nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2015‒12‒08
23 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. When one door closes: the impact of the hagwon curfew on the consumption of private tutoring in the Republic of Korea By Hoon Choi; Álvaro Choi
  2. Graduate Returns, Degree Class Premia and Higher Education Expansion in the UK By Robin Naylor; Jeremy Smith; Shqiponja Telhaj
  3. Decentralisation and school autonomy impact on the quality of education: the case of two MENA countries By Josep-Oriol Escardíbul; Nehal Helmy
  4. The Return to College: Selection and Dropout Risk By Lutz Hendricks; Oksana Leukhina
  5. Education: capacity building for human development By Majumder, Rajarshi; Ray, Jhilam
  6. The Impact of a Food for Education Program on Schooling in Cambodia By Maria Cheung; Maria Perrotta Berlin
  7. Are the "Best and Brightest" Going into Finance? Skill Development and Career Choice of MIT Graduates By Pian Shu
  8. Is there real freedom of school choice? An analysis from Chile By Mauro Mediavilla; Adrián Zancajo
  9. What Determines Learning among Kinh and Ethnic Minority Students in Vietnam? An Analysis of the Round 2 Young Lives Data By Paul Glewwe; Qihui Chen; Bhagyashree Katare
  10. Parental responses to public investments in children: evidence from a maximum class size rule By Fredriksson, Peter; Oosterbeek, Hessel; Öckert, Björn
  11. The Correlation BetweenTthe teachers’ Opinions About Organizational Narcisissm And Self-Efifacy Beliefs Level By AHMET YURDAKUL; Aynur BOZKURT BOSTANCI
  12. How Risky Is College Investment? By Lutz Hendricks; Oksana Leukhina
  13. The distribution of skills among the European adult population and unemployment: a comparative approach By Jorge Calero; Álvaro Choi
  14. Explaining the Role of Parental Education in the Regional Variations in Infant Mortality in India By Pradeep Kumar Choudhury
  15. Education Choices, Longevity and Optimal Policy in a Ben-Porath Economy By Yukihiro Nishimura; Pierre Pestieau; Gregory Ponthiere
  16. Credible Enforcement of Compulsory Schooling by Linking Welfare Payments to School Attendance: Lessons from Australia’s Northern Territory By Kyle Peyton; Moshe Justman
  17. Do large departments make academics more productive? Sorting and agglomeration economies in research By Clément Bosquet; Pierre-Philippe Combes
  18. Overcoming the Educational Disadvantages of Poor Children: How Much do Teacher Preparation, Workload, and Expectations Matter By Oscar A. Barbarin; Nikki Aikens
  19. Multitask agents and incetives: the case of teaching and research for university professors By Marta De Philippis
  20. Citations or Journal Quality: Which is Rewarded More in the Academic Labor Market? By John Gibson; David L. Anderson; John Tressler
  21. More Credit, More Problems? Government Student Loan Limits and Education Outcomes By Cullen Goenner; Chih Ming Tan
  23. Gender Streaming and Prior Achievement in High School Science and Mathematics By Naomi Friedman-Sokuler; Moshe Justman

  1. By: Hoon Choi (University of Barcelona & AQR); Álvaro Choi (University of Barcelona & IEB)
    Abstract: The Korean government has struggled against the proliferation of private tutoring for more than four decades. In 2006, state education authorities imposed a restriction on operating hours of hagwon (private tutoring academies or cram schools) in an attempt at reducing the economic and time resources spent on private tutoring. Since then, some provincial authorities have modified the curfew on hagwon. We take advantage of these policy shifts to identify average treatment effects taking a difference-in-differences approach. Our findings suggest that enforcing the curfew did not generate a significant reduction in the hours and resources spent on private tutoring, our results being heterogeneous by school level and socioeconomic status. Demand for private tutoring seems to be especially inelastic for high school students, who increased their consumption of alternative forms of private tutoring. As the consumption of private tutoring is positively correlated with academic performance and socioeconomic status, the curfew may have a negative effect on the equality of educational opportunities.
    Keywords: Private tutoring, demand for schooling, expenditures, difference in differences, Korea
    JEL: I21 I22 I24
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Robin Naylor; Jeremy Smith; Shqiponja Telhaj
    Abstract: We investigate the extent to which graduate returns vary according to the class of degree achieved by UK university students and examine changes over time in estimated degree class premia. Using a variety of complementary datasets for individuals born in Britain around 1970 and aged between 30 and 40, we estimate an hourly wage premium for a 'good' (relative to a 'lower') class of degree of 7% to 9%, implying a wide spread around the average graduate premium. We also estimate the premium for a good relative to a lower degree for different cohorts (those born between the mid-1960s and early-1980s) and find evidence that the premium for a good degree has risen over time as the proportions of cohorts participating in higher education have increased.
    Keywords: Graduate returns, higher education participation, ability composition
    JEL: J31 J24 I23 D82
    Date: 2015–11
  3. By: Josep-Oriol Escardíbul (Universidad de Barcelona & IEB); Nehal Helmy (The World Bank)
    Abstract: An effective institutional structure is a crucial tool for having a highly functioning education system and consequently, economic growth and development. We analyse the effects of decentralisation and school autonomy on the quality of education in two MENA countries (Jordan and Tunisia), by using the OECD PISA 2009 database. Results reveal that decentralisation has a positive impact on the quality of education in some decision-making areas, whereas most autonomy related variables are not significant. Accordingly, schools with more autonomy management and facing more competition do not lead to different results than others, while (public) ownership is positively significant only in Tunisia. However, private funding and accountability measures are positively associated with student achievement.
    Keywords: Education, decentralisation, school autonomy, Tunisia, Jordan, MENA, PISA
    JEL: H40 H52 I28
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Lutz Hendricks (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Oksana Leukhina (University of Washington)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of graduating from college on lifetime earnings. We develop a quantitative model of college choice with uncertain graduation. Departing from much of the literature, we model in detail how students progress through college. This allows us to parameterize the model using transcript data. College transcripts reveal substantial and persistent heterogeneity in students’ credit accumulation rates that are strongly related to graduation outcomes. From this data, the model infers a large ability gap between college graduates and high school graduates that accounts for 54% of the college lifetime earnings premium.
    Keywords: education, college premium, college dropout risk
    JEL: E24 J24 I21
    Date: 2015–11
  5. By: Majumder, Rajarshi; Ray, Jhilam
    Abstract: Education is one of the key ingredients of Human Development as envisaged by social scientists, reiterated by UNDP, and accepted by National and State Governments. More specifically, greater access to knowledge in its various dimensions is critical to building of human capabilities, enhancement of freedom, and empowerment of people. The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) adopted and ratified by India also speaks of Universalisation of Elementary Education and Promoting gender equality in Education. Therefore, we must look at the issues of Educational Infrastructure, Achievements, Shortcomings, and Policy suggestions as a part of this HDR. This paper traces the trends in sub-regional educational infrastructure and achievements in Bardhaman district of India as part of DHDR revision exercise.
    Keywords: Education; Human Development Report; School Education; Enrollment; Drop Out; India
    JEL: I21 I25 I28 R53 R58
    Date: 2015–11–30
  6. By: Maria Cheung; Maria Perrotta Berlin
    Abstract: This study is an evaluation of the impact of a food for education program implemented in primary schools (grades 1–6) in six Cambodian provinces between 1999 and 2003. We find that school enrolment increased to varying degrees in relation to different designs of the intervention. We also investigate the effect of the program in terms of completed education and probability of having ever been in school, following up the affected cohorts in a 2009 survey. With an estimated cost of US$85 per additional child in school per year, the program can be considered very cost-effective within a comparable class of interventions.
    Keywords: Food for Education;program evaluation;Cambodia;enrolment;cost-effectiveness
    Date: 2015–02–12
  7. By: Pian Shu (Harvard Business School, Technology and Operations Management Unit)
    Abstract: Using detailed data on recipients of bachelor's degrees from MIT between 2006 and 2012, I examine the selection of students into finance or science and engineering (S&E). I find that academic achievement in college is negatively correlated with a propensity to take a job in finance and positively correlated with a propensity to pursue a graduate degree or taking a job in S&E. This pattern is primarily driven by differences in skill development during college, not by differences in academic qualifications at college entry. In both high school and college, the two groups participate in different activities: students who ultimately choose finance are substantially more likely to be varsity-sports leaders in high school; they are also more likely to join fraternities and sororities, a decision typically made at college entry. Sizable differences in academic performance begin in freshman year and persist throughout college. The 2008 financial crisis, which substantially reduced the availability of entry-level positions in finance, prompted some students with relatively low college-entry qualifications to major in S&E instead of management or economics and/or to improve their academic performance. But there is no evidence that those with top qualifications changed their skill development in response to the crisis. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the preferences and skills of graduates who pursue finance are not comparable to those of graduates who choose a career in S&E.
    Date: 2015–12
  8. By: Mauro Mediavilla (University of Valencia & IEB); Adrián Zancajo (Autonomous University of Barcelona & GEPS)
    Abstract: Between 1981 and 1990, Chile began to implement an education reform based on school choice and a financing system through vouchers. In theory, the system ensures complete freedom of choice of school by families. This paper attempts to identify the existence of factors that conditioned the enrolment process in the different types of schools existing nowadays in the Chilean educational system, the largest quasi-market of Latin America. Results show a social stratification and separation by schools and indicate how geographical distance and social composition are the most critical factors for families when choosing a school.
    Keywords: School choice, social class, quasi-markets, voucher, Chile
    JEL: I21 I28
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Paul Glewwe; Qihui Chen; Bhagyashree Katare
    Abstract: An analysis of the Young Lives data collected in 2006, involving a younger cohort (aged 5) and an older cohort (aged 12), yields three important findings regarding the Kinh–ethnic minority gaps in mathematics and reading skills in Vietnam. First, large disparities exist even before children start primary school. Second, language may play an important role: Vietnamese-speaking ethnic minority children scored much higher than their non-Vietnamese-speaking counterparts, even though tests could be taken in any language the child chooses. Third, Blinder–Oaxaca decompositions indicate that higher parental education among Kinh children explains about one third of the gap for both cohorts. For the older cohort, Kinh households' higher income explains 0.2–0.3 standard deviations (SDs) of the gap (1.3–1.5 SDs). More time in school, less time spent working, and better nutritional status each explain about 0.1 SDs of the mathematics score gap; Kinh children's more years of schooling explains about 0.3 SDs of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test score gap.
    Keywords: cognitive skills;ethnic minority;Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition;Vietnam;education
    Date: 2015–09–09
  10. By: Fredriksson, Peter (Stockholm university, IZA, IFAU and Uppsala center for Labor Studies (UCLS)); Oosterbeek, Hessel (University of Amsterdam); Öckert, Björn (IFAU and Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS))
    Abstract: We study differential parental responses to variation in class size induced by a maximum class size rule in Swedish schools. In response to an increase in class size: (i) only high-income parents help their children more with homework; (ii) all parents are more likely to move their child to another school; and (iii) only low-income children find their teachers harder to follow when taught in a larger class. These findings indicate that public and private investments in children are substitutes, and help explain why the negative effect of class size on achievement in our data is concentrated among low-income children.
    Keywords: class size; parental responses; social background; regression discontinuity
    JEL: C31 I21 I28 J24
    Date: 2015–12–02
    Abstract: In a school with healthy organisational narcisissm, the teachers have high self-efifacy beliefs. And this feature cause the school’s success. But in schools with extreme narcistic behaviours, the teachers have low or extra high self efifacy beliefs and this can cause the unseccess of the school. Therefore it is important to identify the correlation between organizational narcsissm level and the teachers’ self efifacy belief in order to prevent this unsuccessfullness. The aim of this study is to identify the correlation between organizational narcsissm level and the teachers’ self efifacy belief. And in order to achieve this aim in this research the answers of these questions have been seeked ;1)What are teachers’ opinions about organizational narcisissm?2)Are there any differences in teachers’ opinions about organizational narcisissm in terms of gender, seniority, the amount of teachers’ at school and the length of work at the same school?3)What is teachers’ self-efifacy beliefs level?4 ) Are there any differences in self-efifacy beliefs level in terms of gender, seniority, the amount of teachers’ at school and the length of work at the same school?5) What is the correlation between the teachers’ opinions about organizational narcisissm and self-efifacy beliefs level?The research is in the relational screening model . The sample group is 310 secondary school teachers who work in the secondary schools in U
    Keywords: Organizational Nacisissm, Self-Efifacy, teacher
    JEL: I29
    Date: 2015–05
  12. By: Lutz Hendricks (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Oksana Leukhina (University of Washington)
    Abstract: This paper is motivated by the fact that nearly half of U.S. college students drop out without earning a bachelor’s degree. Its objective is to quantify how much uncertainty college entrants face about their graduation outcomes. To do so, we develop a quantitative model of college choice. The innovation is to model in detail how students progress towards a college degree. The model is calibrated using transcript and financial data. We find that more than half of college entrants can predict whether they will graduate with at least 80% probability. As a result, stylized policies that insure students against the financial risks associated with uncertain graduation have little value for the majority of college entrants.
    Keywords: education, college dropout risk
    JEL: E24 J24 I21
    Date: 2015–11
  13. By: Jorge Calero (Universidad de Barcelona & IEB); Álvaro Choi (Universidad de Barcelona & IEB)
    Abstract: The most painful effect of the Great Recession in European countries has been the surge in unemployment rates during a period that has been characterised most notably by an increase in income inequality and the heterogeneous pattern of this inequality by educational level. Thus, workers with low levels of educational attainment were among the first to lose their jobs. This paper addresses two main research questions: first, it estimates the importance of the level of skills and education on the probability of being unemployed; and, second, it provides evidence of the impact of inequalities in the previous socioeconomic and cultural background of individuals on the probability of being unemployed. These two objectives are assessed using data for 24 jurisdictions participating in the first round of the OECD’s Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). Skill levels play a central role in explaining unemployment in Europe and act as an indirect channel via which a family’s sociocultural background has an impact on its labour market status.
    Keywords: Human capital, labour market, PIAAC
    JEL: J24 J62 I24
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Pradeep Kumar Choudhury
    Abstract: Using data from the National Family Health Survey (2005–06), this study examines the effect of parental education and the related factors (mother's exposure to mass media and her socio-economic empowerment) in the regional variations in infant mortality in India. The study finds that parental education is significantly associated with reducing infant mortality to a varying degree at the regional level. It is also evident that children born to mothers having any kind of exposure to the mass media are less likely to die during infancy compared with children born to mothers having no mass media exposure. More importantly, parental education works better in regions that are socio-economically underdeveloped. The findings of the study place emphasis on imparting education to mothers along with mass media exposure and higher level of socio-economic empowerment to reduce infant deaths in India and also to minimise its glaring regional variations.
    Keywords: infant mortality;parental education;exposure to mass media;regional variation;India
    Date: 2015–09–09
  15. By: Yukihiro Nishimura (Osaka University [Osaka]); Pierre Pestieau (CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR, CORE - Center of Operation Research and Econometrics [Louvain] - UCL - Université Catholique de Louvain, PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics); Gregory Ponthiere (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12, PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: We develop a 3-period overlapping generations (OLG) model where individuals borrow at the young age to finance their education. Education does not only increase future wages, but, also, raises the duration of life, which, in turn, affects education choices, in line with Ben Porath (1967). We first identify conditions that guarantee the existence of a stationary equilibrium with perfect foresight. Then, we reexamine the conditions under which the Ben-Porath effect prevails, and emphasize the impact of human capital decay and preferences. We compare the laissez-faire with the social optimum, and show that the latter can be decentralized provided the laissez-faire capital stock corresponds to the one satisfying the modified Golden Rule. Finally, we introduce intracohort heterogeneity in the learning ability, and we show that, under asymmetric information, the second-best optimal non-linear tax scheme involves a downward distortion in the level of education of less able types, which, quite paradoxically, would reinforce the longevity gap in comparison with the laissez-faire.
    Keywords: Education,Life expectancy,OLG models,Optimal policy
    Date: 2015–11
  16. By: Kyle Peyton (Department of Political Science, Yale University; and Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Moshe Justman (BGU)
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Clément Bosquet; Pierre-Philippe Combes (Université de Cergy-Pontoise, THEMA)
    Abstract: We study how departments' characteristics impact academics' quantity and quality of publications in economics. Individual time-varying characteristics and individual fixed-effects are controlled for. Departments' characteristics have an explanatory power at least equal to a fourth of that of individual characteristics and possibly as high as theirs. An academic's quantity and quality of publications in a field increase with the presence of other academics specialised in that field and with the share of the field's output in the department. By contrast, department's size, proximity to other large departments, homogeneity in terms of publication performance, presence of colleagues with connections abroad, and composition in terms of positions and age matter at least for some publication measures but only when individual fixed effects are not controlled for. This suggests a role for individual positive sorting where these characteristics only attract more able academics. A residual negative sorting between individuals' and departments' unobserved characteristics is simultaneously exhibited.
    Keywords: Research productivity, Local externalities, Skills sorting, Peer effects, Co-author networks, Economics of science.
    JEL: R23 J24 I23
    Date: 2015
  18. By: Oscar A. Barbarin; Nikki Aikens
    Abstract: This article reviews data on aspects of the learning environment most closely associated with successful development of early academic competence, compares children from low socioeconomic backgrounds to children with higher socioeconomic status (SES) on access to academically auspicious environments, and uses the findings to identify promising targets for social innovations aimed at improving the educational prospects of poor children.
    Keywords: Educational Disadvantages, Poor Children, Teacher Preparation
    JEL: I
    Date: 2015–03–30
  19. By: Marta De Philippis (Bank of Italy and London School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the behavioural responses of multitask agents to the provision of incentives skewed towards one task only. It studies the effects of significant research incentives for university professors on the way university faculty members allocate their efforts between teaching and research and on the way they select different types of universities. I first obtain different individual-level measures of teaching and research performance. Then, I estimate a difference in differences model, exploiting a natural experiment that took place at Bocconi University, which significantly strengthened incentives towards research. I find evidence that teaching and research efforts are substitute inputs in the professors' cost function: the impact of research incentives is positive on research activity and negative on teaching performance. The effects are driven by career concerns rather than by monetary incentives. Moreover, under the new incentive regime, lower ability researchers tend to leave universities and since teaching and research ability are positively correlated, this implies that bad teachers also tend to leave universities.
    Keywords: multitasking, incentives, teaching
    JEL: I2 J41 M5
    Date: 2015–11
  20. By: John Gibson (University of Waikato); David L. Anderson (Queen's University); John Tressler (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: Research quality can be evaluated using citations or from the prestige of the journal that publishes the research. Recent studies advocate for more weight on citations, which measure actual impact, while the journal where an article publishes is merely a predictor of whether it was thought likely to have an impact. Yet there is little comprehensive evidence on the role of citations versus journal quality in evaluating research. In this paper we use data on tenured economists in the University of California system to relate their salary to their lifetime publications of 5500 articles in almost 700 different academic journals and to the 140,000 citations to these articles. The results show little role for citations in affecting faculty salary, with an impact only one-seventh that of a measure of journal publications. The distribution of citations, whether using an h-index or the generalized h-index proposed by Ellison (2013), is also not a significant predictor of salary.
    Keywords: academic salary; citations; h-index; journal rankings; research evaluation
    JEL: A14 J44
    Date: 2015–11–30
  21. By: Cullen Goenner (Department of Economics, University of North Dakota, USA); Chih Ming Tan (Department of Economics, University of North Dakota, USA; The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis, Italy)
    Abstract: The federal Stafford loan program is the largest source of financial aid to students who attend college in the United States. Here we utilize the increase in Stafford loan limits that occurred between 2006 and 2008 to identify how a pooled cross-section of first-time freshmen at the University of North Dakota (UND) responded to an increase in the availability of credit. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we examine how borrowing, the composition of credit, and student outcomes were impacted by the policy changes. The student body at UND provides a unique opportunity to examine the treatment effects of these policies, as we are able to isolate the impact of macroeconomic fluctuations on borrowing due to the strength and stability of the state’s economy during the period. Freshmen are shown here to substitute an increase in their borrowing through Stafford loans, with a partial reduction in borrowing via private loans. Substitution is particularly strong among more credit constrained students. Interestingly, despite having access to more credit, student outcomes did not improve as a result of the changes, and in some cases worsened.
    Date: 2015–01
  22. By: Brendan Houng (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, the University of Melbourne); Moshe Justman (BGU)
    Keywords: Access to higher education, equal opportunity, standardized tests, longitudinal analysis, predicting educational achievement, school effects, NAPLAN, ATAR, VCE, Victoria, Australia
    JEL: I21 I24 I28
    Date: 2015
  23. By: Naomi Friedman-Sokuler (BGU); Moshe Justman (BGU)
    Keywords: gender streaming, comparative advantage, gender gap in mathematics, Israel, secondary school
    JEL: I2 J24 J16
    Date: 2015

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