nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒03‒23
25 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. MisMatch in Human Capital Accumulation By Russell Cooper; Huacong Liu
  2. Labor markets, academic performance and the risk of school dropout: evidence for Spain By Juan Guio; Álvaro Choi; Josep-Oriol Escardíbul
  3. School Quality and the Gender Gap in Educational Achievement By David H. Autor; David N. Figlio; Krzysztof Karbownik; Jeffrey Roth; Melanie Wasserman
  4. Gendered Selection of STEM Subjects for Matriculation By Moshe Justman; Susan J. Méndez
  5. The more, the better? The impact of instructional time on student performance By Maria A. Cattaneo; Chantal Oggenfuss; Stefan C. Wolter
  6. Teacher supply and the quality of schooling in South Africa. Patterns over space and time By Martin Gustafsson
  7. Institutional Governance, Education and Growth By Mohamed Jellal; Mohamed, Bouzahzah; Simplice Asongu
  8. Raising the Bar for College Admission: North Carolina’s Increase in Minimum Math Course Requirements By Charles T. Clotfelter; Steven W. Hemelt; Helen Ladd
  9. Teaching Practices and the Management of Student Motivation, Effort and Achievement By Gunnes, Trude; Donze, Jocelyn
  10. The Impact of Race and Inequality on Human Capital Formation in Latin America During the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries By Enriqueta Camps; Stanley Engerman
  11. Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS By Melinda Adnot; Thomas Dee; Veronica Katz; James Wyckoff
  12. The education revolution on horseback I : The relation between Napoleon Bonaparte and education system characteristics By Korthals R.A.
  13. Staying-on after twenty-one: the returns to postgraduate education By Pamela Lenton
  14. Results of an Impact Evaluation Study on DepED's School-Based Feeding Program By Tabunda, Ana Maria L.; Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda
  15. Students in Work and their Impact on the Labour Market By Fabo, Brian; Beblavý, Miroslav
  16. Lost in Transition? Declining Returns to Education in Vietnam By Tinh Doan; Tran Quang Tuyen; Le Quan
  17. How returns from tertiary education differ by field of study: Implications for policy-makers and students By Lehouelleur, Sophie; Beblavý, Miroslav; Maselli,Ilaria
  18. Education and Growth: Where All the Education Went By Theodore R. Breton; Andrew Siegel Breton
  20. The Effect of the Increasing Demand for Elite Schools on Stratification By Estrada, Ricardo
  21. Employer voices, employer demands, and implications for public skills development policy connecting the labor and education sectors By Cunningham,Wendy; Villasenor,Paula
  22. The tsunamis of educational attainment and part-time employment, and the change of the labour force 1960–2010: what can be learned about self-reinforcing labour-market inequality from the case of the Netherlands, in international comparison? By Wiemer Salverda
  23. Learning Job Skills from Colleagues at Work: Evidence from a Field Experiment Using Teacher Performance Data By John P. Papay; Eric S. Taylor; John H. Tyler; Mary Laski
  24. Health Capacity to Work at Older Ages in Denmark By Paul Bingley; Nabanita Datta Gupta; Peder Pedersen
  25. The internationalisation of doctoral and master's studies By OECD

  1. By: Russell Cooper; Huacong Liu
    Abstract: This paper studies the allocation of heterogeneous agents to levels of educational attainment. The goal is to understand the magnitudes and sources of mismatch in this assignment, both in theory and in the data. The paper presents evidence of substantial mismatch between ability and educational attainment across 21 OECD countries, with a focus on Germany, Italy, Japan and the US. In the model, mismatch originates from: (i) taste shocks, (ii) binding borrowing constraints and (iii) noisy measures of ability in test scores. The model is estimated using a simulated method of moments approach. The main finding is that measured mismatch arises largely from noise in test scores and does not reflect borrowing constraints. Differences in tastes for education across households play a minor role in explaining mismatch. Further, the estimation allows us to decompose the college wage premium, isolating cross-country differences in selection effects from the return to education.
    JEL: E24 J24 O43
    Date: 2016–02
  2. By: Juan Guio (University of Barcelona & Universidad Central); Álvaro Choi (University of Barcelona & IEB); Josep-Oriol Escardíbul (University of Barcelona & IEB)
    Abstract: Labor market dynamics and the expectations of finding a job are believed to be strong determinants of individuals’ educational decisions. Thus, the academic performance and permanency of students in the school system are closely related to their perceptions of unemployment. The impact of high unemployment rates on schooling decisions may operate through, at least, two effects: a “family” effect, which urges individuals to dropout owing to limited access to educational resources, and a “local labor market” effect that encourages them to remain in school. In this paper we, specifically, analyze the impact of a household’s labor market situation and the effect of local labor unemployment on i) the risk of early school dropout and ii) academic performance, which typically declines before the decision to dropout is taken. These relations are assessed via a set of multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses using PISA 2006, 2009 and 2012 microdata. Results suggest that both parental unemployment and local labor market unemployment increase the risk of school dropout by reducing student academic performance. However, the negative “family” and “local labor market” effects seem to decrease as labor market conditions worsen.
    Keywords: School dropout, multilevel logistic regression, PISA, labor market
    JEL: J64 I21 E32
    Date: 2016
  3. By: David H. Autor; David N. Figlio; Krzysztof Karbownik; Jeffrey Roth; Melanie Wasserman
    Abstract: Recent evidence indicates that boys and girls are differently affected by the quantity and quality of family inputs received in childhood. We assess whether this is also true for schooling inputs. Using matched Florida birth and school administrative records, we estimate the causal effect of school quality on the gender gap in educational outcomes by contrasting opposite-sex siblings who attend the same sets of schools—thereby purging family heterogeneity—and leveraging within-family variation in school quality arising from family moves. Investigating middle school test scores, absences and suspensions, we find that boys benefit more than girls from cumulative exposure to higher quality schools.
    JEL: I21 J12 J13
    Date: 2016–01
  4. By: Moshe Justman (Department of Economics, Ben Gurion University; and Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Susan J. Méndez (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: Women’s under-representation in high-paying jobs in engineering and information technology contributes substantially to the gender wage gap, reflecting similar patterns in higher education. We trace these patterns back to students’ choice of advanced science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects in the final years of secondary school. We find large male majorities in physics, information technology and specialist mathematics; and large female majorities in life sciences and health and human development. The significant mathematical component in male-dominated fields has led many to assume that these patterns are driven by males’ absolute or comparative advantage in mathematics. We show that this is not the case. Linking data on Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) subject choices to standardized test scores in seventh and ninth grades, we find that these patterns remain largely intact when comparing male and female students with similar prior achievement. We find little support for the comparative advantage hypothesis: in all STEM subjects except specialist mathematics students who excel in ninth-grade numeracy and reading choose STEM subjects more frequently than those who excel only in numeracy. We also find that socio-economic disadvantage adversely affects male students’ choice of STEM electives more than it affects female students. Classification-I2, J24, J16
    Keywords: Gender streaming, STEM subjects, gender gap in mathematics, secondary school, Australia
    Date: 2016–03
  5. By: Maria A. Cattaneo (Swiss Coordination Center for Research in Education); Chantal Oggenfuss (Swiss Coordination Center for Research in Education); Stefan C. Wolter (University of Bern; Swiss Coordination Center for Research in Education; CESifo and IZA)
    Abstract: Although instruction time is an important and costly resource in education production, there is a remarkable scarcity of research examining the effectiveness of its use. We build on the work of Lavy (2015) using the variance of subject-specific instruction time within Switzerland to determine the causal impact of instruction time on student test scores, as measured by the international PISA test (2009). We extend the analyses in two ways and find that students must differ considerably in the time needed to learn. This difference is supported by our findings that the effectiveness of instructional time varies substantially between different school (ability) tracks and that additional instruction time significantly increases the within-school variance of subject-specific test scores.
    Keywords: instruction time, PISA, fixed-effect models, tracking
    JEL: C21 I21 I25
    Date: 2016–03
  6. By: Martin Gustafsson (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch)
    Abstract: The paper addresses policy questions in South Africa’s education system using a newly merged 1999 to 2013 panel of data that includes school enrolments by grade, staff details from the payroll system, examination and test results and the geo-coordinates of schools. This combination of data, which is seldom used, at least in developing countries, permits new and important knowledge about a schooling system to be uncovered. Whilst policy conclusions are South Africa-specific, the methods would be largely transferable to other contexts. It is shown that school data can complement official population data with respect to the monitoring of within-country migration and in determining the rate of urbanisation. An approach for calculating the viability of small schools in a context of migration out of rural areas is presented, using assumptions around maximum distance to be travelled by pupils and the degree to which multi-grade teaching by teachers should be permitted. Cost reductions associated with a reduced presence of small schools, and greater economies of scale associated with larger schools are found to be smaller than what is generally assumed. Correlations between pupil under-performance and the under-staffing of schools are found to be higher at the primary than the secondary level, apparently confirming the greater importance of personal interaction with a teacher for younger pupils. Between-school movements of pupils other than those associated with urbanisation are found to be high, and highly variable across districts. This further complicates the allocation of publicly paid teachers. An approach to gauging whether teachers avoid moving to schools on the other side of provincial boundaries is presented. It is confirmed that movement across provinces, which are the employers of teachers, is restricted, creating further obstacles to efficient teacher allocation. It is confirmed that teachers tend to move to better performing schools, but that the performance signals that influence this movement are often inaccurate and a few years old.
    Keywords: South Africa, teacher supply, education planning, spatial analysis
    JEL: C21 D73 I28
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Mohamed Jellal (Rabat, Morocco); Mohamed, Bouzahzah (Rabat, Morocco); Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study articulates the interaction between institutional governance, education and economic growth. Given the current pursuit of education policy reforms and knowledge economy around the world, it is of policy relevance to theoretically analyze the main mechanisms by which the macroeconomic impact of education on growth (and economic development) occurs. Our theoretical model demonstrates how incentives offered by the government affect human capital accumulation which ultimately engenders positive economic development externalities. We articulate two main channels through which education affects economic growth. The first channel highlights direct positive effect of educational quality on the incentive to accumulate human capital by individuals, which makes them more productive. The second channel appears in the explicit function of the economic growth rate. As a policy implication, we have shown that the growth rate depends on the rate of return on human capital or that this rate of return itself depends on the quality of governance, which further increases growth. As a result, institutional quality has a double dividend, which suggests considerable benefits to educational reforms.
    Keywords: Institutions, Human capital, Education, Growth
    JEL: H11 O15 O43
    Date: 2015–12
  8. By: Charles T. Clotfelter; Steven W. Hemelt; Helen Ladd
    Abstract: We explore the effects of a statewide policy change that increased the number of high school math courses required for admission to any of North Carolina’s 15 public four-year institutions. Using administrative data on cohorts of 8th grade students from 1999 to 2006, we document and exploit variation by district over time in the math course-taking environment encountered by students. Within an instrumental variables setup, we examine effects of the policy change on students grouped into deciles defined by their 8th grade math test scores. First, we find that students took more math courses in high school following the state’s announcement, with relatively larger increases in the middle and bottom deciles of students. Second, we conclude that increased math course-taking in high school led to increases in college enrollment rates that were not uniform across the 15 branch campuses. In particular, we observe the largest increases in the deciles of student achievement from which universities were already drawing the bulk of their enrollees. Finally, for upper-middle decile students, we find limited and noisy evidence that increased math course-taking in high school boosts post-enrollment college performance as measured by a student’s GPA or the likelihood of majoring in a STEM field.
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2016–01
  9. By: Gunnes, Trude; Donze, Jocelyn
    Abstract: Student motivation is primordial for educational success. We develop a theoretical model in which a teacher manages student motivation through the choice of teaching practices. We show that only high-ability students can be motivated by extrinsically-oriented teaching practices. For low-ability or myopic students, intrinsically-oriented teaching practices are more effective in fostering student achievement. Furthermore, the choice of teaching practices depends on their relative costs, the teacher's objective function (utilitarian or Rawlsian), and the teacher's time preferences. We draw important policy implications regarding teacher effectiveness, the harmfulness of not tailoring teaching practices to student types, and how to limit student dropouts.
    Keywords: Teaching practices; cognitive and non-cognitive skills; student achievement; utilitarian and Rawlsian maximizers; achievement goal theory
    JEL: A12 C70 D03 I24
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Enriqueta Camps; Stanley Engerman
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze the reasons behind the delay of the spread of education in Latin America and its relationship with income inequality and race. While the racial composition of the population was behind the low literacy levels obtained during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries, racial inequality and its impact on education and educational inequality decreased during the last decades of the 20th century. Nonetheless educational levels lagged behind those of the OECD countries even during the late 20th century. We also find that the spread of primary and to a lesser extent secondary school during the 20th century can explain the sharp decrease of educational inequality during the same time period. Nonetheless this diminution of educational inequality did not have any impact on the diminution of income inequality at least during the 20th century. While this paper gives consistent results on race and inequality on human capital formation, the trends and causes of the long run evolution of income inequality till the beginnings of the 21st century are still a controversial research topic that we want to further discuss in other forthcoming contributions.
    Date: 2016–03
  11. By: Melinda Adnot; Thomas Dee; Veronica Katz; James Wyckoff
    Abstract: In practice, teacher turnover appears to have negative effects on school quality as measured by student performance. However, some simulations suggest that turnover can instead have large, positive effects under a policy regime in which low-performing teachers can be accurately identified and replaced with more effective teachers. This study examines this question by evaluating the effects of teacher turnover on student achievement under IMPACT, the unique performance-assessment and incentive system in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS). Employing a quasi-experimental design based on data from the first year years of IMPACT, we find that, on average, DCPS replaced teachers who left with teachers who increased student achievement by 0.08 SD in math. When we isolate the effects of lower-performing teachers who were induced to leave DCPS for poor performance, we find that student achievement improves by larger and statistically significant amounts (i.e., 0.14 SD in reading and 0.21 SD in math). In contrast, the effect of exits by teachers not sanctioned under IMPACT is typically negative but not statistically significant.
    JEL: I2
    Date: 2016–01
  12. By: Korthals R.A. (GSBE)
    Abstract: Much research has been done into the emergence of mass education systems, primarily by studying the social origin of the education system, the introduction of compulsory schooling laws, or the expansion of enrolment rates. However, little is known about the origin of the characteristics of these newly formed systems. Ramirez and Boli 1987 argue that the threat for war with and invasion by the French around the 1800s induced European countries to introduce mass public education systems. This paper empirically establishes whether political pressure from Napoleon is related to the levels of differentiation and standardization of European education systems. I find that the political pressure from France is related to differentiation, but less to standardization of the content of instruction, and not at all to the existence of central exam and administrative standardization.
    Date: 2016
  13. By: Pamela Lenton (Department of Economics, University of Sheffield)
    Abstract: The expansion of higher education in the UK has led to an increase in the number of postgraduate as well as undergraduate students. This paper investigates the wage return to postgraduate degrees, differentiating between traditional Masters degrees, vocational postgraduate degrees and PhDs, over the period 1993-2014. We additionally, differentiate between the area of study for Masters degrees. Results show that wage returns to both undergraduate and all postgraduate degrees have increased over time. The subject undertaken at Masters level is more important in determining wages for males. Females holding a Masters degree in any subject earn a significant wage premium. There is also evidence of growth in the wage returns to other, vocational, non-Masters degrees. The findings of this paper imply that not only are postgraduates highly skilled individuals but that the provision of postgraduate courses, and thence postgraduate degree holders within the UK labour market should be increased.
    Keywords: Human Capital; Postgraduate Education; Wage returns
    JEL: J24
    Date: 2016–07
  14. By: Tabunda, Ana Maria L.; Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda
    Abstract: The link between malnutrition and poor health among elementary school children and absenteeism, early dropout and poor classroom performance as well as the effectiveness of school-based nutrition and health interventions in improving school performance are well-established in the literature. Thus, the Department of Education has been conducting conditional food transfer programs since 1997. Its current program, the School-Based Feeding Program, as implemented in school year (SY) 2013-2014, fed 40,361 severely wasted pupils enrolled in Kindergarten to Grade Six in 814 public elementary schools in the country. This paper presents the findings from the impact evaluation of the SY 2013-2014 implementation of the program. This is a follow-up on the process evaluation conducted by the PIDS. The study employed mixed methods research, undertaking qualitative surveys while undertaking focus group discussions. The findings indicate that, except for inaccurate measurement of nutrition status variables and improper documentation of the program in all its three phases (prefeeding, feeding, and postfeeding), the program was generally implemented well by the beneficiary schools, and welcomed not only by program beneficiaries and their parents but also by many of the school heads and teachers of the beneficiary pupils.
    Keywords: Philippines, impact evaluation, health and nutrition, school children, school-based feeding program, food for education program
    Date: 2016
  15. By: Fabo, Brian; Beblavý, Miroslav
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the size and composition of the student labour force in order to consider its potential impact on labour markets in the European Union. The paper is based on an analysis of EU Labour Force Survey data from 2011, supplemented by the findings of the EUROSTUDENT project. The structure of student labour is discussed within the framework of the so-called ‘crowding-out’ literature, which identifies competition for jobs between students and low educated non-students, particularly in the retail and wholesale sectors. In contrast to these assumptions, the authors found that, depending on the age of the student, the profile of student workers closely matches that of non-students with medium- to-high educational attainment. In general, the retail and wholesale sectors are of importance in the employment of students under the age of 25, but students typically take positions in the middle of the occupational hierarchy, rather than in the lower-grade positions. Meanwhile, older students, often professionals furthering their education while studying, are typically located in similar jobs and sectors to university graduates. A common trait of student work is its very high degree of flexibility compared to that of non-students. Nevertheless, the structure of student labour does not lead us to believe that student workers are particularly prone to be present in the precarious segment of the labour market.
    Date: 2015–07
  16. By: Tinh Doan (University of Waikato); Tran Quang Tuyen (VNU University of Economics and Business); Le Quan (VNU University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: There is evidence of a rapid increase in the returns to education in Vietnam in the 1990s and 2000s. There was a substantial change in education policy in the 2000s, especially opening up education opportunities for education providers to expand educational facilities and training. These changes could lead to a decline in the returns to education. To provide up-to-date estimates of the returns, we re-visit the returns using updated large-scale survey data to 2014. We apply the Heckman selection estimators to correct for selection bias and find that the return to education in Vietnam increased quickly up to the global financial crisis in 2008/2009 and declined sharply thereafter. This raises at least two questions: is the higher-educated labour force oversupplied or is there a large distortion in the labour market?
    Keywords: economic transformation; returns to education; education supply; wage setting; Vietnam
    JEL: C52 J21 J31
    Date: 2016–03–07
  17. By: Lehouelleur, Sophie; Beblavý, Miroslav; Maselli,Ilaria
    Abstract: With the huge growth in enrolment in higher education, the key question facing young people today is not so much “what to study” as “whether to study”. Taking a methodologically innovative approach, this paper measures the net present value of university education and compares returns from studying a range of different subjects. We use data from five European countries (France, Italy, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia) and include (opportunity) costs in the computation. Results suggest that enrolling in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) courses is often not the best investment for students, especially female students. In choosing what to study, therefore, students are taking decisions that are consistent with their own private returns. This suggests that policy-makers should consider changing the incentives offered if they wish to change students’ behaviour.
    Date: 2015–07
  18. By: Theodore R. Breton; Andrew Siegel Breton
    Abstract: Abstract: We investigate why the economics literature often finds a negative relationship between increased schooling and GDP growth over short periods. We show that increases in GDP in 98 countries during five-year intervals are correlated with the increases in adults´ average schooling during the prior 40 years. We find that an additional year of schooling of the work force raised GDP by 7% on average during 1980-2005, but its initial effect on GDP was much smaller. The delayed effect of increased schooling on national productivity explains why recent increases in schooling cannot explain near-term increases in GDP.
    Keywords: Education; Economic Growth; Multi-country; Human Capital; Production Function
    JEL: O47 I25
    Date: 2016–02–01
  19. By: Stijn Baert; Bart Cockx; Matteo Picchio (-)
    Abstract: A dynamic discrete choice model is set up to estimate the effects of grade retention in high school, both in the short- (end-of-year evaluation) and long-run (drop-out and delay). In contrast to regression discontinuity designs, this approach captures treatment heterogeneity and controls for grade-varying unobservable determinants. A method is proposed to deal with initial conditions and with partial observability of the track choices at the start of high school. Forced track downgrading is considered as an alternative remedial measure. In the long-run, grade retention and its alternative have adverse effects on schooling outcomes and, more so, for less able pupils.
    Keywords: Education, grade retention, track mobility, dynamic discrete choice models, heterogeneous treatment effects.
    JEL: C33 C35 I21
    Date: 2015–12
  20. By: Estrada, Ricardo
    Abstract: I use detailed applications data to document a case in which, contrary to prevailing concerns, increasing school stratification by ability co-existed with stable stratification by family income: Mexico City public high schools. To understand this puzzle, I develop a model that shows that the effect of an overall increase in the demand for elite schools on school stratification by family income is a horse race between the correlations of family income and ability, and family income and demand. My empirical analysis reveals an initial (and decreasing) demand gap by family income that explains the observed stability in stratification.
    Keywords: School Choice, Stratification, Elite Schools, Aspirations Gap
    JEL: I21 I24 D59
    Date: 2016
  21. By: Cunningham,Wendy; Villasenor,Paula
    Abstract: Educators believe that they are adequately preparing youth for the labor market while at the same time employers lament the students'lack of skills. A possible source of the mismatch in perceptions is that employers and educators have different understandings of the types of skills valued in the labor market. Using economics and psychology literature to define four skills sets --socio-emotional, higher-order cognitive, basic cognitive, and technical -- this paper reviews the literature that quantitatively measures employer skill demand, as reported in a preference survey. A sample of 27 studies reveals remarkable consistency across the world in the skills demanded by employers. While employers value all skill sets, there is a greater demand for socio-emotional skills and higher-order cognitive skills than for basic cognitive or technical skills. These results are robust across region, industry, occupation, and education level. Employers perceive that the greatest skills gaps are in socio-emotional and higher-order cognitive skills. These findings suggest the need to re-conceptualize the public sector's role in preparing children for a future labor market. Namely, technical training is not equivalent to job training; instead, a broad range of skills, many of which are best taught long before labor market entry, should be included in school curricula from the earliest ages. The skills most demanded by employers?higher-order cognitive skills and socio-emotional skills?are largely learned or refined in adolescence, arguing for a general education well into secondary school until these skills are formed. Finally, the public sector can provide programming and incentives to non-school actors, namely parents and employers, to encourage them to invest in the skills development process. Skills, labor demand, cognitive, non-cognitive, behavioral skills, competences, employer surveys, skills policy, education policy, training policy.
    Keywords: Education For All,Effective Schools and Teachers,Access&Equity in Basic Education,Educational Sciences,Primary Education
    Date: 2016–02–29
  22. By: Wiemer Salverda
    Abstract: This paper argues that the sharp growth of educational attainment has won Tinbergen’s race as the qualification structure of employment lags increasingly behind, with a large and increasing underutilisation of individual attainment on the job as a result. With its strong gender dimension this has fostered the demise of the single-earner model of society to the advantage of dual-earner households. That shift has gone together with a strong expansion of part-time employment, albeit at different speeds internationally. In several countries this part-time growth is stimulated also by the combination of employment participation with the rapidly growing educational participation that underlies the growth in educational attainment. Taken together this has resulted in a steep uphill battle for the less educated when they try to secure jobs that allow making a living and sustaining a career in the labour market. This group faces strong competition from better-educated additional earners who are a member of dual-earner households, which often have an income found higher up the household income distribution. This institutes a self-reinforcing mechanism of income and labour-market inequalities. High-income households compete with low-income households for the same low-skill and low-paid jobs, and they do so frequently on a part-time basis that contributes to the fragmentation of those jobs. This process has established a job’s working time as an increasingly important vector of labour-market inequalities. In the paper the argument is first developed for the Netherlands because the country offers a special statistical classification of occupations (1960-2010) that directly links the occupational levels to levels of educational attainment. This case study is complemented with an international comparison using the ELFS and extending to incomes and earnings with the help of SILC. It shows the presence of similar effects found for the Netherlands for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and the UK.
    Keywords: Educational attainment, Occupational structure, Underutilisation, Bumping down, Crowding out of low educated, Female employment, Part-time jobs, Elementary jobs, Household earnings, Household income distribution, Paid and domestic work, Paid work and educational participation.
    JEL: D31 D63 I24 J11 J16 J21 J22 J23 J24 O15
  23. By: John P. Papay; Eric S. Taylor; John H. Tyler; Mary Laski
    Abstract: We study on-the-job learning among classroom teachers, especially learning skills from coworkers. Using data from a new field experiment, we document meaningful improvements in teacher job performance when high- and low-performing teachers working at the same school are paired and asked to work together on improving the low-performer’s skills. In particular, pairs are asked to focus on specific skills identified in the low-performer’s prior performance evaluations. In the classrooms of low-performing teachers treated by the intervention, students scored 0.12 standard deviations higher than students in control classrooms. These improvements in teacher performance persisted, and perhaps grew, in the year after treatment. Empirical tests suggest the improvements are likely the result of low-performing teachers learning skills from their partner.
    JEL: I2 J24 M53
    Date: 2016–02
  24. By: Paul Bingley; Nabanita Datta Gupta; Peder Pedersen
    Abstract: Longevity is increasing and many people are spending a greater proportion of their lives reliant on pensions to support consumption. In response to this, several countries have mandated delays to age of first entitlement to pension benefits in order to reduce incentives to retire early. However, it is unknown to what extent older individuals have the health capacity to sustain the longer working lives that delayed pension benefits may encourage. We estimate the health capacity to work longer in Denmark by comparing how much older individuals work today with how much those with similar mortality rates worked in the past, and how much younger individuals today with similar self-assessed health work. We find substantial health capacity for longer working lives among those currently aged 55 and above. We also find significant heterogeneity by education and gender. Those with a high school degree have the greatest additional work capacity, women have more additional capacity than men, especially women with a college degree.
    JEL: I14 J26
    Date: 2016–02
  25. By: OECD
    Abstract: One in ten students at the master’s or equivalent level is an international student in OECD countries, rising to one in four at the doctoral level. Almost 60% of international doctoral students in OECD countries are enrolled in science, engineering or agriculture. The United States hosts 38% of international students enrolled in a programme at the doctoral level in OECD countries. Luxembourg and Switzerland host the largest proportion of international students, who make up more than half of their total doctoral students. International master’s and doctoral students tend to choose to study in countries investing substantial resources in research and development in tertiary educational institutions. Of all international students enrolled at the master’s or doctoral level across OECD countries, the majority (53%) are from Asia, and 23% are from China alone.
    Date: 2016–03–09

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