    Keywords: STEM majors; minorities; college graduation
    JEL: A22 I2
    Date: 2016–03
  6. By: Andrietti, Vincenzo
    Abstract: This paper exploits a unique universal educational policy - implemented in most German states between 2001 and 2008 - that compressed the academic-track high school curriculum into a (oneyear) shorter time span, thereby increasing time of instruction and share of curriculum taught per grade. Using 2000-2012 PISA data and a quasi-experimental approach, I estimate the impacts of this intensified curriculum on cognitive skills. I find robust evidence that the reform improved, on average, the reading, mathematical, and scientific literacy skills acquired by academic-track ninthgraders upon treatment. However, I also provide evidence that the reform widened the gap in student performance with respect to parental migration background and student ability. Finally, although the reform did not affect, on average, high school grade retention, I find that the latter increased for students with parental migration background. Taken together, these findings suggest that moving to a compressed high-school curriculum did not compromise and benefited, on average, students' cognitive skills. However, they also raise equity concerns that policy-makers should be aware of.
    Keywords: Remedial education; Grade retention; Academic-track high school; Cognitive skills; Instructional time; Learning intensity; Intensified curriculum; G8 reform
    JEL: D04 I28 I21
    Date: 2016–04
  7. By: Fernanda Estevan; Thomas Gall, Louis-Philippe Morin
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine an innovative affirmative action policy designed to increase the representation of underprivileged students at UNICAMP, a large and highly ranked Brazilian university. The university awarded bonus points to targeted applicants (i.e., public high school applicants) on their admission exam, as opposed to imposing a typical quota system. Using a rich set of administrative data from UNICAMP, we assess the effect of this policy on the composition of admitted students, and investigate for possible behavioral responses at the extensive (participation) and intensive (preparation effort) margins. We find that the admission probability of public high school applicants, the targeted applicants, significantly increased following the adoption of the affirmative action program. The policy was also associated with sizable redistribution in the composition of admitted students, with a shift towards students from families with lower socio-economic status. Surprisingly, we find little evidence of behavioral reactions to the affirmative action policy, in terms of test performance or application decision.
    Keywords: post-secondary education; affirmative action; university admission; inequality.
    JEL: I23 I24 I28 J15 J18
    Date: 2016–03–22
  8. By: Roland G. Fryer, Jr
    Abstract: Starting in the 2013-2014 school year, I conducted a randomized field experiment in fifty traditional public elementary schools in Houston, Texas designed to test the potential productivity benefits of teacher specialization in schools. Treatment schools altered their schedules to have teachers specialize in a subset of subjects in which they have demonstrated relative strength (based on value-add measures and principal observations). The average impact of teacher specialization on student achievement is -0.042 standard deviations in math and -0.034 standard deviations in reading, per year. Students enrolled in special education and those with younger teachers demonstrated marked negative results. I argue that the results are consistent with a model in which the benefits of specialization driven by sorting teachers into a subset of subjects based on comparative advantage is outweighed by inefficient pedagogy due to having fewer interactions with each student. Consistent with this, specialized teachers report providing less attention to individual students (relative to non-specialized teachers), though other mechanisms are possible.
    JEL: D24 I20 J0
    Date: 2016–04
  9. By: John E. Roemer (Dept. of Political Science & Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Burak Unveren (Yildiz Technical University)
    Abstract: What are the long-term effects of policies intended to equalize opportunities among different social classes of children? To find out, we study the stationary states of an intergenerational model where adults are either White or Blue collar employees. Both adults and the state invest in their children’s education. Our analysis indicates that the major obstacle to equalizing opportunities in the long-run is private educational investment. Next we examine economies where only the state invests in education, motivated by the Nordic experience. In a majority of these economies, no child lags behind regarding future prospects, a theoretical result confirmed by simulations.
    Keywords: Equality of opportunity, intergenerational transfers, education, dynamic model
    JEL: H21 D63 I24
    Date: 2016–03
  10. By: Vassiliki Koutsogeorgopoulou
    Abstract: Norway’s predominately public and tuition-fee free tertiary education system encourages participation and has high attainment rates. However, challenges in spending efficiency, study times, skills demand, inclusiveness and quality remain. Also, learning outcomes could improve further. Moreover, few Norwegian universities rank high in international comparisons on the basis of research-related and other indicators, and spending per student or GDP is relatively high. Many small institutions, aiming to meet regional needs, do not reach critical mass in staff and student numbers. Many students take considerable time to finish their studies despite financial incentives, and students from lower income groups have low tertiary participation and completion rates despite a strong focus on inclusiveness. Enrolments remain low in fields such as science and engineering, although they have increased in recent years, and supply shortages in some professional areas indicate room for improvement. Better incentives for both students and institutions to ensure timely completions, with a special emphasis on disadvantaged students and labour market needs, a structure that paves the way for adequately sized institutions, and effective governance are essential for higher quality education and research. Effective monitoring of the outcomes is also vital. The government’s comprehensive quality-enhancing agenda, with a focus on these fronts, is welcome. This working paper relates to the 2016 OECD Economic Survey of Norway ( Relever les défis liés à l'enseignement supérieur en Norvège En Norvège, le système d’enseignement supérieur, essentiellement public et sans frais de scolarité, encourage la participation, et les taux de réussite y sont élevés. Toutefois, des difficultés subsistent en termes d’efficience des dépenses, de durée des études, de demande de compétences, d’inclusivité et de qualité. De plus, les retombées de l’enseignement pourraient être encore améliorées. En outre, peu d’universités norvégiennes figurent dans le haut des classements internationaux établis à partir d’indicateurs fondés sur les recherches ou autres, et les dépenses par étudiant ou par rapport au PIB sont relativement élevées. Beaucoup d’établissements de taille modeste ayant vocation à répondre à des besoins régionaux n’atteignent pas la masse critique en termes d’effectifs et de nombre d’étudiants. Nombre d’étudiants mettent énormément de temps à finir leurs études, malgré les incitations financières, et les étudiants issus de groupes à faible revenu sont peu nombreux à fréquenter l’enseignement supérieur et leur taux de réussite est faible, malgré la priorité donnée à l’inclusivité. Même s’ils ont augmenté au cours des dernières années, les effectifs restent faibles dans des domaines comme la science et l’ingénierie, et les pénuries d’offre dans certains domaines professionnels sont le signe qu’une marge d’amélioration existe. Pour améliorer la qualité de l’enseignement et de la recherche, il est essentiel d’instaurer, en direction des étudiants comme des établissements, de meilleures incitations afin de garantir un achèvement des cycles d’études dans des délais convenables, en mettant tout particulièrement l’accent sur les étudiants défavorisés et les besoins du marché du travail, de mettre en place une structure propre à favoriser l’émergence d’établissements ayant une taille adéquate et de prévoir une gouvernance efficace. Assurer un suivi efficace des résultats est également indispensable. Le vaste programme d’amélioration de la qualité adopté par le gouvernement, qui met l’accent sur tous ces points, est le bienvenu. Ce Document de travail se rapporte à l’Étude économique de l’OCDE de la Norvège 2015 ( ique-norvege.htm).
    Keywords: education, institutions, reform, students, accreditation, accréditation, étudiants, réforme, institutions, éducation
    JEL: I22 I23 I28
    Date: 2016–04–12
  11. By: Aleksander Kucel (Universitat de Barcelona); Montserrat Vilalta-Bufí (Universitat de Barcelona)
    Abstract: Promotion of entrepreneurial skills among the population is often considered as an adequate policy to enhance job creation and economic growth. However, neither the definition of entrepreneurial skills, nor the costs and benefits of such a policy are clear. Our aim is to check whether the benefits of entrepreneurial skills extent beyond self-employment. We use a sample of higher education graduates from Spain, from the year 2000 interviewed in 2005 (REFLEX survey). We denote entrepreneurial skills as those competencies that enhance the likelihood of self-employment. Then we analyze whether they are rewarded in wage employment. We find that alertness to new opportunities, ability to mobilize others and knowledge of other fields are the competencies that enhance self-employment in Spain. Yet, these skills are not rewarded in a salaried job. Therefore, benefits of policies fostering entrepreneurial skills do not extend to wage employment in Spain.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial skills, wage returns, wage employment, self-employment, competencies
    JEL: J24 J31 J43
    Date: 2016
  12. By: NAKAMURO Makiko; KAYABA Yutaka
    Abstract: In labor economics, a large body of research empirically suggests that assembling teams with a small number of workers improves worker productivity when the rewards are incentivized to team production. This may be explained by collaboration, mutual learning, knowledge and skills spillover, and social pressure among workers. Is this applicable for studying?. This paper examines the causal effect of team participation and team composition on student productivity using the datasets from an e-learning material called "Sulala" where students are randomly assigned into schools with either individual competition or team competition at the "Sulala Cup" implemented during the summer of 2015. According to the empirical results, students who are assigned into team competition on average are 14%-20% more productive than their counterparts who are assigned into individual competition. In addition to the productivity, it is found that students who are engaged in team competition improve their test scores as well. Once the sample is separated by gender, the effects to participate in team competition, however, appear to be positive and statistically significant only for male students. Looking at the effect of team composition on productivity, peer effects in forming teams with only male students are stronger than with only females or both male and female students.
    Date: 2016–03
  13. By: Enriqueta Camps
    Abstract: Throughout the 19th century and until the mid-20th century, in terms of long-term investment in human capital and, above all, in education, Spain lagged far behind the international standards and, more specifically, the levels attained by its neighbours in Europe. In 1900, only 55% of the population could read; in 1950, this figure was 93%. This paper provides evidence that these conditions contributed to a pattern of slower economic growth in which the physical strength required for agricultural work, measured here through height, had a larger impact than education on economic growth. It was not until the 1970s, with the arrival of democracy, that the Spanish education system was modernized and the influence of education on economic growth increased.
    Keywords: employment structure, human capital, educational offer, economic growth
    JEL: I2 I1 J3 J8 N3
    Date: 2016–04
  14. By: Hubbert Doyle, Molly (Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas)
    Date: 2015–03–01
  15. By: Chu, Luke Yu-Wei; Gershenson, Seth
    Abstract: Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have passed medical marijuana laws. Previous research shows that these laws increase marijuana use among adults. In this paper, we estimate the effects of medical marijuana laws (MML) on secondary and post-secondary students’ time use using time diaries from the American Time Use Survey. We apply a difference-in-differences research design and estimate flexible fixed effects models that condition on state fixed effects and state-specific time trends. We find that on average, part-time college students in MML states spend 42 fewer minutes on homework, 37 fewer minutes attending class, and 60 more minutes watching television than their counterparts in non-MML states. However, we find no effects of MMLs on secondary or full-time college students. These results provide evidence on the mechanisms through which marijuana use affects educational outcomes, young peoples’ behavioural responses to MMLs (and reduced costs of obtaining marijuana), and that the impact of MMLs on student outcomes are heterogeneous and stronger among disadvantaged students.
    Keywords: Time use, Medical marijuana, Unintended consequences,
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Chu, Yu-Wei Luke (Victoria University of Wellington); Gershenson, Seth (American University)
    Abstract: Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have passed medical marijuana laws. Previous research shows that these laws increase marijuana use among adults. In this paper, we estimate the effects of medical marijuana laws (MML) on secondary and post-secondary students' time use using time diaries from the American Time Use Survey. We apply a difference-in-differences research design and estimate flexible fixed effects models that condition on state fixed effects and state-specific time trends. We find that on average, part-time college students in MML states spend 42 fewer minutes on homework, 37 fewer minutes attending class, and 60 more minutes watching television than their counterparts in non-MML states. However, we find no effects of MMLs on secondary or full-time college students. These results provide evidence on the mechanisms through which marijuana use affects educational outcomes, young peoples' behavioral responses to MMLs (and reduced costs of obtaining marijuana), and that the impact of MMLs on student outcomes are heterogeneous and stronger among disadvantaged students.
    Keywords: time use, medical marijuana, unintended consequences
    JEL: I18 K32 K42
    Date: 2016–04
  17. By: Jyoti Baijal
    Abstract: In the present study, memory and learning styles of secondary school students have been examined, so as to know how they co-relate with and influence examination stress in students. The objectives of the study are : (i) to study the relationship between examination stress and memory, (ii)to study the relationship between examination stress and learning-styles, (iii) to compare examination stress among students with high, moderate and low memory, (iv) to compare examination stress among students who adopt high and low reproducing/constructive learning styles. The sample for the present study consisted of 640 students studying in class XI of four U.P. Board schools and four C.B.S.E. Schools of Allahabad. 'Examination Stress Scale' of K.S. Misra was used to measure examination stress among secondary school students. 'Learning Styles Inventory' of K.S. Misra was used to identify the learning styles preferred by secondary school students. A Test on Memory constructed by the researcher was used to assess short term memory. The test consists of items based on recall and information processing. The findings are : (i) there is negative relationship between examination stress and memory, (ii)(a) examination stress is positively related to reproducing learning-style, (ii)(b) no significant relationship exists between examination stress and constructive learning-style, (iii) students with high, moderate and low memory differ from one another in their experience of examination stress, (iv)(a) students adopting high, moderate and low reproducing learning-style differ from one another on examination stress, (iv)(b) students adopting high, moderate and low level of constructive learning-style do not differ from one another in their experience of examination stress. Key words: stress, memory, learning style
    Date: 2016–03
  18. By: Kriti, Malhotra
    Abstract: Agricultural input subsidies have often been promoted as the solution to target food insecurity. This paper aims to investigate the impact of the National Agricultural Input Subsidy (NAIVS) on small-scale farmers in Tanzania particularly, for household food security, while investigating if the programme had any differential impact on female-headed households. On examining the general impact of the NAIVS on small-scale farmers, it is clear that the programme did affect food-security at the household level. Literacy also had a significant impact on household food-security and in terms of production. In terms of the specific impact of the programme on female-headed households, beneficiary female-headed households preferred spending more on education, birth control and family planning.They were also more food-secure and consumed more meals on an average, while the non-beneficiary households preferred spending more on food -- suggesting a lack of food self-sufficiency. However this cannot be attributed the input subsidy alone and needs further research. This paper aims to inform policy-making around agricultural input subsidies and its impacts on female headed households.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2015
  19. By: Dunn, Caroline; Shelnutt, Karla; House, Lisa; Karavolias, Joanna
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2016
  20. By: Liliya Leopold; Thomas Leopold
    Abstract: This study investigated the effects of divorce on educational gaps in mothers’ economic resources. The results shed new light on two opposing theoretical positions that have informed research on social inequality in the consequences of divorce. Recent extensions of the “diverging destinies” perspective posit that divorce is more consequential among the disadvantaged than among the privileged. The notion of “divorce as an equalizer” posits the reverse. Based on data from the German SOEP, we estimated correlated random-effects models to examine educational gaps in divorce-related changes of mothers’ household income and risk of poverty. The results are inconsistent with the diverging destinies perspective, as educational gaps in mothers’ economic resources did not widen after divorce. Instead, we found partial support for the competing notion of divorce as an equalizer, as higher educated mothers experienced larger declines in household income. Educational gaps in the risk of poverty remained constant.
    Date: 2016
  21. By: Sanglestsawai, Santi; Rejesus, Roderick M.; Yorobe, Jose M. Jr.
    Abstract: Economic Impacts of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Farmer Field Schools (FFS): Evidence from Onion Farmers in the Philippines
    Keywords: Farm Management, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2015
  22. By: Hardy, Deric; Ejimakor, Godfrey; Amoakon, Joel; Ralph, Okafor
    Abstract: As young adults, many college students are independently buying their food for the first time. What they buy, how, and where they buy food are dependent on a set of factors. One of the factors that influences how students buy food may be practices learned while living at home. Food buying is for the most part a new experience for college students. In order to better serve their customers, food service establishments and food outlets in and around college areas will need information on the food buying habits of students. It is also important to understand the preferred sources of food for college students. This study assesses factors that are important to college students in their food buying practices.
    Keywords: Food-at-home, Food-away-from-home, Nutrition Label, Food Price, Food Taste, Organic Food, Local Food, Small Farm, Agribusiness, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2016–01–22
  23. By: Anderson, D. Mark (Montana State University); Sabia, Joseph J. (San Diego State University)
    Abstract: Despite intense public interest in keeping guns out of schools, next to nothing is known about the effects of gun control policies on youth gun carrying or school violence. Using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) for the period 1993-2013, this study is the first to examine the relationship between child access prevention (CAP) gun controls laws and gun carrying among high school students. Our results suggest that CAP laws are associated with a 13 percent decrease in the rate of past month gun carrying and an 18 percent decrease in the rate at which students reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property. In addition, we find that CAP laws are associated with a lagged decline in the probability that students miss school due to feeling unsafe. These results are concentrated among minors, for whom CAP laws are most likely to bind. To supplement our YRBS analysis, we collect a novel dataset on school shooting deaths for the period 1991-2013. We find that while CAP laws promote a safer school environment, they have no observable impact on school-associated shooting deaths.
    Keywords: gun control, youth risky behavior, school violence
    JEL: K4 I2 H7
    Date: 2016–03

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