nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒03‒10
27 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. eCAP : Videos to Help School Principals Implement PLCs By Claire IsaBelle; Hélène Vachon; Ziad Maatouk
  2. Education Policies and Migration across European Countries By Aparicio Fenoll, Ainhoa; Kuehn, Zoë
  3. Enriching Students Pays Off: Evidence from an Individualized Gifted and Talented Program in Secondary Education By Booij, Adam S.; Haan, Ferry; Plug, Erik
  4. Subjective completion beliefs and the demand for post-secondary education By Johannes S. Kunz; Kevin E. Staub
  5. The role of preschool quality in promoting child development : evidence from rural Indonesia By Brinkman,Sally Anne; Hasan,Amer; Jung,Haeil; Kinnell,Angela; Nakajima,Nozomi; Pradhan,Menno Prasad
  6. Intergenerational Transmission of Musical Education By Victor Fernandez-Blanco; Maria Jose Perez-Villadoniga; Juan Prieto-Rodriguez
  7. The historically high cost of tertiary education in South Africa By Estian Calitz; Johan Fourie
  8. The effects of School Accountability on Teacher Mobility and Teacher Sorting By Gjefsen, Hege Marie; Gunnes, Trude
  9. Preschool education in Brazil : does public supply crowd out private enrollment ? By Bastos,Paulo S. R.; Straume,Odd Rune
  10. Modeling the Effects of Grade Retention in High School By Stijn BAERT; Bart COCKX; Matteo PICCHIO
  11. Using Importance-Performance Analysis in Evaluating Service Learning Educational Quality By Kuan-Chou Chen
  12. Nature or Nurture in Higher Education? Inter-generational Implications of the Vietnam-Era Lottery By Christofides, L.; Hoy, M.; Milla, J.; Stengos, T.
  13. Gender Discrimination in Education: What motivates parents to invest more in sons? By Tara Kaul
  14. The impact of investment in human capital on economic development: An empirical exercise based on height and years of schooling in Spain (1881-1998) By Enriqueta Camps
  15. Qualificados e Subempregados – uma análise da inserção ocupacional dos trabalhadores com educação superior no Brasil By Pamella Kamiya Alves; Sandro Eduardo Monsueto
  16. Higher education value added using multiple outcomes By MILLA, J.; SAN MARTIN , E.; VAN BELLEGEM, S.
  17. Self-Chosen Student Groups - What is the student impact if one is not part of his/her ideal team? By Donald Kudek
  18. The role of paternal risk attitudes in long-run education outcomes and intergenerational mobility By Mathias Huebener;
  19. The impact of a computer based adult literacy program on literacy and numeracy : evidence from India By Deshpande, Ashwini; Desrochers, Alain; Ksoll, Christopher; Shonchoy, Abu S.
  20. Promoting Student Research with Science Fairs: Case Studies of Exemplary Programs By Peter Rillero
  21. Factors associated with decreasing prevalence of dementia in the community-dwelling elderly in suburban Tokyo By Chisako Yamamoto; Tanji Hoshi
  22. Survey on aspiration and expectations of high school students By Carvalho, José-Raimundo; Magnac, Thierry
  23. How are Higher Education Institutions Dealing with Openness? A Survey of Practices, Beliefs, and Strategies in Five European Countries By Jonatan Castaño Muñoz; Yves Punie; Andreia Inamorato dos Santos; Marija Mitic; Rita Morais
  24. Behind the Fertility-Education Nexus: What Triggered the French Development Process? By Claude Diebolt; Audrey-Rose Menard; Faustine Perrin
  25. Protectionism and the Education-Fertility Trade-off in Late 19th Century France By Vincent Bignon; Cecilia Garcia-Peñalosa
  26. Learning about Infant and Toddler Early Education Services (LITES): Review Protocol By Shannon Monahan; Jaime Thomas; Lauren Murphy; Diane Paulsell
  27. Can School-Based Management Generate CommunityWide Impacts in Less Developed Countries? Evidence from Randomized Experiments in Burkina Faso By Todo, Yasuyuki; Kozuka, Eiji; Sawada, Yasuyuki

  1. By: Claire IsaBelle (Université d'Ottawa); Hélène Vachon (Université d'Ottawa); Ziad Maatouk (Université d'Ottawa)
    Abstract: IntroductionIn Ontario, over the past few years, and despite some improvement in PISA test scores (CECM, 2012) and provincial testing (OQRE, 2014), studies have shown that Francophone students are still falling behind their Anglophone peers in several subjects, such as mathematics.Since 2005, the Ontario Ministry of Education has been asking their principals to implement a new organizational structure: a professional learning community (PLC). This practice, if well developed, generates many benefits. For teachers, it provides a way of working which contributes to professional satisfaction and development, and reduces non-attendance (Linder, Post and Calabrese, 2012). For students, we observed higher academic success and reduced absenteeism (Hord and Sommers, 2008). Several studies show that principals do not know how to implement PLCs because they have not received the required training (Cranston, 2007). Moreover, Marshall (2010) argues that some principals do not have the necessary competencies to implement PLCs. BackgroundEducators recognize the importance of shifting learning from the individual process prevalent in traditional schools, to a collaborative process that is aligned with the aim to improve student learning (DuFour, DuFour and Eaker, 2008). However, a few research studies have been conducted in primary and secondary Francophone schools in Ontario Leclerc and Moreau (2011) identified some conditions that principals must apply to successfully implement PLCs: vision/mission, collaborative culture, scheduled meetings and analysis of student data.Since studies have proven that a professional learning community contributes to professional development for teachers and academic success for students, the Ministry of Education strongly encourages principals to implement one in their school. To apply this new organizational structure, principals need the required competencies and knowledge regarding the conditions favoring the implementation of a PLC. Whereas some schools are considered advanced in their application of this model, others do not know how to implement the necessary changes (IsaBelle, Génier, Davidson and Lamothe, 2013).Methodology The aim of our study is to investigate how schools with advanced PLCs have been able to apply this novel structure. We performed qualitative research in eight elementary and secondary schools in Ontario. We interviewed and filmed eight principals, twenty teachers and three education leaders. ResultsIn addition to the common conditions previously identified as necessary for the implementation of a PLC, other key elements were discovered: responsibility for student success, commitment from the district school board, etc. Besides these results, online resources (videos) from eCAP will also be presented at the conference.
    Keywords: professional learning community ; school principal; academic success
    JEL: I29 I24 I20
  2. By: Aparicio Fenoll, Ainhoa (Collegio Carlo Alberto); Kuehn, Zoë (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid)
    Abstract: This paper tests whether and how two education policies: (i) increasing the length of compulsory education and (ii) introducing foreign languages into compulsory school curricula, affect subsequent migration across European countries. We construct a novel data base that includes information on education reforms for thirty-one countries spanning four decades. Combining this data with information on recent migration flows by cohorts, we find that an additional year of compulsory education reduces the number of emigrants by almost 10%. Increasing the length of compulsory education shifts educational attainment for a significant fraction of the population from low towards medium levels. Our findings are thus in line with the fact that in the majority of European countries medium educated individuals display lower emigration rates than low educated individuals. Introducing a foreign language into compulsory school curricula on the other hand, almost doubles the number of emigrants to the country where the language is spoken and increases the total number of emigrants by 20%. Depending on the specific content of an education policy, "more education" can thus have opposite effects on migration.
    Keywords: migration, compulsory schooling, foreign language proficiency, education
    JEL: J61 I20 F22
    Date: 2016–02
  3. By: Booij, Adam S. (University of Amsterdam); Haan, Ferry (University of Amsterdam); Plug, Erik (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: We examine the effect of a gifted and talented program in academic secondary education. Students are assigned based on a cutoff score in a cognitive aptitude test, which we exploit in a fuzzy regression discontinuity framework to identify program effects. We find that assigned students obtain higher grades, follow a more science intensive curriculum (most notably for girls), and report stronger beliefs about their academic abilities. We also find that these positive effects persist in university, where students choose more challenging fields of study with, on average, higher returns. Together, these findings are consistent with a human capital interpretation.
    Keywords: gifted and talented education, enrichment program, secondary education, regression discontinuity
    JEL: I22 I28
    Date: 2016–02
  4. By: Johannes S. Kunz; Kevin E. Staub
    Abstract: The outcome of pursuing a post-secondary educational degree is uncertain. A student might not complete a chosen degree for a number of reasons, such as academic insufficiency or financial constraints. Thus, when considering whether to invest in post-secondary education, students must factor in their completion probability into their decision. We study the role of this uncertainty in educational choices using students’ subjective beliefs about completing a post-secondary education, which were elicited prior to students’ completing secondary education. We relate these subjective completion probabilities to their subsequent educational choices and outcomes using representative survey data from Germany. Following the students over time, we find that the initial beliefs are predictive of intentions to invest in education, actual subsequent educational investments, and degree completion. We assess the heterogeneity of the impact across different educational paths. After controlling for academic ability, we find that subjective beliefs are most relevant in choosing a vocational education. In addition to reduced form models, we estimate a structural choice model of sequential investment in education that allows for unobserved tastes and preferences for education and forward-looking behavior. The results confirm the influence of subjective completion beliefs on choosing a post-secondary education.
    Keywords: Subjective beliefs, educational completion uncertainty, human capital investment
    JEL: I21 J24
    Date: 2016–02
  5. By: Brinkman,Sally Anne; Hasan,Amer; Jung,Haeil; Kinnell,Angela; Nakajima,Nozomi; Pradhan,Menno Prasad
    Abstract: This paper reports on the quality of early childhood education in rural Indonesia. On average, the paper finds that centers created under the Indonesia Early Childhood Education and Development Project provide higher quality services than other types of preschools, as measured by a comprehensive instrument of preschool quality based on direct observation of classrooms in session (the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised). The paper also examines the relationship between preschool quality and children's early development using three commonly applied measures of quality: (i) the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised; (ii) teacher characteristics; and (iii) structural characteristics of preschool services, such as their size and amount of class time. First, correcting for measurement error using an instrumental variables approach, the findings suggest that preschool quality is a significant and meaningful positive predictor of children's developmental outcomes. Second, the findings for teacher characteristics are mixed, suggesting that policies focused solely on hiring teachers based on experience and training will be insufficient to improve children's learning. Instead, policies must address the quality of professional development activities for teachers. Third, the amount of class time spent in early childhood programs is a significant positive predictor of children?s developmental outcomes. This suggests that in rural Indonesia?where early childhood programs are relatively low dose?children are likely to benefit from attending longer hours of preschool, either playgroups or kindergartens. Lastly, the paper compares items in the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised with Indonesia's national minimum service standards for early childhood education and development, and finds that the relationship between this alternative, context-appropriate measure of preschool quality and children?s development outcomes strongly corroborates the earlier conclusions.
    Keywords: Early Childhood Development,Education For All,Effective Schools and Teachers,Educational Sciences,Primary Education
    Date: 2016–01–05
  6. By: Victor Fernandez-Blanco (Departamento de Economia, Facultad de Economia y Empresa, Universidad de Oviedo); Maria Jose Perez-Villadoniga (Departamento de Economia, Facultad de Economia y Empresa, Universidad de Oviedo); Juan Prieto-Rodriguez (Departamento de Economia, Facultad de Economia y Empresa, Universidad de Oviedo)
    Abstract: There is an extensive literature documenting the fact that there is a positive correlation between parental education and that of their children. While most research has focused on the transmission of formal schooling, there are other aspects of education that may be considered. For instance, music training has been shown to have a positive correlation with other cognitive abilities, such as mathematics and linguistics. In this paper, we analyze the intergenerational transmission of musical education. We have collected data on musical, general arts and formal education on a representative sample of Asturias, a Northern Spanish region. We find that the intergenerational link goes from both parents to their children. Furthermore, mothers’ musical training has a greater impact on males than that of the fathers’. On the contrary, in the case of females, only the father-child link is significant.
    Keywords: Music education, intergenerational transmission
    JEL: I21 Z11
    Date: 2016–01
  7. By: Estian Calitz (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch); Johan Fourie (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch)
    Abstract: The #FeesMustFall-campaign’s main objection was against the high and rising tuition fees of higher education in South Africa. This short note investigates this assertion from a historical perspective: Are university fees more expensive than a decade or a century ago? We document historical tuition fees at one of South Africa’s premier universities – Stellenbosch University. The answer is an unequivocal yes.
    Keywords: South Africa, tertiary education, university, protests, budget, public economics, fiscal spending
    JEL: H52
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Gjefsen, Hege Marie; Gunnes, Trude
    Abstract: Does school accountability change the teacher composition in schools? We exploit a nested school accountability reform to estimate the causal effect of accountability on teacher mobility and teacher sorting. In 2003, lower secondary schools in Oslo became formally accountable to the school district authority. In 2005, a value added measure of student achievement in lower secondary schools also became public information. Both when using a double and a triple difference estimator, we find significantly increased teacher mobility. Almost all teachers that moved left the teaching sector entirely. Non-stayers were largely replaced by high-ability teachers, yielding a positive sorting effect after the second part of the reform.
    Keywords: school accountability, teacher turnover, teacher sorting, difference-in-difference-in-difference
    JEL: I2 J2
    Date: 2016–02
  9. By: Bastos,Paulo S. R.; Straume,Odd Rune
    Abstract: This paper examines whether an expansion in the supply of public preschool crowds out private enrollment. The paper uses rich data for municipalities in Brazil from 2000 to 2006, where federal transfers to local governments change discontinuously with given population thresholds. The results from a regression-discontinuity design reveal that larger federal transfers lead to a significant expansion of local public preschool services, but show no evidence of crowding out private enrollment. This finding is consistent with a theory in which households differ in their willingness to pay for preschool services, and private suppliers optimally adjust prices in response to an expansion of lower-quality, free-of-charge public supply.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Labor Policies,Municipal Financial Management,Markets and Market Access,Public Sector Management and Reform
    Date: 2016–02–22
  10. By: Stijn BAERT (Sherppa, Ghent University, University of Antwerp, Universit‚ catholique de Louvain; IZA); Bart COCKX (Sherppa, Ghent University, IRES, Universit‚catholique de Louvain, IZA; CESifo); Matteo PICCHIO (Universit… Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali)
    Abstract: A dynamic discrete choice model is set up to estimate the effects of grade retention in high school, both in the short- (end-of-year evaluation) and long-run (drop-out and delay). In contrast to regression discontinuity designs, this approach captures treatment heterogeneity and controls for grade-varying unobservable determinants. We deal with initial conditions and with partial observability of the track choices at the start of high school. Forced track downgrading is considered as an alternative remedial measure. In the longrun, grade retention and its alternative have adverse effects on schooling outcomes and, more so, for less able pupils.
    Keywords: Education, dynamic discrete choice models, grade retention, heterogeneous treatment effects, track mobility
    JEL: C33 C35 I21
    Date: 2016–02
  11. By: Kuan-Chou Chen (Purdue University Calumet)
    Abstract: Importance-performance analysis enables education to evaluate and identify the major strengths and weaknesses of a courses’ key success factors. This study attempts to understand instructors’ expectations and perceptions of students’ learning attitudes and shows the usefulness of the Importance-performance analysis grid in evaluating service learning projects benefits from instructors’ perspectives in Indiana higher education. The study identified a list of 15 items from the service learning educational literature reviews, and each item was rated using a 5-point Likert scale. The importance-performance grid shows that 4 items fall into the “Keep up the good work†quadrant, 5 items fall into the “Concentrate here†quadrant, 4 items fall into the “Low priority†quadrant, and 5 items fall into the “Possible overkill†quadrant. The result of this study is expected to serve as a useful guideline for service learning course designers and future research. Implications of these results for practice and research are provided as result.
    Keywords: Importance-performance analysis, service learning, educational quality
  12. By: Christofides, L. (University of Guelph); Hoy, M. (University of Guelph); Milla, J. (Université catholique de Louvain, CORE, Belgium); Stengos, T. (University of Guelph)
    Abstract: It is evident that a strong positive correlation persists between the educational attainment of parents and that of their children in many, if not most, populations. This relationship may form an important part of the phenomenon of low social mobility as well as inefficiently low investment in human capital by youth who have parents with relatively low educational attainment. Is it a genetic inter-generational transmission of innate ability from parents to their children (i.e. nature) or is it the environment that the better educated parents provide for their children (i.e. nurture) that explains this positive relationship? Understanding the relative contributions of nature versus nurture is critical to the development of any social policy designed to increase social and economic mobility between generations. Separating the so-called nature and nurture effects of this relationship is a difficult task. We use the Vietnam Era Draft Lottery as a natural experiment to address the nature-nurture question. Attending university in order to avoid the draft created a cohort which included individuals who would not normally have attended post-secondary educational institutions. Comparing the educational attainment of children of this cohort to that of cohorts who attended university in “normal times” creates a natural experiment to test the relative importance of the nature or nurture explanations. Our findings provide evidence in support of the nurture argument.
    Keywords: Inter-generational mobility, higher education attendance
    JEL: I0
    Date: 2015–04–26
  13. By: Tara Kaul (International Initiative for Impact Evaluation)
    Abstract: Gender discrimination exists in many different forms, and in many different countries and contexts. A wide body of empirical evidence suggests the existence and persistence of gender discrimination within the household. Boys receive preferential treatment from parents in terms of health and educational inputs. In this paper I map out and examine the existence and extent of gender discrimination in India among school going children (ages 4-18) and compare outcomes based on different types of household heterogeneities, such as size, income, location etc. I use child-specific data on enrolment and educational expenditures incurred for all children in the household, thereby making comparison both within and across households.While the male bias exists in both the decision to enrol a child in school, and in the amount of money spent on their books, tuition etc, parents particularly favour first born children. Households in urban areas, and those that have fewer children tend to discriminate less in favour of boys. It also striking that as the number of children increases, parents have higher expectations of financial support in the future from their sons, suggesting that this expectation may be exacerbating the preferential treatment to boys.
    Keywords: education, gender discrimination, India
    JEL: I24 J16 D19
  14. By: Enriqueta Camps
    Abstract: Throughout the 19th century and until the mid-20th century, in terms of long-term investment in human capital and, above all, in education, Spain lagged far behind the international standards and, more specifically, the levels attained by its neighbours in Europe. In 1900, only 55% of the population could read; in 1950, this figure was 93%. This paper provides evidence that these conditions contributed to a pattern of slower economic growth in which the physical strength required for agricultural work, measured here through height, had a larger impact than education on economic growth. It was not until the 1970s, with the arrival of democracy, that the Spanish education system was modernized and the influence of education on economic growth increased.
    Keywords: employment structure, human capital, educational offer, economic growth.
    JEL: I2 I1 J3 J8 N3
    Date: 2016–02
  15. By: Pamella Kamiya Alves (FACE-UFG, Ciências Econômicas); Sandro Eduardo Monsueto (FACE-UFG, Ciências Econômicas)
    Abstract: This article make an analysis of the demand for workers with higher education in Brazilian metropolitan regions. The results of this study show that the demand for more skilled labor has increased in recent years and that despite this information we can not say that these individuals are being employed in occupations compatible with their schooling. Thus, there is a mismatch between the technical qualifications required and observed. To view this data was applied a model Probit with selection bias, which shows the probability of a worker being in a situation of underemployment. In general, it appears that this problem affects more women, non-white individuals and those not unionized. Moreover, it has been that workers with early entry into the labor market are penalized with this situation, because it is believed that they invest less in education than those who enter this market with greater age.
    Keywords: underemployment, Brazil, skilled labor, higher education
    JEL: J24 J23
    Date: 2014–06
  16. By: MILLA, J. (Université catholique de Louvain, CORE, Belgium); SAN MARTIN , E. (Universidad Catolica de Chile, Chile, CORE (UCL) and Measurement Center MIDE UC, Chile); VAN BELLEGEM, S. (Université catholique de Louvain, CORE, Belgium)
    Abstract: We build a multidimensional value added model to analyze jointly the test scores on several outcomes. Using a unique Colombian data set on higher education within a seemingly unrelated regression equations (SURE) framework we estimate school outcome specific value added indicators. These are used to measure the relative contribution of the school on a certain outcome, which may serve as an internal accountability measure. Apart from the evident estimation efficiency gains, a joint value added analysis is preferable to the unidimensional one. First, unless modeled in a multidimensional framework, the comparison of value added estimates for different outcomes within a school is not well defined; our model circumvents this issue. Second, even in the case of a separate major field of study analysis there still exists unobserved heterogeneity due to institutional diversity. This makes it more compelling to employ a rich set of outcomes in computing value added indicators. In the end, we aggregate the outcome-specific value added estimates to produce a composite value added index that reflects the combined value added contribution of all the subjects for each school.
    Keywords: multidimensional value added, multiple outcomes, quality of higher education
    JEL: I23 A22 C31 C51
    Date: 2015–10–21
  17. By: Donald Kudek (Wisconsin Lutheran College)
    Abstract: Colleges and universities have increased student group work in business curriculum since the business community is looking for students able to work in this environment. Although it has been shown to provide students with added teamwork, communication, and problem solving skills, group work creates challenges in grading, social loafing, and motivation. To help reduce these issues, professors have allowed students to pick their own teams, which has created its own set of issues and concerns. Although studies have shown students prefer to choose their own teams, transfer students, student with learning challenges, or just the “odd man out†issue when social circles do not match team sizes, could cause those students to have a negative learning experience. Through a research study of undergraduate business students at Wisconsin Lutheran College, the author hoped to gain a greater understanding of the impact on learning that students face when they are not able to join their ideal team choice when teams are self-selected. Students in Microeconomics (BUS 181) where the professor chooses the teams and two classes where students choose their own teams provided the research subjects. The author utilized an adaptation of a study instrument from Marks and O’Connor (2013), conducted at Longwood University in Farmville, Virginia. Although the author was concerned that students that were able to choose their own teams, but did not become part of their ideal team, would have a negative learning experience compared to other self-selected teams as well as teams assigned by the professor, the data gathered did not support the hypothesis. Convenience sampling and small sample sizes may have contributed to the results, and thus additional research and analysis should be completed on this important topic.
    Keywords: Group Work, Colleges, Universities, evaluation, education impact
    JEL: I21
  18. By: Mathias Huebener (DIW Berlin, Department of Education and Family);
    Abstract: This paper studies the role of paternal risk attitudes in sons’ long-run education outcomes and in the intergenerational transmission of incomes and education. Based on 1984–2012 German Socio-Economic Panel Study data of sons and fathers, I show that fathers’ risk aversion is inversely related to sons’ long-run levels of education. I find signs that sons with risk averse fathers experience lower educational mobility and considerably lower income mobility than their peers with risk taking fathers, though these differences can only be measured with large standard errors. The direct link between paternal risk attitudes and offspring’s education outcomes can provide a novel explanation for the mechanism underlying the intergenerational persistence of economic statuses. It can further challenge the traditional view of own risk attitudes in the human capital investment theory and suggests that parental risk attitudes should be incorporated.
    Keywords: Education decision, Human capital, Risk attitudes, Educational mobility
    Date: 2015–07
  19. By: Deshpande, Ashwini; Desrochers, Alain; Ksoll, Christopher; Shonchoy, Abu S.
    Abstract: With over 700 million illiterate adults in the world, many governments have implemented adult literacy programs across the world, although typically with low rates of success partly because the quality of teaching is low. One solution may lie in the standardization of teaching provided by computer-aided instruction. We present the first rigorous evidence of the effectiveness of a computer-based adult literacy program. A randomized control trial study of TARA Akshar Plus, an Indian adult literacy program, was implemented in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. We find large, significant impacts of this computer-aided program on literacy and numeracy outcomes. We compare the improvement in learning to that of other traditional adult literacy programs and conclude that TARA Akshar Plus is effective in increasing literacy and numeracy for illiterate adult women.
    Keywords: India, Adult education, Literacy, Women, Adult Literacy Program, ICT
    JEL: O12
    Date: 2016–01
  20. By: Peter Rillero (Arizona State University)
    Abstract: There is increased discussion and recognition of the importance of project-based learning in education (Chin & Chia, 2004; Krajcik, Czerniak, & Berger, 1998; Lam, Cheng, & Ma, 2009). Full-inquiry science research projects develop science content and develop and assess all of the standards-based science process skills and inquiry skills. In the dawn of project-based learning moving beyond talk and into implementation, full-inquiry science research should be the gold standard of independent project work.We propose that policy people, leaders, and teachers have the following three main goals for science fairs: (a) Winning Goal, (b) Quantity Goal, and (c) Quality Goal. These goals may not be explicitly stated but they do shape behavior. The winning goal is common but focusing efforts on elite students doing elite projects may limit the amount of students participating. For this research we selected programs that were exemplary in maximizing participation but yet were interested in quality research. Case study analyses of science research programs in Costa Rica, Ireland, and Marlborough, Massachusetts were conducted. Interviews of leaders, supporters, and students were conducted. These interviews and supporting documents were analyzed. Each of these case studies is described and conclusions from comparing programs are presented. The research can inform existing science research programs and places seeking to establish science research programs.
    Keywords: Inquiry, student research, science education
    JEL: I21 I29
  21. By: Chisako Yamamoto (Hamamatsu Gakuin University); Tanji Hoshi (Tokyo Metropolitan University)
    Abstract: Yamamoto’s previous study showed that the prevalence of dementia in the community-dwelling elderly of 65 years and older in City A of Tokyo was decreasing during a six-year follow-up 2001-2007, suggesting that there should be some factors specific to City A. The purpose of this study is to clarify City A’s specific factors in decreasing prevalence of dementia. Health status of the analysis subjects was examined in terms of ratios of approval for long-term care insurance, proportions of the elderly who had a family dentist, habits of smoking and alcohol intake, educational attainment (years of education) and interest in health issues. The analysis results were discussed reviewing official statistics and the results of previous studies. The analysis subjects showed lower ratio of approval for long-term care insurance than City A’s and National statistics. More than 70% of them had a family dentist even in 2001. Proportions of smokers in male analysis subjects were decreasing over years. As for educational attainment, 38.9% had more than 13 years of education and 24.7% had more than 16 years in the 2004 survey. The higher educational attainment, interest in health and health literacy observed in the analysis subjects seem to have been specific factors which might have promoted their health status and contributed to decreasing the prevalence of dementia. Education might be a key to decrease the prevalence of dementia.
    Keywords: prevalence of dementia; long-term care insurance; family dentist; smoking; alcohol intake; educational attainment; health literacy.
    JEL: I19
  22. By: Carvalho, José-Raimundo; Magnac, Thierry
    Abstract: In this document, we review the main characteristics of the survey undertaken in Ceara in 2014 among students of public and private high schools and regarding their characteristics and behavior relative to the choice of college and undergraduate degrees.
    Date: 2016–02
  23. By: Jonatan Castaño Muñoz (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Yves Punie (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Andreia Inamorato dos Santos (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Marija Mitic (Academic Cooperation Association (ACA)); Rita Morais (Independent Consultant)
    Abstract: Open Education is on the agenda of half of the surveyed Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in France, Germany, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. For the other half of HEIs, Open Education does not seem to be an issue, at least at the time of the data collection of the survey (spring 2015). This report presents results of a representative a survey of Higher Education institutions in five European countries (France, Germany, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom) to enquire about their Open Education (OE) practices, beliefs and strategies (e.g MOOCs). It aims to provide evidence for the further development of OE to support the supports the Opening Up Communication (European Commission, 2013) and the renewed priority on Open Education, enabled by digital technologies, of ET2020
    Keywords: Education, Higher Education, Higher Education Institutions, Europe, Open Education, MOOCs, OER
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2016–02
  24. By: Claude Diebolt (BETA, University of Strasbourg Strasbourg, France); Audrey-Rose Menard (BETA, University of Strasbourg Strasbourg, France); Faustine Perrin (Department of Economic History, Lund University)
    Date: 2016
  25. By: Vincent Bignon (Banque de France. DGEI-DEMFI-Pomone); Cecilia Garcia-Peñalosa (Aix-Marseille University (Aix Marseille School of Economics), CNRS & EHESS and CESifo. AMSE)
    Abstract: The assumption that education and fertility are endogenous decisions that react to economic circumstances is a cornerstone of the unified growth theory that explains the transition to modern economic growth, yet evidence that such a mechanism was in operation before the 20th century is limited. This paper provides evidence of how protectionism reversed the education and fertility trends that were well under way in late 19th-century France. The Méline tariff, a tariff on cereals introduced in 1892, led to a substantial increase in agricultural wages, thus reducing the relative return to education. Since the importance of cereal production varied across regions, we use these differences to estimate the impact of the tariff. Our findings indicate that the tariff reduced education and increased fertility. The magnitude of these effects was substantial, and in regions with large shares of employment in cereal production the tariff offset the time trend in education for up to 15 years. Our results thus indicate that even in the 19th century, policies that changed the economic prospects of their offspring affected parents’ decisions about the quantity and quality of children.
    Keywords: Education, Fertility, Unified growth theory, Protectionism, France
    JEL: J13 N33 O15
    Date: 2016–01
  26. By: Shannon Monahan; Jaime Thomas; Lauren Murphy; Diane Paulsell
    Abstract: The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, in partnership with the Administration for Children and Families, funded Mathematica Policy Research and its partners to conduct the Learning About Infant and Toddler Early Education Services (LITES) project. LITES conducted a systematic review to identify program models to support infant and toddler early learning in out-of-home early care and education settings. This protocol guided the systematic review.
    Keywords: systematic review, infant and toddler, early care and education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2015–12–30
  27. By: Todo, Yasuyuki; Kozuka, Eiji; Sawada, Yasuyuki
    Abstract: While impacts of school-based management (SBM), i.e., decentralization of levels of authority to the school level, in less developed countries have been examined in a number of recent academic studies, the results have been mixed. To bridge a gap in the existing literature, at least partially, this paper evaluates the impact of an SBM program in Burkina Faso, in which targeted schools were rolled out randomly over two years. A novelty of this study is that we examine the program’s impacts on community-wide outcomes captured by the level of trust in others by student’s parents, and their participation in rotating savings and credit associations (ROSCAs). We hypothesize that parents involved in SBM are more likely to participating in ROSCAs through collaboration with other community members in SBM because they foster trust in others, a necessary precondition for development of informal financial arrangements. Using a unique data set collected exclusively for this study we find that, in particular, relatively poor parents involved in SBM were more likely to participate in ROSCAs than other poor parents. These findings contain two important implications: first, our findings are consistent with the view that social capital, strengthened by SBM, plays a critical complementary role in correcting financial market failures in low income economies (Hayami 2009); and, second, impact evaluation of SBM focusing only on student performance may undervalue its overall effects on the whole community, ignoring important spillover effects of SBM.
    Keywords: school-based management , rotating savings and credit associations , trust , Burkina Faso
    Date: 2016–02–24

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