nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2015‒12‒20
sixteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Gender Gaps in Early Educational Achievement By Deborah A. Cobb-Clark; Julie Moschion
  2. The Effect of Pre-School Education on Academic Achievement in Indonesia By Mohamad Fahmi; Putri Grace Ninibeth Jewelery
  3. Do Schooling Reforms Also Improve Long-Run Health? By David (David Patrick) Madden
  4. Who wants to become a teacher? By OECD
  5. Class Size: Does It Matter for Student Achievement? By Christopher Jepsen
  6. The Effect of Sharing a Mother Tongue with Peers: Evidence from North Carolina Middle Schools By Thomas Ahn; Christopher Jepsen
  7. The Impact of Extreme Weather Events on Education By Valeria Groppo; Kati Krähnert
  8. The youngest Get the Pill: ADHD Misdiagnosis and the Production of Education in Germany By Hannes Schwandt; Amelie Wuppermann
  9. Where Are the Returns to Lifelong Learning? By Michael Coelli; Domenico Tabasso
  10. Adolescents' Perceptions of Opportunities in the U.S. South: Postracial Mirage or Reality in the New Black Mecca? By Jerome E. Morris; Sara E. Woodruff
  11. How a Universal Music Education Program Affects Time Use, Behavior, and School Attitude By Adrian Hille
  12. Bad Company: Reconciling Negative Peer Effects in College Achievement By Brady, Ryan; Insler, Michael; Rahman, Ahmed
  13. Does money in adulthood affect adult outcomes? By Kerris Cooper; Kitty Stewart
  14. Higher Education Accreditation: Market Regulation or Government Regulation Revisited By Joshua C. Hall
  15. 'Threshold Effects of Human Capital: Schooling and Economic Growth' By Humna Ahsana; M. Emranul Haque
  16. The Production and Stock of College Graduates for U.S. States By John V. Winters

  1. By: Deborah A. Cobb-Clark (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, University of Melbourne); Julie Moschion (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne; and Brotherhood of St Laurence)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the source of the gender gap in third grade numeracy and reading. We adopt an Oaxaca-Blinder approach and decompose the gender gap in educational achievement into endowment and response components. Our estimation relies on unusually rich panel data from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children in which information on child development reported by parents and teachers is linked to each child’s results on a national, standardized achievement test. We find that girls in low- and middle-SES families have an advantage in reading, while boys in highSES families have an advantage in numeracy. Girls score higher on their third grade reading tests in large part because they were more ready for school at age four and had better teacher-assessed literacy skills in kindergarten. Boys’ advantage in numeracy occurs because they achieve higher numeracy test scores than girls with the same education-related characteristics. Classification-J16, I21, I24
    Keywords: Gender gaps, educational achievement, education, Australia
    Date: 2015–11
  2. By: Mohamad Fahmi (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University); Putri Grace Ninibeth Jewelery (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University)
    Abstract: This study analyzed the effect of Early Childhood Education on Academic Achievement in Indonesia. This study used kindergarten education and National Test Score of Indonesian Language and Math as the main subject of research. This study obtained the sample from Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) 2007. The econometric method, that this study used, was Ordinary Least Square (OLS). This study presented the estimation based on school level, primary and secondary. This study founded that kindergarten education (formal Early Childhood Education) affected National Test Score of Indonesian Language and Math significantly if other factors did not add in the regression. This finding caused the effect of kindergarten education to National Test Score became not valid or biased. The problems like high cost of early childhood education and lack of teacher could be the reason why the effect of early childhood education was not maximal. This problems can be the the next subject of research about early childhood education.
    Keywords: Early Childhood Education, Academic Achievement, Indonesia, IFLS
    JEL: I21 O15
    Date: 2015–12
  3. By: David (David Patrick) Madden
    Abstract: An association between health and education has been well-established empirically. It is not clear however whether this represents a causal effect and, if so, in which direction. Recent research has attempted to unravel this by using educational reforms, such as compulsory schooling laws, as exogenous sources of variation in education and examining their long-run effects on a variety of health outcomes. When proper account is taken of age, cohort, and state specific effects, it is difficult to establish a credible causal link from educational reforms which affect the quantity of education to health. Thus the balance of research so far suggests that it would be imprudent to assign a causal effect from educational reforms to long-run health.
    Keywords: Returns to education; Schooling reforms; Long-run health
    JEL: I12
    Date: 2015–12
  4. By: OECD
    Abstract: Across OECD countries, 5% of students expect to work as teachers: 3% of boys and 6% of girls. The academic profile of students who expect to work as teachers varies, but in many OECD countries,students who expect to work as teachers have poorer mathematics and reading skills than other ambitious students who expect to work as professionals but not as teachers. PISA shows that, on average, a higher percentage of students expects to work as teachers in countries where teachers’ salaries are higher.
    Date: 2015–12–09
  5. By: Christopher Jepsen
    Abstract: Reducing class size is a popular education policy measure with parents, teachers, and policymakers. However, research shows that reducing class size leads to, in most cases, only modest improvements in student achievement. Also, students in early grades appear to gain more from smaller classes than older students. Despite extensive research on class size, much about this relationship is still unknown. Policymakers should be aware that reducing class sizes can be costly, is no guarantee of improved achievement, and is only one of many possible reforms.
    Keywords: Education; Class size; Student achievement
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Thomas Ahn; Christopher Jepsen
    Abstract: This paper provides the first analysis of the relationship between the language mix of Limited English Proficient (LEP) peers and student achievement, using detailed panel data from 2006 to 2012. Percent LEP has a negative association with mathematics and reading test scores, more so for non-LEP students than for LEP students. The overall language mix of LEP students has little if any discernable relationship with achievement. For LEP students, having more LEP peers speak their mother tongue is positively associated with reading achievement and negatively associated with mathematics achievement.
    Keywords: Limited English proficiency; Peer effects; Student achievement
    JEL: I21 I28 J15
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Valeria Groppo; Kati Krähnert
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the short- and long-term impact of extreme weather events on educational outcomes in Mongolia. Our focus is on two extremely severe winters that caused mass livestock mortality. We use household panel data with comprehensive retrospective information on households’ historic experience with weather shocks. Exposure to the weather shock significantly reduces the likelihood of being enrolled in mandatory school two to three years after the shock. Similarly, it significantly reduces the probability of completing basic education ten to eleven years after the shock. Both effects are driven by children from herding households. Results are robust to measuring shock intensity with district-level livestock mortality and climate data as well as household-level livestock losses. Exposure to weather shocks during preschool age (as opposed to exposure during primary and secondary school age) yields the worst consequences for educational attainment. Overall, the evidence points toward income effects as the channel through which the shock impacts education.
    Keywords: human capital accumulation, weather shocks, Mongolia
    JEL: I25 Q54 O12
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Hannes Schwandt; Amelie Wuppermann
    Abstract: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a leading diagnosed health condition among children in many developed countries but the causes underlying these high levels of ADHD remain highly controversial. Recent research for the U.S., Canada and some European countries shows that children who enter school relatively young have higher ADHD rates than their older peers, suggesting that ADHD may be misdiagnosed in the younger children due to their relative immaturity. Using rich administrative health insurance claims data from Germany we study the effects of relative school entry age on ADHD risk in Europe's largest country and relate the effects for Germany to the international evidence. We further analyze different mechanisms that may drive these effects, focusing on physician supply side and demand side factors stemming from the production of education. We find robust evidence for school-entry age related misdiagnosis of ADHD in Germany. Within Germany and internationally, a higher share of misdiagnoses are related to a higher overall ADHD level, suggesting that misdiagnoses may be a driving factor of high ADHD levels. Furthermore, the effects in Germany seem to be driven by teachers and parents in an attempt to facilitate and improve the production of education.
    Keywords: ADHD, misdiagnosis, age cut-off, education
    JEL: I1 I2 J1
    Date: 2015–12
  9. By: Michael Coelli (Department of Economics, The University of Melbourne); Domenico Tabasso (Geneva School of Economics and Management, University of Geneva; Swiss National Centre for Competence in Research LIVES (NCCR LIVES); and Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA))
    Abstract: We investigate the labour market determinants and outcomes of adult participation in formal education (lifelong learning) in Australia, a country with high levels of adult education. Employing longitudinal data and mixed effects methods allows identification of effects on outcomes free of ability bias. Different trends in outcomes across groups are also allowed for. The impacts of adult education differ by gender and level of study, with small or zero labour market returns in many cases. Wage rates only increase for males undertaking university studies. For men, vocational education and training (VET) leads to higher job satisfaction and fewer weekly hours. For women, VET is linked to higher levels of satisfaction with employment opportunities and higher employment probabilities. Classification-J24, J28, I23, I28
    Keywords: Adult education, lifelong learning, vocational studies, returns to education
    Date: 2015–11
  10. By: Jerome E. Morris; Sara E. Woodruff
    Abstract: The scholarly community has eagerly assessed adults' perspectives on race and opportunity in the “postracial†era. Noticeably absent are studies that probe youths' perceptions of social and educational opportunity within this era, given the relationship between education and upward mobility, and the symbolism embodied in Obama's 2008 election as the first African-American president of the United States.
    Date: 2015–05–30
  11. By: Adrian Hille
    Abstract: It is still widely debated how non-cognitive skills can be affected by policy intervention. For example, universal music education programs are becoming increasingly popular among policy makers in Germany and other developed countries. These are intended to give children from poor families the opportunity to learn a musical instrument. Moreover, policymakers present these programs as innovative policies that are important for the personality development of young children. However, the effects of universal music education on such outcomes are not yet sufficiently studied. This paper analyses the Jedem Kind ein Instrument (an instrument for every child) program in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. To do so, data from the German household panel studies SOEP and FiD are combined with regional data on primary and music schools. Using a difference-in-differences estimator, I show that the program successfully increases music participation among disadvantaged children. It does so more effectively than the alternative policy of reducing fees at public music schools. I further find that participation reduces conduct problems and improves student teacher relationships, especially among boys.
    Keywords: Music, non-cognitive skills, inequality, SOEP, policy evaluation, non-formal education
    JEL: I21 J24 Z18
    Date: 2015
  12. By: Brady, Ryan; Insler, Michael; Rahman, Ahmed
    Abstract: Existing peer effects studies produce contradictory findings, including positive, negative, large, and small effects, despite similar contexts. We reconcile these results using U.S. Naval Academy data covering a 22-year history of the random assignment of students to peer groups. Coupled with students' limited discretion over freshman-year courses, our setting affords an opportunity to better understand peer effects in different social networks. We find negative effects at the broader "company" level (students' social and residential group) and positive effects at the narrower course-company level. We suggest that peer spillovers change direction because of differences in the underlying mechanism of peer influence.
    Keywords: Peer effects, social network formation, academic achievement, homophily
    JEL: D85 I21 I23 J24
    Date: 2015–11
  13. By: Kerris Cooper; Kitty Stewart
    Abstract: There is ample evidence that adults with lower incomes tend to have worse outcomes including worse health, lower life expectancy and lower subjective wellbeing than individuals with more. But is money in adulthood itself important? Or are these relationships driven by other factors such as higher levels of education, underlying personality traits or the long-term impact of childhood circumstances? This study reviews the evidence, focusing on research that tested whether the relationship between money and outcomes in adulthood is causal.
    Keywords: money, poverty, health, adult, wellbeing
    JEL: I30 I31 I32
    Date: 2015–12
  14. By: Joshua C. Hall (West Virginia University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Higher education is under fire in the United States. Pressure, both financial and political, is being placed on colleges and universities to reform. One barrier to reform that has been put forth is accreditation. While calls for reform have identified what appear to be problems with accreditation, it is important to not engage in the nirvana fallacy and assume that what we can imagine will be better will be better. In that light, I look at the history of the accreditation process with a focus on the role the federal government has played and how that has in uenced other players in the higher education market. After surveying the history, I conclude that accreditation as currently practiced in not self- regulation, but rather government regulation.
    Keywords: accreditation, quality assurance, cartel, market process
    JEL: I23 I28
    Date: 2015–10
  15. By: Humna Ahsana; M. Emranul Haque
    Abstract: Many recent studies have found average years of schooling to be unrelated with economic growth. In this note, we show that the significant positive effect of schooling can only be realised after an economy crosses a threshold level of development.
    Date: 2015
  16. By: John V. Winters (Oklahoma State University)
    Abstract: The stock of human capital in an area is important for regional economic growth and development. However, highly educated workers are often quite mobile, and there is a concern that public investments in college graduates may not benefit the state if the college graduates leave the state after finishing their education. This paper examines the relationship between the production of college graduates from a state and the stock of college graduates residing in the state using microdata from the decennial census and American Community Survey. The relationship is examined across states and across cohorts within states. The descriptive analysis suggests that the relationship between the production and stock of college graduates has increased over time and is nearly proportional in recent years. Instrumental variables methods are used to estimate causal effects. The preferred instrumental variables results yield an average point estimate for the production-stock relationship of 0.52, but the effect likely decreases with age.
    Keywords: college graduates; human capital; migration; higher education policy
    JEL: I25 J24 R23
    Date: 2015–09

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