nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒02‒12
twenty papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Educational inequalities in Latin America, PISA 2012: causes of differences in school performance between public and private schools By Geovanny Castro Aristizabal; Gregorio Gimenez Esteban; Domingo Perez Ximenez-de-Embun
  2. How much teachers know and how much it matters in class : analyzing three rounds of subject-specific test score data of Indonesian students and teachers By De Ree,Joppe Jaitze
  3. Student Learning Time: A Literature Review By Anna Gromada; Claire Shewbridge
  4. Investing in Human Capital for Inclusive Growth: Focus on Higher Education By Canlas, Dante B.
  5. Teaching Styles and Achievement: Student and Teacher Perspectives By Ana Hidalgo-Cabrillana; Cristina Lopez-Mayan
  6. How Can Community Participation Improve Educational Outcomes? Experimental Evidence from a School-Based Management Project in Burkina Faso By Kozuka, Eiji; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Todo, Yasuyuki
  7. "When one door closes: the impact of the hagwon curfew on the consumption of private tutoring in the Republic of Korea” By Hoon Choi; Álvaro Choi
  9. Returns to Education and Experience in Criminal Organizations: Evidence from the Italian-American Mafia By Campaniello, Nadia; Gray, Rowena; Mastrobuoni, Giovanni
  10. Gender Wage Gap and its Effect on Test Scores of Immigrant Students By Eiji Yamamura
  11. Working Paper 230 - Child Labour and Schooling in South Sudan and Sudan: Is There a Gender Preference? By Bérenger Valérie; Audrey Verdier‐Chouchane
  12. The Hidden Curriculum and Social Preferences By Takahiro Ito; Kohei Kubota; Fumio Ohtake
  14. Drittmittelorientierung als Risiko für Hochschulen By Dilger, Alexander
  15. On the value of foreign PhDs in the developing world: Training versus selection effects. By Helena Barnard; Robin Cowan; Moritz Müller
  16. Who are the bachelor's and master's graduates? By OECD
  17. Inégalités des salaires au niveau de l’Enseignement Supérieur et Universitaire public en RDCongo : Evidence de l’accumulation du capital humain By Mardochée Ngandu Mulotwa
  18. Dimensions of the welfare state and economic performance: a comparative analysis By João A. S. Andrade; Adelaide P. S. Duarte; Marta C. N. Simões
  19. Budgeting and Accounting in OECD Education Systems: A Literature Review By Tala Fakharzadeh
  20. Impact Evaluation of Burkina Faso's BRIGHT Program: Design Report By Harounan Kazianga; Leigh Linden; Ali Protik; Matt Sloan

  1. By: Geovanny Castro Aristizabal; Gregorio Gimenez Esteban; Domingo Perez Ximenez-de-Embun (Faculty of Economics and Management, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali)
    Abstract: The paper notes and explains the causes of the differences in school performance between public and private schools in Latin America. It uses information from the 8 Latin American countries that participated in PISA 2012. The estimations, two steps with instrumental variables, combined with the technique of the Oaxaca-Blinder’s decomposition, reveal that Uruguay and Brazil had the highest education gap, and Colombia and Mexico the lowest. These differences are explained, mainly, by the observed component of the model. Specifically, the differences in individual characteristics explain the greater proportion of the gaps in performance; followed by family characteristics and resources of the schools. In addition, the decomposition in the no-observed component suggests that students from private schools make better use of the educational resources, both in their homes and in their schools.
    Keywords: academic achievement, public and private education, educational production function, instrumental variables, Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, PISA, Latin America.
    JEL: C29 I21 I24 I28 I29
    Date: 2016–02
  2. By: De Ree,Joppe Jaitze
    Abstract: Improving the quality of education is one of today's main challenges for governments in the developing world. Based on a unique matched student-to-teacher panel data set on test scores this paper presents two empirical results for Indonesia. First, through detailed inspection of teacher-level responses to test questions, the paper concludes that subject matter knowledge of primary school teachers in Indonesia is low on average and that a 1.0, but also a 2.0 standard deviation increase in teachers'subject matter knowledge seem to be achievable medium-term goals for education policy making in Indonesia. Second, the paper presents the results of three types of value-added regressions, a (standard) level specification, a school fixed-effects specification, and a flexible student-teacher fixed-effects specification. The student-teacher fixed-effects approach estimates the parameters of a value-added model using test score variation within each student-teacher pair across three different subjects, mathematics, science and Indonesian language. The results suggest that a 1.0 (and 2.0) standard deviation increase in teachers'subject matter knowledge across-the-board can yield increases in student achievement by 0.25 (and 0.50) student-level standard deviations by the time students complete the six-year primary school cycle.
    Keywords: Education For All,Effective Schools and Teachers,Secondary Education,Tertiary Education,Primary Education
    Date: 2016–02–02
  3. By: Anna Gromada; Claire Shewbridge
    Abstract: This paper examines student learning time as a key educational resource. It presents an overview of how different OECD countries allocate instruction time. It also develops a model to understand the effective use of allocated instruction time and examines how different OECD countries compare on this. The paper confirms the value of sufficient instruction time as a key educational resource, but the key conclusion is that what matters the most is the way in which allocated time is used. Student learning time and academic achievement seem to have complex and curvilinear relationship with diminishing returns to scale. The paper also cautions that there should be realistic expectations on how effectively students can learn throughout the school day and year. Accordingly, it suggests that instruction could be organised to better optimise times when students are better able to concentrate. Evidence on lost instruction time in different OECD countries points to areas of potential increased effectiveness within existing time allocations, for example by improving classroom management and matching instruction to better meet students’ learning needs.
    Date: 2016–02–06
  4. By: Canlas, Dante B.
    Abstract: What does the Philippines need to do to transform its economy into a high middle-income economy and ensure that the benefits from such a transformation are within reach of every Filipino? Investment in human capital, especially higher education, is one instrument that serves the twin goals of boosting economic growth with broad-based rewards, that is, inclusive growth. Currently, the Philippines is confronted by a low proportion of enrollees and graduates in higher and scientific education, and needs to raise its stock of labor with higher and scientific education amid rising demand for skilled workers and widening gaps in lifetime earnings between college and high school graduates. Several policies are indicated, but priority must be accorded to instituting loan programs for higher education, accelerating rationalization of the state university and college sector based on instituting regional university systems and centers of excellence, and devising grant programs for content standards for subjects and courses and formulating standardized tests for measuring and monitoring compliance with those standards applied to both public and private institutions of higher learning.
    Keywords: Philippines, higher education institutions (HEIs), higher education, inclusive growth, human capital, student loans
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Ana Hidalgo-Cabrillana; Cristina Lopez-Mayan
    Abstract: Using data from a Spanish assessment program of fourth-grade pupils, we analyze to what extent using traditional and modern teaching styles in class is related to achievement in maths and reading. As a novelty, we measure in-class work using two different sources of information - teacher and students. Our identification strategy relies on between-class within-school variation of teaching styles. We find that modern practices are related to better achievement, especially in reading, while traditional practices, if anything, are detrimental. There are differences depending on the source of information: the magnitude of coefficients is larger when practices are reported by students. These findings are robust to considering alternative identifications of teaching practices. We obtain heterogeneous effects of teaching styles by gender and type of school but only when using students' answers. Our findings highlight the importance of the source of information, teacher or students, to draw adequate conclusions about the effect of teaching style on achievement.
    Keywords: students and teacher reports, test scores, teacher quality, modern and traditional teaching
    JEL: I20 I21 J24
    Date: 2015–12
  6. By: Kozuka, Eiji; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Todo, Yasuyuki
    Abstract: Promoting community participation in school management is a widely found intervention in the developing world. While this type of program is generally believed to be effective, the actual evidence is not sufficient to inform policy makers on how community participation works in improving educational outcomes. To shed more light on this question, we conducted a randomized evaluation of an education program in Burkina Faso. The program was designed to build trust among community members and teachers, and encourage them to work together in school management. The results show that the intervention increased student enrollment, decreased student repetition, and lowered teacher absence. The results also indicate that it had a strong impact on class repetition by 6th grade boys, presumably reflecting parental priorities. This suggests that community participation can improve educational outcomes through empowering the community and enhancing social capital, but whether idealized results can be gained depends on the perception and the knowledge of the community members.
    Keywords: school-based management , community participation , randomized controlled trial (RCT) , education , impact evaluation
    Date: 2016–02–01
  7. By: Hoon Choi (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona); Álvaro Choi (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: The Korean government has struggled against the proliferation of private tutoring for more than four decades. In 2006, state education authorities imposed a restriction on operating hours of hagwon (private tutoring academies or cram schools) in an attempt at reducing the economic and time resources spent on private tutoring. Since then, some provincial authorities have modified the curfew on hagwon. We take advantage of these policy shifts to identify average treatment effects taking a difference-in-differences approach. Our findings suggest that enforcing the curfew did not generate a significant reduction in the hours and resources spent on private tutoring, our results being heterogeneous by school level and socioeconomic status. Demand for private tutoring seems to be especially inelastic for high school students, who increased their consumption of alternative forms of private tutoring. As the consumption of private tutoring is positively correlated with academic performance and socioeconomic status, the curfew may have a negative effect on the equality of educational opportunities.
    Keywords: Private tutoring; Demand for schooling; Expenditures; Difference in differences; Korea. JEL classification: I21; I22; I24
    Date: 2015–11
  8. By: Paola Cardamone; Valeria Pupo; Fernanda Ricotta (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza, Università della Calabria)
    Abstract: This study provides empirical evidence on the role of universities’ Technological Transfer (TT) activities in the Italian manufacturing sector, with particular attention to the food industry. By using the UniCredit-Capitalia database (2008) for firms and data from the Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) to obtain the university TT indicator, we estimate a probit model to assess the effect of universities’ TT activities on a firm’s likelihood to innovate. Results show that university TT activities seem to stimulate food industry firms innovation and the impact appears significantly higher than for the manufacturing sector.
    Keywords: Universities, Technology transfer, Food firms, Innovation, Spillovers
    JEL: O30 C25 D22
    Date: 2016–02
  9. By: Campaniello, Nadia; Gray, Rowena; Mastrobuoni, Giovanni
    Abstract: Is there any return to education in criminal activities? This is the first paper that investigates whether education has not only a positive impact on legitimate, but also on illegitimate activities. We use as a case study one of the longest running criminal corporations in history: the Italian-American mafia. Its most successful members have been capable businessmen, orchestrating crimes that require abilities that might be learned at school: extracting the optimal rent when setting up a racket, weighting interests against default risk when starting a loan sharking business or organising supply chains, logistics and distribution when setting up a drug dealing system. We address this question by comparing mobsters with their closest (non-mobster) neighbors using United States Census data in 1940. We document that mobsters have one year less education than their neighbors on average. None of the specifications presented identified any significant difference in the returns to education between these two groups. Private returns to education exist also in the illegal activities characterised by a certain degree of complexity as in the case of organized crime in mid-twentieth century United States.
    Date: 2015
  10. By: Eiji Yamamura
    Abstract: This paper examines how gender equality influences difference in cognitive skills between genders. For closer examination of Guiso et al. (2008), restricting the sample to immigrant allows us to reduce the possibility of reverse causality. Key findings obtained through regression estimation are: (1) decreased gender wage gap leads to girls exhibiting a reduced incidence of lateness and skipping school compared with boys, which in turn improves girlsf test scores in mathematics, science, and reading; (2) the direct effect of the decreased wage gap on test scores exceeds its indirect effect on performance owing to influencing school attendance. Considering the direct and indirect effects of the wage gap: each 1% decrease in the wage gap results in a 0.20%, 0.13% or 0.06% increase in test scores for mathematics, science, and reading, respectively.
    Date: 2016–02
  11. By: Bérenger Valérie (Université de Toulon); Audrey Verdier‐Chouchane (African Development Bank)
    Abstract: Based on the 2009 household surveys conducted in Sudan and South Sudan, the objective of this article is to analyse gender inequality for the young population aged 10 to 14 who should be at school. Although education is free in both countries, children’s enrolment at school is low especially for girls, many of them stay home performing domestic chores or have an economic activity particularly in rural areas. The bivariate probit model highlights the key role of the household head’s education, gender and poverty status in determining children’s schooling. Drawn on Pal (2004) who extended the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, we confirm that children’s activity in Sudan and South Sudan is strongly determined by the fact of being a girl or a boy. The article also provides some policy recommendations to address the issues of low school attendance and high gender inequality.
    Date: 2016–01–29
  12. By: Takahiro Ito; Kohei Kubota; Fumio Ohtake
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of school curricula on subsequent preference formation. The estimation results, using Japanese data, show that the actual curriculum at public elementary schools varies widely from area to area and is associated with preference formation. Specifically, pupils who have experienced participatory/cooperative learning practices are more likely to be altruistic, cooperative with others, reciprocal, and have national pride. In contrast, the influence of education emphasizing more on anti-competitive practices is negatively associated with these attributes. Such contrasts can also be seen for other preferences regarding government policies and a market economy. The findings imply that elementary school education, as a place for early socialization, plays an important role in the formation of life-long social preferences.
    Date: 2015–12
  13. By: Ashwini Deshpande, Alain Desrochers, Christopher Ksoll, and Abu S. Shonchoy (Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, India)
    Abstract: With over 700 million illiterate adults in the world, many governments have implemented adult literacy programs across the world, although typically with low rates of success partly because the quality of teaching is low. One solution may lie in the standardization of teaching provided by computer-aided instruction. We present the first rigorous evidence of the effectiveness of a computer-based adult literacy program. A randomized control trial study of TARA Akshar Plus, an Indian adult literacy program, was implemented in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. We find large, significant impacts of this computer-aided program on literacy and numeracy outcomes. We compare the improvement in learning to that of other traditional adult literacy programs and conclude that TARA Akshar Plus is effective in increasing literacy and numeracy for illiterate adult women.
    Date: 2016–01
  14. By: Dilger, Alexander
    Abstract: Walter Dörhage und Raimund Mildner empfehlen Hochschulen und anderen wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen, sich strategisch an der Gewinnung von Drittmitteln und kommerziellen Einnahmen auszurichten. Das ist allerdings für Hochschulen und auch die Hochschulpolitik gefährlich. Zu empfehlen ist bestmögliche Wissenschaft als Ziel, wofür Drittmittel nur ein Mittel darstellen.
    Abstract: Walter Dörhage and Raimund Mildner recommend to universities and other academic institutions to orient themselves strategically towards the attraction of third-party funds and commercial gains. However, this is risky for universities as well as higher education policy. A better recommendation is the objective of best possible science, while third-party funds are only a means to this end.
    JEL: I23 I28 H44 H52
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Helena Barnard; Robin Cowan; Moritz Müller
    Abstract: This paper compares the career effects of overseas and domestic PhD training for scientists working in an emerging economy, South Africa. Variations in scientific achievements of South African academics may arise because those who attend “better” PhD programmes receive better training, but it may also be because good students select into good universities. We examine selection and training effects for four tiers of South African and two tiers of foreign universities. Those who received PhDs from universities in industrialized countries tend to be more productive than those whose PhDs were locally granted, but universities from industrialized countries do not necessarily provide better training than local universities. Pure selection effects contribute to career outcomes nearly as much as training effects. When looking at training in isolation, PhDs from top South African universities produce a similar quantity and quality research output to those from leading universities in the developed world.
    Keywords: Scientific mobility; Doctoral studies; University evaluation; Developing country; South Africa; Technological upgrading.
    JEL: H52 I2 O15 O20 O30
    Date: 2015
  16. By: OECD
    Abstract: Graduation rates for bachelor’s and master’s degrees have dramatically increased over the past two decades, with 6 million bachelor’s degrees and 3 million master’s degrees awarded in OECD countries in 2013. Although women represent over half of the graduates at the bachelor’s and master’s level, they are still strikingly under-represented in the fields of sciences and engineering. The proportion of international students rises with every level of tertiary education: while 7% of bachelor’s graduates were international students in 2013, the figure increases to 18% among those awarded a master’s degree.
    Date: 2016–01–08
  17. By: Mardochée Ngandu Mulotwa (UEA - Université Evangélique en Afrique)
    Abstract: Human capital accumulation is reflected in the increase in years number of education and years number of experience. The traditional approach analyzes the link between human capital accumulation and wage inequality whereas the modern approach considers credit market imperfection 2. We combine tools of these two approaches to describe wage inequality in higher and university education and to identify determinants. Analyzes focus on secondary data for six categories of teachers: 1 st term assistant; 2 nd term assistant; work supervisors; associate professors; professor and full professors. Results show that wage inequalities among these teachers are noticeable (G=0,3909) and a significant part of these inequalities is due to inequalities in prime rather than in institutional base salary. In addition, human capital accumulation in terms of years number of education more explains wage inequalities than human capital accumulation in terms of years number of experience. Our analysis suggests that in case of credit market imperfection, years number of education oriented policies should reduce wage inequalities among teachers of higher and public universities in DR Congo.
    Keywords: Human capital accumulation,Gini coefficient,Wage inequalities,Higher and University education,Credit market,DR Congo
    Date: 2015–05
  18. By: João A. S. Andrade (Faculty of Economics and GEMF, University of Coimbra, Portugal); Adelaide P. S. Duarte (Faculty of Economics and GEMF, University of Coimbra, Portugal); Marta C. N. Simões (Faculty of Economics and GEMF, University of Coimbra, Portugal)
    Abstract: In recent years the desirability of an extensive Welfare State has been increasingly questioned on the grounds that economies with less social intervention by the Government are more competitive and productive. But even if countries do not increase public expenditure, changing the composition of the Welfare State might foster growth by rescaling their intervention in domains that are productivity enhancing. Education and health are the most striking examples given their role as sources of human capital, a fundamental ingredient in many growth models. It is thus important to empirically assess the impact of public expenditures on education and health on educational attainment and health status indicators, and real income. We do this for three groups of countries: a group of high income OECD economies, the EU before the enlargement and the EU enlargement group. We identitfy long-run relationships across the main variables using the DOLS estimator corrected for cross-sectional dependence and we estimate short-run relationships that include an ECM term from the associated long-run equation by applying Fixed-Effects and Pooled Mean Group estimators for the period 1960-2012. The results of the estimation of the long-run equilibrium relationships point to a positive, direct or indirect, influence of (public) education expenditures and (public, private or total) health expenditures on output for the three groups of countries. Causality relationships exhibit mixed results concerning policy variables, within and between country groups, with the results for the high-income OECD (non EU) group supporting the use of social policy variables to foster economic growth.
    Keywords: education, health, public expenditures, economic growth, OECD
    Date: 2016–02
  19. By: Tala Fakharzadeh
    Abstract: Recent demographic, economic and political trends have drawn attention to the issue of effectiveness and efficiency in the use of resources in the education sector. In the context of the renewed interest for the optimisation of resource use, this paper attempts to review the literature on budgeting and accounting in OECD education systems. The analysis of accounting and budgeting in education systems provides an understanding of decision-making processes regarding education policies and projects, in terms of prioritisation, planning, allocation, monitoring and evaluation of resource use. The subjects covered in the paper also help to understand how resources are distributed. Greater requests for transparency from citizens are indeed pressuring governments to justify how public resources are allocated, and which variables determine the levels of funding flowing to schools. Finally, accounting standards and budgeting methods are studied in the current paper as they may also have an impact on effectiveness and efficiency of resource use. This report first explores governance questions underlying budgeting and accounting. Subsequently, the report reviews procedures and tools adopted by countries for budgeting and accounting. Finally, it presents methods for evaluation and monitoring of resource use. The paper attempts to identify trends and commonalities in country practices in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education; however, there are great variations on the studied topics across and within countries. En raison des récentes évolutions démographiques, économiques et politiques, une plus grande attention est accordée aux questions d’efficience et d’efficacité dans l’utilisation des ressources dans le domaine de l’éducation. Dans le contexte d’un renouveau d’intérêt pour l’optimisation de l’utilisation des ressources, ce papier vise à réaliser une revue de littérature au sujet des processus budgétaires et comptables au sein des systèmes éducatifs de l’OCDE. L’analyse des systèmes comptables et des procédures budgétaires dans les systèmes éducatifs permet de donner un aperçu des processus de décision relatifs aux politiques et aux projets dans l’éducation, en termes de priorisation, planification, allocation, pilotage et d’évaluation de l’utilisation des ressources. Les sujets étudiés dans ce papier permettent également de comprendre comment les ressources sont distribuées. Une plus grande demande de transparence de la part des citoyens met en effet sous pression les gouvernements, qui doivent justifier l’allocation des ressources publiques et la nature des variables permettant de déterminer le montant des fonds alloués aux écoles. Enfin, les standards comptables et les méthodes budgétaires sont étudiés dans ce papier car ces derniers peuvent également avoir un impact sur l’efficience et l’efficacité dans l’utilisation des ressources. Ce rapport explore tout d’abord les questions de gouvernance sous-jacentes aux systèmes budgétaires et comptables. Par la suite, le rapport effectue une revue des procédures et outils budgétaires et comptables adoptés par les pays. Enfin, le papier présente des méthodes pour l’évaluation et le pilotage de l’utilisation des ressources. Le papier vise à identifier les tendances et les points communs au travers des pratiques des pays au niveau de l’école primaire, secondaire et post-secondaire non tertiaire. Cependant, il faut noter de grandes variations relatives aux sujets étudies, entre et au sein-même des pays.
    Date: 2016–02–10
  20. By: Harounan Kazianga; Leigh Linden; Ali Protik; Matt Sloan
    Keywords: BRIGHT, Burkina Faso, International, Design Report
    JEL: F Z
    Date: 2015–11–24

This nep-edu issue is ©2016 by João Carlos Correia Leitão. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.