nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒04‒16
twenty-two papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Education and equality of opportunity: what have we learned from educational reforms? By Holmlund, Helena
  2. Modern Educational Methods - Gamification at Schools of Higher Education in Poland By Aleksandra Ptak; Tomasz Lis; Paula Bajdor
  3. The Effect of Performance-Based Incentives on Educational Achievement: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment By Steven D. Levitt; John A. List; Sally Sadoff
  4. Education as a Tool for the Economic Integration of Migrants By De Paola, Maria; Brunello, Giorgio
  5. ‘The teacher life chose me’: Investigating graduates’ teaching career decision By Juliana Shak
  6. Impact of funding targeted pre-school interventions on school readiness: Evidence from the Netherlands By Emre Akgunduz; Suzanne Heijnen
  7. Higher education and the fall and rise of inequality By Klaus Prettner; Andreas Schaefer
  8. The proposed Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF) for UK Universities By Charles Wild; Daniel Berger
  9. Interactions Between Family and School Environments: Evidence on Dynamic Complementarities? By Ofer Malamud; Cristian Pop-Eleches; Miguel Urquiola
  10. Why Does School Social Mix Matter? By McCoy, Selina; Quail, Amanda; Smyth, Emer
  11. Can Basic Maternal Literacy Skills Improve Infant Health Outcomes? Evidence from the Education Act in Nepal By Vinish Shrestha
  12. Academics vs. Athletics: Career Concerns for NCAA Division I Coaches By Christopher Avery; Brian Cadman; Gavin Cassar
  13. Attitudes to Irish as a School Subject among 13-year-olds By Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer
  14. Cognitive Skills, Non-Cognitive Skills, and Family Background: Evidence from Sibling Correlations By Silke Anger; Daniel D. Schnitzlein
  15. Are Higher Education Institutions Responsive to Changes in the Labor Market? By Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.; Gonzales, Kathrina G.; Cortes, Sol Francesca S.
  16. Heterogeneous effects of high school peers on educational outcomes By Mendolia, Silvia; Paloyo, Alfredo R.; Walker, Ian
  17. Web-Based Education Practices in Education of Nursing Students: Turkey Profile By MenekÅŸe Aker; Selma Ä°nfal; Esra Uslu
  18. Student Stress and the Leaving Certificate By Banks, Joanne; Smyth, Emer
  19. Historical trades, skills and agglomeration economies By Ehrl, Philipp; Monteiro Monasterio, Leonardo
  20. People’s Awareness of Natural Disaster Risks: Differences across Regions and Generations By Erina Gyoba
  21. Why the drivers of migration matter for the labour market By Jed Armstrong; Chris McDonald
  22. Education in the colonies of the Jewish Colonization Association in Argentina By Edgardo Zablotsky

  1. By: Holmlund, Helena (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy)
    Abstract: Equality of opportunity has been one of the central ideas governing education policy in the Nordic welfare state. This paper takes its starting point in the shared history of educational reform in the Nordic countries, and presents evidence that the comprehensive school reforms that implied a shift from selective two-tier schooling systems to unified compulsory schools were beneficial for equality of opportunity. This evidence is compared to a choice and voucher reform that in the 1990's introduced pedagogical as well as organizational variety in the education system in Sweden. The Swedish choice reform is unique in an international perspective, and has reshaped the education sector dramatically as a growing number of pupils attend non-public independent schools. The current education debate shows a widespread concern that the introduction of choice has led to a backlash for equality of opportunity. Parental background remains a strong determinant of pupil performance. However, recent research finds no indication that family background has become more important over time in explaining pupil outcomes. The Swedish education system nevertheless faces a number of challenges if it is to level the playing field and create equal opportunities for all pupils: schools are becoming increasingly more segregated, much as a consequence of immigration, and disadvantaged pupils are less likely to exercise school choice compared to their more advantaged peers.
    Keywords: educational reform; equality of opportunity
    JEL: I20 I24
    Date: 2016–03–14
  2. By: Aleksandra Ptak (Czestochowa University of Technology); Tomasz Lis (Czestochowa University of Technology); Paula Bajdor (Czestochowa University of Technology)
    Abstract: According to statistics, in recent years gamification has been listed as one of the most important trends. Among the gamification applications one should mention marketing, sales, recruiting, motivating, training and development of employees, health, personal development, education etc. The use of gamification in education brings with it enormous potential, increasingly often one talks today about it in the context of teaching at schools of higher education. This new approach to academic courses designing is used at Polish schools of higher education since 2012. The aim of the article is to introduce initiatives of gamification implementation in higher education in Poland and to examine whether the introduction of elements of games to courses of higher education may be attractive to students. The article presents the main assumptions of gamification and its most commonly used mechanisms. The authors present implemented gamification solutions, as well as the prospects of gamification in polish schools of higher education. The article is enriched with the results of research conducted among the students of Czestochowa University of Technology on the state of their knowledge about gamification, the scale of interest in gamification mechanisms and finally their wish to take part in the gamified e-learning course.
    Keywords: gamification, e-learning gamification, higher education, student
    JEL: A00 A20
  3. By: Steven D. Levitt; John A. List; Sally Sadoff
    Abstract: We test the effect of performance-based incentives on educational achievement in a low-performing school district using a randomized field experiment. High school freshmen were provided monthly financial incentives for meeting an achievement standard based on multiple measures of performance including attendance, behavior, grades and standardized test scores. Within the design, we compare the effectiveness of varying the recipient of the reward (students or parents) and the incentive structure (fixed rate or lottery). While the overall effects of the incentives are modest, the program has a large and significant impact among students on the threshold of meeting the achievement standard. These students continue to outperform their control group peers a year after the financial incentives end. However, the program effects fade in longer term follow up, highlighting the importance of longer term tracking of incentive programs.
    JEL: C93 I24 I25
    Date: 2016–03
  4. By: De Paola, Maria (University of Calabria); Brunello, Giorgio (University of Padova)
    Abstract: We examine the role of education in fostering the economic integration of immigrants. Although immigrants in Europe are – on average – slightly less educated than native individuals, there is a large heterogeneity across countries. We discuss evidence on student performance in international tests showing that children with an immigrant background display worse results than natives. While in some countries, such as Denmark and France, this gap is almost entirely explained by differences in socio-economic background, in others (Finland, Austria, Belgium and Portugal) the factors driving the gap are more complex and have roots also outside socio-economic conditions. We investigate how educational policies in the host count can affect the educational outcomes of immigrants. We focus our attention on pre-school attendance, school tracking, the combination of students and teacher characteristics, and class composition.
    Keywords: education, immigration, European migration policies, school tracking, class composition
    JEL: I20 I21 I28 J24 J61
    Date: 2016–03
  5. By: Juliana Shak (Universiti Brunei Darussalam)
    Abstract: Understanding what motivates prospective teachers to enter the profession has the potential to contribute to making teacher recruitment more attractive; to strengthening teacher education programmes, in order to meet the goals and aspirations of enrolled candidates; and to ensuring an overall positive school experience through the provision of appropriate mentor support. This information becomes even more important for universities which have undergone changes in the levels at which teacher education degrees are offered. Such is the case of Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education (SHBIE), a Graduate Faculty in Universiti Brunei Darussalam. Since 2009, SHBIE has become a Graduate School of Education. This means that the faculty no longer offers teacher education degrees at the undergraduate level. Instead, to prepare candidates for a career as a teacher, SHBIE offers an 18-month full time Master of Teaching qualification. With this in mind, the aims of the present study were twofold: first, to examine the motives of Master of Teaching students for choosing a career in teaching; and second, to compare the motives of these students with those who were in an undergraduate teacher preparation programme in SHBIE before it became a Graduate School of Education. Data for the present study were collected from 100 Master of Teaching students, using an open-ended questionnaire. Responses were coded and categorised according to extrinsic, intrinsic and altruistic motivations. This was done in order to compare the results of this study with those reported by Yong (1995). His study, conducted more than 2 decades ago, involved 133 SHBIE undergraduates who were training to become teachers in Brunei Darussalam. Findings revealed major differences between the two groups of students. For instance, while extrinsic motives were the dominant determinants for SHBIE students entering the teaching profession two decades ago, intrinsic motives were the most prominent amongst current SHBIE graduates. In addition, the graduates cited a number of intrinsic and altruistic reasons for choosing teaching, which are not found in Yong’s study. Another interesting finding relates to the graduates’ perceptions of their teaching-related abilities and perceived sense of expertise in areas related to their first degree. The results of the present study have important implications to facilitate teacher education.
    Keywords: motives, motivation, teaching career, teacher preparation, graduates
    JEL: I29 I23
  6. By: Emre Akgunduz; Suzanne Heijnen
    Abstract: We analyze the effectiveness of the early childhood programme (ECP) in the Netherlands. The programme is designed for 2.5 to 4 year olds from disadvantaged backgrounds. 37 municipalities received an additional subsidy to expand ECP programmes, which allows us to analyze the effects of the programme within a difference-in-difference-in-differences framework. Most children first enroll in primary schools at age 4 in the Netherlands, but pupils begin to learn reading and mathematics in grade 3 at age 6. We use grade repetition constructed from school registry data from 2008 to 2015 in the first two grades as an indicator of school readiness. Our results show significantly lower grade repetition rates for targeted boys who are in regions that receive the subsidy. Grade repetition drops by 1 to 3 percentage points from a mean of 10.5 percent for the disadvantaged group targeted by the programme.
    JEL: C21 I28 I21 J13
    Date: 2016–03
  7. By: Klaus Prettner (University of Hohenheim, Germany); Andreas Schaefer (ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: We investigate the effect of higher education on the evolution of inequality. In so doing we propose a novel overlapping generations model with three social classes: the rich, the middle class, and the poor. We show that there is an initial phase in which no social class invests in higher education of their children, such that the evolution of inequality is entirely driven by the level of bequests. Once a certain income threshold is surpassed, the rich start to invest in higher education of their children, which partially crowds out bequests and thereby reduces inequality in the short run. The better educated children of the rich, however, enjoy higher incomes and inequality starts to rise again. As time goes by, the middle class and eventually also the poor start to invest in higher education, but now the increase in inequality is driven by different levels of education. As the economy proceeds toward a balanced growth path, educational differences between social groups and thus inequality decline again. We argue that (1) the proposed mechanism has the potential to explain the Ushaped evolution of inequality in rich countries in the second half of the 20th Century and the first decade of the 21st Century and (2) the currently observed increase in inequality is rather a transitory phenomenon.
    Keywords: Higher education, inequality, growth regime switch, middle income trap, Piketty curve
    JEL: I23 I24 I25 O11 O41
    Date: 2016–03
  8. By: Charles Wild (University of Hertfordshire); Daniel Berger (University of Hertfordshire)
    Abstract: The role of universities within society has been the subject of constant discussion and conjecture amongst politicians, the public, as well as within the Higher Education (HE) sector itself. However, this issue has come ever more to the forefront of people’s minds in recent times due to the comprehensive spending review (CSR), related concerns regarding student fees and public debt, and governmental demands for the increased accountability of Universities in terms of student satisfaction and perceived ‘value for money’. The Research Excellence Framework (REF), which replaced the Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), is accepted as a reasonably effective means by which universities, and their researchers, may be assessed periodically and subsequently allocated Quality Research (QR) funding in recognition, as well as to reinforce, research excellence in the HE sector. However, the results of any exercise will be interpreted in a number of ways and, inevitably, has led to claims that the ‘teaching’ function of universities has become the poor relation to the sector's research agenda. There have been a number of initiatives which have sought to address this perceived imbalance, and to regulate, monitor or even promote the educational function of universities. Amongst these have been Teaching Quality Assessments, Centres of Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETLs), and the most recent initiative in the form of the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF). In many respects, it is hard to challenge the principle that universities should be assessed in the same way for their teaching function as they are for their research activities and outputs. Indeed, the incorporation of 'impact' into the REF offers a seductive promise of similar connections that may be made with teaching in the form of progression, achievement and employability statistics. After all, this is the era of analytics and Big Data, why shouldn't it be used as part of a new system if it is readily available across the HE sector? The authors don't, in principle, disagree with this direction of travel. However, as with any new initiative, time and thought should not only be given to the precise objective of this exercise, but also to the potential pitfalls that may result from making a less than perfect choice. In this respect, the consultation surrounding the current green paper '...' may be likened to the following passage from Lewis Carrol’s ‘Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland: "Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?"
    Keywords: Teaching Excellence Framework, Thresholds of Quality, Learning and Teaching, Teaching Quality, Educational Gain
    JEL: I28 I24
  9. By: Ofer Malamud; Cristian Pop-Eleches; Miguel Urquiola
    Abstract: This paper explores whether conditions during early childhood affect the productivity of later human capital investments. We use Romanian administrative data to ask if the benefit of access to better schools is larger for children who experienced better family environments because their parents had access to abortion. We combine regression discontinuity and differences-in-differences designs to estimate impacts on a high-stakes school-leaving exam. Although we find that access to abortion and access to better schools each have positive impacts, we do not find evidence of significant interactions between these shocks. While these results suggest the absence of dynamic complementarities in human capital formation, survey data suggest that they may also reflect behavioral responses by students and parents.
    JEL: I00
    Date: 2016–03
  10. By: McCoy, Selina; Quail, Amanda; Smyth, Emer
    Date: 2014–09
  11. By: Vinish Shrestha (Department of Economics, Towson University)
    Abstract: I evaluate the effect of basic maternal literacy skills such as the ability to read, write, and the highest level of schooling on child health outcomes in Nepal. The National Education System Plan in 1971 reshaped the education system of Nepal by increasing access to education among females. Using within cohort and across district variations in educational outcomes due to the reform, I find that improvements in basic maternal literacy skills reduce infant mortality. Access to clean water supply, and a reduction in gender inequality among relatively educated mothers are some potential mechanisms contributing to improvements in infant mortality.
    Keywords: Mother's literacy, infant mortality, returns to education.
    JEL: I10 I15
    Date: 2016–04
  12. By: Christopher Avery; Brian Cadman; Gavin Cassar
    Abstract: We analyze the promotions and firings of NCAA Division 1 college basketball and college football coaches to assess whether these coaches are rewarded for the academic performance of their players in promotion and retention decisions. We find that an increase in Academic Progress Rate, as measured by the NCAA, for a college team in either sport significantly reduces the probability that the coach is fired at the end of the season. We find little to no evidence that an increase in the Academic Progress Rate enhances the chances of advancement (in the form of outside job offers) for these coaches.
    JEL: I20 I23 J24 M51
    Date: 2016–03
  13. By: Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of background and school factors on second-level students’ attitudes toward Irish as a school subject drawing on the Growing Up in Ireland study. The study focuses on the perceptions of the core subjects, English, Mathematics and Irish, and presents a profile of students who find the Irish language interesting or difficult. The study enables us to investigate the attitudes of teenagers towards the language in a systematic way, including personal, school and other characteristics that may have an impact on attitudes towards the Irish language.
    Date: 2016–03
  14. By: Silke Anger; Daniel D. Schnitzlein
    Abstract: This paper estimates sibling correlations in cognitive and non-cognitive skills to evaluate the importance of family background for skill formation. Based on a large representative German dataset including IQ test scores and measures of non-cognitive skills, a restricted maximum likelihood model indicates a strong relationship between family background and skill formation. Sibling correlations in non-cognitive skills range from 0.22 to 0.46; therefore, at least one-fifth of the variance in these skills results from shared sibling-related factors. Sibling correlations in cognitive skills are higher than 0.50; therefore, more than half of the inequality in cognition can be explained by shared family background. Comparing these findings with those in the intergenerational skill transmission literature suggests that intergenerational correlations capture only part of the influence of family on children’s cognitive and non-cognitive skills, as confirmed by decomposition analyses and in line with previous findings on educational and income mobility.
    Keywords: Sibling correlations, family background, non-cognitive skills, cognitive skills, intergenerational mobility
    JEL: J24 J62
    Date: 2016
  15. By: Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.; Gonzales, Kathrina G.; Cortes, Sol Francesca S.
    Abstract: Higher education is a key driver of the economic growth of countries. Any country hopes that its universities, including state colleges and universities (SUCs) and private higher education institutions (PHEIs), produce the manpower needed to propel the country into high, sustained, and equitable development. This can be achieved if its universities respond well to changes in the labor market. This study seeks to review and assess how well the SUCs and PHEIs respond to regional market demands through wage premium analysis and their experience in introducing new program offerings, changing curriculums, and closing programs. To achieve this, it analyzes the developments in labor market outcomes such as wage premiums at the discipline level derived using data from the Labor Force Survey. It also uses focus group discussions with both SUCs and PHEIs to document and understand the relative ease of introducing changes into their academic programs in response to labor market changes.
    Keywords: Philippines, higher education, curriculum, programs, labor market, wage differentials
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Mendolia, Silvia; Paloyo, Alfredo R.; Walker, Ian
    Abstract: We investigate the relationship between peers' abilities and educational outcomes at the end of high school using data from the rich Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) matched to the National Pupil Database of children in state schools in England. In particular, we focus on the effect of peers' abilities, measured through achievements in Key Stage 3 (Age 14), on high powered test scores at Ages 16 and 18, and on the probability of attending university. Our identification strategy is based on a measure of the peers of peers' ability. In particular, for each individual, we look at her high school peers and select their primary school peers who do not attend the same high school and who did not attend the same primary school as the individual. We then use peers-of-peers ability, measured using Age 11 test scores as an instrument for high school average peer ability, measured using Age 14 test scores. We also use quantile regression to explore the effect of peers' ability on different parts of the distributions of the outcomes. Our results show that average of peers' abilities has a moderate positive effect on test scores at Ages 16 and 18, and that being in a school with a large proportion of low-quality peers can have a significantly detrimental effect on individual achievements. Furthermore, peers' ability seems to have a stronger effect on students at the bottom of the grade distribution, especially at Age 16.
    Abstract: Durch die Zusammenführung des "Longitudinal Study of Young People in England" (LSYPE) Datensatzes und des "National Pupil Database" Datensatzes soll der Zusammenhang von Begabung im Umfeld des Schülers und dessen schulischen Leistungen untersucht werden. Insbesondere konzentriert sich die Untersuchung auf den Effekt von der Begabung des Umfeldes - messbar durch Testergebnisse der (Mit-)Schüler im Alter von 14 Jahren - auf die Wahrscheinlichkeit des Besuchs einer Universität, bzw. auf Testergebnisse im Alter von 16 und 18 Jahren. Die Identifikationsstrategie basiert auf der Messung der Begabung des Umfeldes des Umfeldes der Schüler. Im Speziellen wird das Umfeld derjenigen Schüler, die zusammen mit einem Individuum die High School besucht haben, beleuchtet, indem Schüler ausgewählt werden, die mit diesen - jedoch nicht mit dem Individuum - die Grundschule, jedoch nicht die High School besucht haben. Diese "peers-of-peers" Begabung wird genutzt, indem Testergebnisse im Alter von 14 Jahren mit Testergebnissen im Alter von elf Jahren instrumentiert werden. Weiterhin werden Quantilsregressionen genutzt, um die Höhe des Einflusses von Mitschülern an verschiedenen Punkten der Ergebnisverteilung herauszuarbeiten. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Begabung der Mitschüler einen leichten Einfluss auf die Testergebnisse mit 16 bzw. 18 Jahren hat. Besonders groß ist der negative Einfluss auf die Ergebnisse eines Individuums an einer High School mit einem hohen Anteil vergleichsweise "schlechter" Mitschüler. Weiterhin konnte ein stärkerer Effekt auf Schüler am unteren Ende der Notenverteilung festgestellt werden, insbesondere im Alter von 16 Jahren.
    Keywords: peer effects,instrumental variables,test scores
    JEL: I20 J24
    Date: 2016
  17. By: MenekÅŸe Aker (Ankara University Health Science Faculty, Midwifery Department); Selma Ä°nfal (Selcuk University Aksehir College of Health); Esra Uslu (Selcuk University Aksehir College of Health)
    Abstract: This systematic review assesses Web Based Education (WBE) applications that will be used in the education of the nursing students in Turkey, and the effects of these applications on nursing education. This study was conducted using scientific search engines such as Ulakbim Medical Data Base, Turkish Medline Data Base, National Thesis Center, Turkish Citation Index, Turkish Psychiatry Index, Academic Index. As determined, keywords were searched in several combinations. A total of two theses that met the inclusion criteria were involved in the evaluation. This systematic review shows that the studies on this issue are very limited in terms of quantitative perspective but the results are positive. In this context, it is suggested that similar studies, in which WBE is planned in a way that it improves different knowledge and skills in nursing education, are conducted.
    Keywords: Web based education, nursing, undergraduate education, Turkey
    JEL: I00
  18. By: Banks, Joanne; Smyth, Emer
    Date: 2015–05
  19. By: Ehrl, Philipp; Monteiro Monasterio, Leonardo
    Abstract: We exploit differences in the spatial distribution of industrial and liberal occupations in the years 1872 and 1920 to instrument for today's concentration of interpersonal and analytical skills in Brazil. The data suggest that the local supply of knowledge and manufacturing provided by these historical trades favored a growth path that has shaped the occupational structure until the present day, whereby the existence of a large local consumer market was a necessary condition for this development. By means of these instruments, we present causal evidence that the regional concentration of interpersonal and analytical skills generates positive wage externalities. Particularly university graduates and workers without formal education benefit most from these agglomeration economies.
    Keywords: agglomeration economies, skills, long-run industrial development, Brazil
    JEL: C26 J31 N16 R12
    Date: 2016–04–07
  20. By: Erina Gyoba (Intenational Research Institute of Disaster and Science of Tohoku University)
    Abstract: Abstract: Natural disasters have profound impacts on the sustainability of societies. Japan is a nation surrounded by the sea, and some regions are prone to suffer from natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis due to geographical characteristics. To develop and maintain a sustainable society, appropriate preventive measures should be incorporated into the social system, taking into consideration the people’s awareness of natural disaster risks. For this purpose, the present study investigated people’s sensitivity to risks induced by natural disasters, specifically focusing on a tsunami disaster. The investigation focused on the 2011 East Japan Earthquake off the Pacific Coast, and included five different participant groups: a group of residents (approximately 40 to70 years old) who directly suffered from the tsunami damage, two student groups (university and high school) located at the damaged regions, and two university student groups that were located in unaffected regions in Japan. The investigation was conducted by a questionnaire asking the participants to evaluate the safety or dangerousness of five different tsunami heights by using a five-point rating scale. The obtained data were subjected to a psychometric analysis calculating tsunami height thresholds regarded as safe. As a result, the lowest threshold of tsunami height regarded as safe was 0.94 meters for the group of residents in the damaged region. In contrast, the group of high school students in the damaged region revealed the highest threshold for the safe tsunami height, indicating that they do not feel danger until the tsunami height rises over 2.7 meters. Therefore, the residents in the damaged regions have the highest sensitivity to the risks posed by a tsunami, while the high school students in the damaged region have the lowest cautiousness despite the fact that they experienced the same disaster. Among the groups of university students, those who lived in the unaffected areas located furthest from the damaged region showed the highest threshold value of 2.56 meters, suggesting that they have very low risk sensitivity to tsunamis. These results clearly indicate that younger people and those who have not experienced a tsunami disaster are less conscious of the risks involved.Based on these differences in people’s risk awareness for natural disasters, appropriate preventive measures and educational programs should be incorporated into the social system in order to develop and maintain a sustainable society, and these should consider generational and environmental differences of residents.
    Keywords: Awareness of Natural Disaster Risks, Environmental difference, Generation difference, Disaster Preventive Measures, Sustainable society
    JEL: H84 Q54 I00
  21. By: Jed Armstrong; Chris McDonald (Reserve Bank of New Zealand)
    Abstract: Net immigration increases both labour demand and labour supply. Historical data suggests that the demand impact is larger than the supply impact, but in the current migration cycle the boost to net demand appears to be smaller than expected. This paper explores why the unemployment rate has been higher than expected, given the high level of net immigration.
    Date: 2016–04
  22. By: Edgardo Zablotsky
    Abstract: The philanthropic activity of Baron de Hirsch was clearly marked by one characteristic: not providing charity but attempting the economic rehabilitation of the beneficiaries. Hirsch systematically suggests that education and professional training were the only way to break the vicious circle of poverty. For instance, for more than a decade Baron de Hirch spent his time and money in the economic rehabilitation of his coreligionists, both in the Ottoman Empire and in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, through education and professional training. In 1891, after discarding the possibility of improving the quality of life of Jews in the Russian Empire through the establishment of an educational system, similar to what was done in other societies, Hirsch founded the Jewish Colonization Association (J.C.A.) through which he would manage the immigration of thousands of people to Argentina and their settlement in agricultural colonies. The original rules of the J.C.A. gave Hirsch full control over the activities of the Association; therefore, this paper hypothesized that the educational actions of the Jewish Colonization Association in the colonies should have been all consistent with Hirsch’s vision on education. The evidence presented clearly supports this hypothesis.
    Keywords: Barón Maurice de Hirsch, Jewish Colonization Association, education
    JEL: D64
    Date: 2016–03

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