nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2016‒02‒04
thirteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Policing, Schooling and Human Capital Accumulation By Ivan G. Lopez Cruz
  2. Does immigration crowd natives into or out of higher education? By Jackson, Osborne
  3. Differential Peer Effects, Student Achievement, and Student Absenteeism: Evidence from a Large Scale Randomized Experiment By Ozkan Eren
  4. Can States Take Over and Turn Around School Districts? Evidence from Lawrence, Massachusetts By Joshua Goodman; Beth Schueler; David Deming
  7. Financial Education, Investor Protection and International Portfolio Diversification. By Giofré, Maela
  8. School, market work, and household: A day of Guatemalan children By Carla Canelas
  9. Measuring School Leaders' Effectiveness: Findings from a Multiyear Pilot of Pennsylvania's Framework for Leadership (Stated Briefly) By Moira McCullough; Stephen Lipscomb; Hanley Chiang; Brian Gill; Irina Cheban
  10. Out of school and out of work: a diagnostic of ninis in Latin America By De Hoyos Navarro,Rafael E.; Popova,Anna; Rogers,F. Halsey
  11. Aid, education policy, and development By Miguel Niño-Zarazúa
  12. Evaluating National Ongoing Programs: Implementing the WIA Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs Gold Standard Evaluation By Annalisa Mastri; Sheena McConnell; Linda Rosenberg; Peter Schochet; Dana Rotz; Andrew Clarkwest; Ken Fortson; AnnaMaria McCutcheon; Katie Bodenlos; Jessica Ziegler; Paul Burkander
  13. Assessing the impact of just-in-time methodology, in-lecture activities, and tutor-assisted post-lecture activities in the course experience of first year students in Economics at the University of Pretoria By R. Inglesi-Lotz, F. Dresselhaus and J. Bohlmann

  1. By: Ivan G. Lopez Cruz (Indiana University)
    Abstract: A substantial body of empirical and policy literature argues that schooling can be a powerful tool against criminality and violence. On the other hand, recent work has demonstrated that low levels of public safety can have serious detrimental effects on educational outcomes. This paper develops a model to analyze the roles that investments in education and in public safety have for students educational attainment. The model captures the main stylized facts of the literature and explores the optimal balance between investment in policing and schooling. The model analyses individual decisions to accumulate violence related skills ("street capital") at the expense of human capital information in a setting where property rights require private efforts to be enforced. The model assumes that inhabitants of a region decide, during childhood, to allocate efforts to schooling and/or learning "street skills" that, as adults, will serve them in resolving violent conflicts in their favor. Hence, if the level of public safety, which is the only mean to prevent violent confrontations, is low, the incentives to study will also be lower. Moreover, one of the results establishes that those agents who accumulate more human capital, and hence are more productive, suffer a comparative disadvantage in exerting violence because their opportunity cost of doing so is higher. Therefore, if investments in public education increase the productivity spread between adult agents, the incentives to study might decrease and lead to a lower output, showing that the benefits of schooling can only be seized if they are complemented with enough public safety.
    Keywords: Street Capital, Human Capital, Public Education, Policing, Property Rights
    Date: 2015–12
  2. By: Jackson, Osborne (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston)
    Abstract: Over the past several decades, the United States has experienced some of its largest immigrant inflows since the Great Depression. This higher level of immigration has generated significant debate on the effects of such inflows on receiving markets and natives. Education market studies have found that inflows of immigrant students can displace some natives from enrollment. Meanwhile, labor market studies have primarily examined the impact of immigrant labor inflows on the wages of similarly and dissimilarly skilled natives, with mixed results. The lack of consensus in the wage studies has spurred a growing line of research on whether natives respond endogenously to immigrant worker inflows. Yet, it remains unexplored whether native responses in the higher education market also contribute to the absorption of immigrants into the labor market and the effects on equilibrium in both markets. In a unified framework of the education and labor markets this paper addresses whether skill level via college enrollment is another margin on which natives endogenously adjust to immigrant inflows of students and labor. This study differs from previous research by separately identifying native human capital accumulation responses to both immigrant labor and student inflows at the college margin, where such responses may be strongest due to the high school-college wage gap. The analysis also contributes to our understanding of how local markets respond to immigrant inflows.
    JEL: H75 J22 J23 J24 J61
    Date: 2015–10–01
  3. By: Ozkan Eren
    Abstract: Using data from a well-executed randomized experiment, we examine the effects of gender composition and peer achievement on high school students' outcomes in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Our results show that a higher proportion of female peers in the classroom improves girls' math test scores only in less advanced courses. For male students, the estimated gender peer effects are positive, but less precisely estimated. We also find no effect of average classroom achievement on female math test scores. Males, on the other hand, seem to benefit from a higher achieving classroom. We propose mechanisms relating to lower gender stereotype influences and gender-specific attitudes towards competition as potential expla- nations for our peer effects findings. Finally, it appears that a higher proportion of female students in the classroom decreases student absenteeism among male students without any impact on female attendance.
  4. By: Joshua Goodman; Beth Schueler; David Deming
    Abstract: The Federal government has spent billions of dollars to support turnarounds of low-achieving schools, yet most evidence on the impact of such turnarounds comes from high-profile, exceptional settings and not from examples driven by state policy decisions at scale. In this paper, we study the impact of state takeover and district-level turnaround in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Takeover of the Lawrence Public School (LPS) district was driven by the state?s accountability system, which increases state control in response to chronic underperformance. We find that the first two years of the LPS turnaround produced large achievement gains in math and modest gains in reading. Our preferred estimates compare LPS to other low income school districts in a differences-in-differences framework, although the results are robust to a wide variety of specifications, including student fixed effects. While the LPS turnaround was a package of interventions that cannot be fully separated, we find evidence that intensive small-group instruction led to particularly large achievement gains for participating students.
    Date: 2016–01
  5. By: Milan T. Mistry
    Abstract: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of study habits on academic achievement of tribal and non-tribal students at secondary level. To comply with the study 500 students were selected by random sampling technique from different tribal and non-tribal secondary schools of Panchmahal district of Gujarat state. The total strength of the sample was distributed over 250 tribal and 250 non-tribal students of secondary level. Study Habit Questionnaire, constructed and standardized by Patel (2004), was used to analyze the generated data. Apart of descriptive statistics like Measures of Central Tendency, ANOVA and Pearson Correlation were used for verification of hypothesis. An analysis of the data obtained from current study shows that, the study habit is a significant impact on an academic achievements of tribal and non tribal students at secondary level. Key words: Study Habits, Academic Achievement, Education
    Date: 2015–12
  6. By: Dipali Gandhi; Bhumika Mangrola
    Abstract: The classroom is a laboratory for the teachers to experiment on behaviors of an individual and mould their personality. Some individuals find it harder to learn with other individuals of the same age needs to get support from their teachers, or some extra help in the schools. A few individuals have more complicated learning difficulties, and may need extra help or equipment in school to help them access an appropriate education. Owing to lack of knowledge, educational access and technology, such individuals are initially treated as unwanted and segregated from other individuals and their education is carried out in special schools. The concept of Inclusive Education has changed the outlook for the children having all those deformities and differences. To touch the emotional domain of pre service teachers, an experiment was carried out with special children. The present paper reflects the views of pre service teachers towards special children. Key words: Inclusive Education, Pre service Teachers, Special Children
    Date: 2015–12
  7. By: Giofré, Maela (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the tension between regulation and financial education in explaining international portfolio diversification. We show that higher investor's financial education fosters international investment and stronger minority investor protection legislation attracts inward investment. More interestingly, these factors appear to be substitute in enhancing investor's portfolio diversification: the role of financial education is particularly pronounced where information problems and monitoring costs are likely to be more severe, that is in countries where protection of minority shareholders' rights is weaker. We interpret this evidence as supportive of the conjecture that financial education lessens the informational constraints of foreign investors.
    Date: 2015–12
  8. By: Carla Canelas
    Abstract: This paper utilizes a unique dataset on time use to study the determinants of the number of hours allocated to market work, household chores, and school related activities of Guatemalan children between 2000 and 2011. The paper also exploits information on the duration of schooling in order to compute survival probabilities or the probability of dropping out of school conditional on having stayed in school for time t. Results suggest that working children are two to four times more likely to drop out of school or to have never enrolled than the rest of the children in the sample. The findings also reveal the traditional gender specialization on market and domestic activities from early ages. While market work increases the likelihood of dropping out of school for both boys and girls, household chores add additional pressure to girls. time allocation and further increase school failure.
    Keywords: child labour, school attainment, Guatemala
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Moira McCullough; Stephen Lipscomb; Hanley Chiang; Brian Gill; Irina Cheban
    Abstract: This study analyzes the score variation, internal consistency, score stability, and concurrent validity of the Framework for Leadership (FFL)—Pennsylvania’s tool for evaluating schoolleaders’ effectiveness—during its pilot implementation in 2012/13 and 2013/14.
    Keywords: educator performance evaluation, school leader evaluation or effectiveness, school leaders, assessment/instrument development, Pennsylvania
    JEL: I
    Date: 2016–01–21
  10. By: De Hoyos Navarro,Rafael E.; Popova,Anna; Rogers,F. Halsey
    Abstract: Using all the household survey data available in Latin America during the period 1992 to 2013, this paper estimates that in 2015, 20 million youth ages 15 to 24 years in the region were out of school and not working (making them ninis, for"ni estudian ni trabajan"). The share of out-of?school, out-of-work youth in Latin America, at about 19 percent, is roughly equal to the global average of 22 percent. Although women make up over two-thirds of the ninis in the region, the number of male ninis grew by 46 percent between 1992 and 2010. As a result, the absolute number of ninis rose over the two-decade period, even as women's education and employment rates were improving. Global comparisons show that Latin America is the region of the world with the largest concentration of ninis among households in the bottom 40 percent of the income distribution. Coupled with the long-lasting harm it causes to the youth's future labor-market outcomes, the high incidence of ninis among the poorest households tends to lock in income disparities from one generation to the next, obstructing social mobility and poverty reduction in the region.
    Keywords: Youth and Government,Adolescent Health,Population Policies,Housing&Human Habitats,Primary Education
    Date: 2016–01–28
  11. By: Miguel Niño-Zarazúa
    Abstract: This paper discusses the recent history of education aid policy. It highlights an important shift in policy thinking in the international aid architecture that has dominated the global education aid agenda since the early 1990s. It argues that Rawlsian principles of social justice, human rights perspectives, and advancements in economic theory that emphasize the role of human capital in development have been central in that process.
    Keywords: aid, education policy, developing countries, Sustainable Development Goals
    Date: 2015
  12. By: Annalisa Mastri; Sheena McConnell; Linda Rosenberg; Peter Schochet; Dana Rotz; Andrew Clarkwest; Ken Fortson; AnnaMaria McCutcheon; Katie Bodenlos; Jessica Ziegler; Paul Burkander
    Abstract: This report describes the implementation of the impact study of the WIA Gold Standard Evaluation. It highlights the important lessons that we learned from designing and implementing this evaluation that may be informative for researchers conducting other impact evaluations, especially those of other national, ongoing programs.
    Keywords: WIA, program evaluation
    JEL: J
    Date: 2015–06–30
  13. By: R. Inglesi-Lotz, F. Dresselhaus and J. Bohlmann
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the introduction of blended-learning as applied to lectures in a large first year economics course at the University of Pretoria. The blended learning methodology was aligned with the flipped-classroom approach where the traditional classroom is overturned via interactive student engagement activities. Lectures take place partially or fully outside the classroom via pre-lecture videos, reading assignments and/or podcasts. Lecture time is utilized to assist students in deep learning by doing exercises, peer evaluations and encouraging class discussions. Post-lecture activities consist of consolidation quizzes, assignments and peer networking through social media.Blended-learning was introduced in the principles of economics course at the Department of Economics in the University of Pretoria in 2012; this paper reports the results for the second semester in 2013 and the first semester in 2014. It was found that students experienced the blended-learning methodology as beneficial in helping them understand basic concepts in economics.
    Keywords: Blended-Learning, Just-In-Time-Teaching, Student Perceptions, Large Classroom
    JEL: A22 I23
    Date: 2015

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