nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2015‒12‒01
25 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Gender Gaps in Early Educational Achievement By Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Moschion, Julie
  2. The Long-Term Impacts of Low-Achieving Childhood Peers: Evidence from Project STAR By Bietenbeck, Jan
  3. Wage Differentials in Sri Lanka: The case of a post-conflict country with a free education policy By Kumara, Ajantha Sisira
  4. New Evidence on the Effects of the Shortened School Duration in the German States: An Evaluation of Post-Secondary Education Decisions By Meyer, Tobias; Thomsen, Stephan L.; Schneider, Heidrun
  5. “When one door closes: the impact of the hagwon curfew on the consumption of private tutoring in the Republic of Korea” By Hoon Choi; Álvaro Choi
  6. Where Are the Returns to Lifelong Learning? By Coelli, Michael; Tabasso, Domenico
  7. Recent Trends in Out-of-School Children in the Philippines By David, Clarissa C.; Albert, Jose Ramon G.
  8. Peers or parents? On non-monetary incentives in schools By Wagner, Valentin; Riener, Gerhard
  9. Intergenerational Educational Persistence among Daughters: Evidence from India By Azam, Mehtabul
  10. Knowing who you are - The Effect of Feedback Information on Short and Long Term Outcomes By Megalokonomou, Rigissa; Goulas, Sofoklis
  11. Emigration, Remittances and the Education of Children Staying Behind: Evidence from Tajikistan By Dietz, Barbara; Gatskova, Ksenia; Ivlevs, Artjoms
  12. An Exploratory Study of Creativity, Personality and Schooling Achievement By Noémi Berlin; Jean-Louis Tavani; Maud Beasançon
  13. Economies of Scale, the Lunch-Breakfast Ratio, and the Cost of USDA School Breakfasts and Lunches By Ollinger, Michael; Guthrie, Joanne
  14. The Use of MOOCs as a Potential Avenue to Modernize Learning in the Philippines By De Dios, Emmanuel S.
  15. Innovative work practices, ICT use and employees' motivations By MARTIN Ludivine
  16. Individualised Resources: Definition and Efficiency in the Russian Efl Classroom By Olga Stognieva
  17. What are the benefits of ISCED 2011 classification for indicators on education? By OECD
  18. Measuring Downward Nominal and Real Wage Rigidity - Why Methods Matter By Anja Deelen; Wouter Verbeek
  19. Indirect estimation of the rate of return to a university degree By Taylor, Leon; Izbanova, Aigul; Kainazarova, Mansiya
  20. Building and Using Databases for Cliometric Research on Education and Demography: An Introduction to “HISTAT”. By Claude Diebolt; Gabriele Franzmann; Jürgen Sensch
  21. Explaining Cross-Cohort Differences in Life Cycle Earnings By Guillaume Vandenbroucke; B Ravikumar; Yu-Chien Kong
  22. Life time pension benefits relative to life time contributions By Dennis Fredriksen; Nils Martin Stølen
  23. Effects of Government Education and Health Expenditures on Economic Growth: A Meta-analysis By Awaworyi, Sefa; Yew, Siew Ling; Ugur, Mehmet
  24. Single-Choice, Repeated-Choice, and Best-Worst Elicitation Formats: Do Results Differ and by How Much? By Petrolia, Daniel; Interis, Matthew; Hwang, Joonghyun
  25. Top Incomes and Human Well-Being Around the World By Richard V. Burkhauser; Jan-Emmanuel De Neve; Nattavudh Powdthavee

  1. By: Cobb-Clark, Deborah A. (University of Melbourne); Moschion, Julie (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the source of the gender gap in third grade numeracy and reading. We adopt an Oaxaca-Blinder approach and decompose the gender gap in educational achievement into endowment and response components. Our estimation relies on unusually rich panel data from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children in which information on child development reported by parents and teachers is linked to each child's results on a national, standardized achievement test. We find that girls in low- and middle-SES families have an advantage in reading, while boys in high-SES families have an advantage in numeracy. Girls score higher on their third grade reading tests in large part because they were more ready for school at age four and had better teacher-assessed literacy skills in kindergarten. Boys' advantage in numeracy occurs because they achieve higher numeracy test scores than girls with the same education-related characteristics.
    Keywords: gender gaps, educational achievement, education, Australia
    JEL: J13 I21 I24
    Date: 2015–11
  2. By: Bietenbeck, Jan (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates how sharing a kindergarten classroom with low-achieving repeaters affects the long-term educational performance of regular first-time kindergarten students. Exploiting random assignment of teachers and students to classes in Project STAR, I document three sets of causal impacts: students who are exposed to repeaters (1) score lower on standardized tests at the end of kindergarten, an effect that fades out in later grades; (2) show persistent improvements in non-cognitive skills such as effort and discipline; and (3) are more likely to graduate from high school and to take a college entrance exam around the age of eighteen. I show that the positive spillovers from repeaters on long-term educational attainment are likely driven by the differential accumulation of non-cognitive skills by repeater-exposed students during childhood. The improvements in these skills are in turn a result of behavioral adjustments by teachers, students, or parents to the presence of low-achieving repeaters in the classroom.
    Keywords: peer effects; non-cognitive skills; early childhood; Project STAR.
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2015–11–25
  3. By: Kumara, Ajantha Sisira
    Abstract: This study analyses wage differentials in Sri Lanka by the individuals’ educational attainment. The wage returns to education are estimated by using a combination of the techniques of ordinary least-square, two-stage least-square, sample-selection, and quantile regression on micro-data of the Sri Lanka Labour Force Survey-2013. Therefore, the estimates provided by this study are representative of the entire country and corrected for both the endogeniety and the sample-selection biases. The study concludes that education generates a positive impact on private earning. The results show that one additional year of schooling increases hourly wage rate by 9% approximately. Also, according to the results, the primary and secondary education reduces income inequality among people whereas the bachelor’s-degree University education is a contributor to the income inequality. Further, the results relating to the additional controls reveal that the male, urban, and the public sector employees earn relatively higher wage returns.
    Keywords: Education; Equality; Household surveys; Instrumental variables; Micro-data; Quantile Regression; Returns; Sample-selection; Sri Lanka; Wage rates
    JEL: I0 I24
    Date: 2015–11–02
  4. By: Meyer, Tobias (NIW Hannover, Leibniz Universität Hannover); Thomsen, Stephan L. (NIW Hannover, Leibniz Universität Hannover); Schneider, Heidrun (DZHW-German Centre for Research on Higher Education and Science Studies)
    Abstract: Most German states have reformed university preparatory schooling during the last decade by reducing its duration from 13 to 12 years without changing the graduation requirements. In this paper, we use nationwide data on high school graduates and apply a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate the reform effects on post-secondary education decisions. The results show that enrollment in university education in the first year after high school graduation is reduced in all analyzed states, while participation in voluntary service or staying abroad is increased. In some subgroups, depending on state, gender and family background, university enrollment is decreased additionally beyond the first year.
    Keywords: school duration, learning intensity, post-secondary education decisions, Germany
    JEL: I21 J18 C21
    Date: 2015–11
  5. By: Hoon Choi (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona); Álvaro Choi (IEB Research Group. University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: The Korean government has struggled against the proliferation of private tutoring for more than four decades. In 2006, state education authorities imposed a restriction on operating hours of hagwon (private tutoring academies or cram schools) in an attempt at reducing the economic and time resources spent on private tutoring. Since then, some provincial authorities have modified the curfew on hagwon. We take advantage of these policy shifts to identify average treatment effects taking a difference-in-differences approach. Our findings suggest that enforcing the curfew did not generate a significant reduction in the hours and resources spent on private tutoring, our results being heterogeneous by school level and socioeconomic status. Demand for private tutoring seems to be especially inelastic for high school students, who increased their consumption of alternative forms of private tutoring. As the consumption of private tutoring is positively correlated with academic performance and socioeconomic status, the curfew may have a negative effect on the equality of educational opportunities.
    Keywords: Private tutoring, Demand for schooling, Expenditures, Difference in differences, Korea JEL classification: I21, I22, I24
    Date: 2015–11
  6. By: Coelli, Michael (University of Melbourne); Tabasso, Domenico (University of Geneva)
    Abstract: We investigate the labour market determinants and outcomes of adult participation in formal education (lifelong learning) in Australia, a country with high levels of adult education. Employing longitudinal data and fixed effects methods allows identification of effects on outcomes free of ability bias. Different trends in outcomes across groups are also allowed for. The impacts of adult education differ by gender and level of study, with small or zero labour market returns in many cases. Wage rates only increase for males undertaking university studies. For men, vocational education and training (VET) lead to higher job satisfaction and fewer weekly hours. For women, VET is linked to higher levels of satisfaction with employment opportunities and higher employment probabilities.
    Keywords: adult education, lifelong learning, vocational studies, returns to education
    JEL: J24 J28 I23 I28
    Date: 2015–11
  7. By: David, Clarissa C.; Albert, Jose Ramon G.
    Abstract: In 2008, about 12 percent of five- to fifteen-year-old children were in school. Five years later, the proportion of children aged five to fifteen who were in school has gone down to about 5 percent. Adjusted net primary school attendance rates have increased from 90.8 percent in 2008 to 96.45 percent in 2013. In this paper, we examine this decline in the proportion of out-of-school children and improved primary school participation in the country and attribute them to three key government interventions. First is the passage and full implementation of mandatory kindergarten and the K-12 Law, which aims to enhance basic education through key reforms in the curricula and addition of kindergarten and two years to basic education. Second is the increasing budget that the Department of Education has obtained from the national government. And third is the expansion of the government`s conditional cash transfer program that requires families under the program to send their children to school. These three broad public programs to invest in our human capital changed the way basic education is implemented in the country, and have helped bring the country closer to its goal of universal primary education. Ways forward include continued making full use of information systems especially the learner information system, improving school participation in the secondary education level, monitoring and evaluating the alternative learning system and alternative delivery modes of schooling, addressing gender disparities in basic education, and improving the quality of basic education.
    Keywords: Philippines, out-of-school children (OOSC), school attendance, school participation
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Wagner, Valentin; Riener, Gerhard
    Abstract: This paper presents the result of a field experiment on the effectiveness of non-monetary incentives on pupils' achievement on a mathematical multiple choice test. Our sample consists of 2113 pupils of deprived and high-achieving secondary schools in Germany. Based on a pre-study, we compare the effectiveness of (i) a medal (ii) a letter of praise to the parents and (iii) a delegation of choice over incentives. The effect of non-monetary incentives depends on pupils' socio-economic background. While they constitute a potentially cost-effective and easily implementable method of motivation in Non-High Schools, predetermined non-monetary incentives crowd out intrinsic motivation for pupils in High Schools. In contrast, the endogenous choice of the reward increases pupils' willingness to prepare for the test and mitigates the negative effect of predetermined external rewards in High Schools. Additionally, in the delegation treatment, we find that low-achieving pupils typically choose a reward with a higher signaling value to their parents, independent of the school type.
    Keywords: non-monetary incentives,field experiment,education,incentive choice,effort,socio-economic background
    JEL: C93 I20 I21 J1
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Azam, Mehtabul (Oklahoma State University)
    Abstract: We examine educational transmission between fathers (mothers) and daughters in India for daughters born during 1962-1991. We find that educational persistence, as measured by the regression coefficient of father's (mother's) education as a predictor of daughter's education, has declined over time. However, the correlation between educational attainment of daughters and fathers (mothers), another commonly used measure of persistence, suggests only a marginal decline. Further decomposing the intergenerational correlation, we find that although persistence has declined at the lower end of the fathers' (mothers') educational distribution, it has been compensated by an increase in persistence at other parts of fathers' (mothers') educational distribution. We also find that "Equality of Opportunity" remains an elusive goal for India. Not only the probability of a daughter attaining senior secondary or above education (top end of educational distribution) is positively associated with father's (mother's) education levels, the gaps in those probabilities do not show any sign of convergence. Similarly, there is no sign of any convergence in the probability of a daughter attaining senior secondary or above education even with the same level of father's (mother's) education between Higher Hindu Castes' daughters and daughters belonging to disadvantaged groups such as Other Backward Castes or Scheduled Castes/Tribes.
    Keywords: intergenerational educational persistence, daughters, women, India
    JEL: J6 I28
    Date: 2015–11
  10. By: Megalokonomou, Rigissa (Department of Economics University of Warwick); Goulas, Sofoklis (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
    Abstract: We study the effect of disclosing relative performance information (feedback) on students' performance in high-school and on subsequent university enrolment. We exploit a large scale natural experiment where students in some cohorts are provided with their national and school relative performance. Using unique primary collected data, we find an asymmetric response to the relative performance information - high achieving students improve their last-year performance by 0.15 standard deviations whereas the last-year performance of low achieving students drops by 0.3 standard deviations. The results are more pronounced for females indicating greater sensitivity to feedback. We also document the long term effect of feedback provision - high achieving students reduce their repetition rate of the national exams, enrol into 0.15 standard deviations more popular University Departments and their expected annual earnings increase by 0.17 standard deviations. Results are opposite for low achieving students. We find suggestive evidence that feedback encourages more students from low-income neighborhoods to enrol in university and to study in higher-quality programs indicating a potential decrease in income inequality
    Keywords: feedback ; relative performance ; university admission ; rank ; gender differences ; income inequality
    JEL: I23 J21
    Date: 2015
  11. By: Dietz, Barbara (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies, Regensburg); Gatskova, Ksenia (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies, Regensburg); Ivlevs, Artjoms (University of the West of England, Bristol)
    Abstract: We study the relationship between migration and children's education in Tajikistan – one of the poorest and most remittance-dependent economies in the world. The analysis of a unique three-wave household panel survey reveals that emigration of family members is negatively associated with children's school attendance. Receiving remittances does not offset this negative effect. Migration of non-parent family members (such as siblings) is particularly detrimental to school attendance, especially among older children and children from less educated households. This supports a conjecture that emigration in Tajikistan has a negative signaling effect on the education of children staying behind.
    Keywords: migration, remittances, schooling, Tajikistan
    JEL: J61 O15
    Date: 2015–11
  12. By: Noémi Berlin (University of Edinburgh - School of Economics - University of Edinburgh); Jean-Louis Tavani (UP8 - Université Paris 8, Vincennes-Saint-Denis); Maud Beasançon (UP10 - Université Paris 10, Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the link between schooling achievement and creativity scores, controlling for personality traits and other individual characteristics. Our study is based on field data collected in a secondary school situated in a Parisian suburb. Four scores of creativity were measured on 9th graders. Schooling achievement was measured by the test scores obtained by pupils in different subjects. We find that verbal divergent thinking, which is a subtype of creativity, negatively predicts the grades in most subjects, but that graphical integrative thinking is positively correlated with scientific grades.There is no significant correlation with the other measures of creativity, implying a low importance of creativity in school. In line with previous work, we find that conscientiousness and openness are positively associated with grades. Girls have higher grades than boys but do not have a higher probability of passing a national exam.
    Keywords: personality traits,Schooling achievement,creativity,eld data
    Date: 2015–11–11
  13. By: Ollinger, Michael; Guthrie, Joanne
    Abstract: Through USDA’s National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs, schools receive financial support to assist them in serving nutritious meals to students. Meal reimbursements are provided to a school food authority (SFA) on the basis of a child’s financial need, allowing schools to provide healthy meals to low-income students for free or at a reduced price. Reimbursement rates are set nationwide, yet variation in school location, size, and other factors may influence the costs to schools for providing meals, with implications for the adequacy of reimbursement. Previous ERS research using data from the 2002-03 school year found that school food service costs vary by location. This study uses those same data to build on that research by examining breakfast and lunch costs separately to assess how economies of scale and the balance between the number of breakfasts and lunches served affect costs. Costs of both breakfasts and lunches vary considerably across SFAs. Economies of scale exist for both breakfasts and lunches but are much stronger for breakfasts. The balance between breakfasts and lunches served also affects costs, with the cost per breakfast dropping dramatically as the number of breakfasts and lunches served become more balanced.
    Keywords: National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, school meals, school food service costs per meal, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2015–11
  14. By: De Dios, Emmanuel S.
    Abstract: A framework is proposed for understanding the potential value added of massive open online courses (MOOCs) along the lines of curation, credentialing, and cost. MOOCs are likely to appeal differently to universities depending on their current standard and desired goals. Institutions of a higher standard may be interested in MOOCs primarily as a means of reducing costs and possibly redirecting resources to research or graduate teaching. Universities of a lesser standard, on the other hand, may use MOOCs as a means of improving or augmenting curation, though perhaps at a higher cost. Factors that hinder or promote the adoption of MOOCs are identified that allow realistic expectations to be set regarding the role of MOOCs in Philippine education in the near term. Public policies and private sector initiatives to achieve these expectations are suggested.
    Keywords: Philippines, higher education institutions (HEIs), higher education, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), curation, credentials
    Date: 2015
  15. By: MARTIN Ludivine
    Abstract: I investigate the impact of innovative work practices and of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on employees' motivations. While the existing literature assumes that their positive effects on performance are due to employees' motivation but only assess related concepts, this paper directly analyses employees' motivations. The data come from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. The paper provides new and interesting results on how firms can build a motivational environment shaped by work practices and ICT. I resort to an original empirical framework that permits one to take into account the potential reverse causation between, on the one hand, the voluntary participation in innovative work practices and the use of ICT and motivations on the other. Within this framework, I modify what previous analyses reveal about quality circle and training participation. The results confirm the positive role of work practices such as teamwork, quality norms, formal appraisals, management recognition and family-friendly policies on employee's positive attitudes. Moreover, I introduce a large range of ICT compared to existing research and find that the ICT that most contributed to the development of a motivational environment are those that facilitate access to information and knowledge such as workflow, Internet and e-mail.
    Keywords: Innovative work practices; information and communication technologies; Employees' motivations
    JEL: J81 L23 M12 M54
    Date: 2015–11
  16. By: Olga Stognieva (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In order to plan lessons that include effective instructional strategies, it is critical for teachers to be aware of student aptitudes, personality variables, learning strategies, interests, aspirations and talents. This paper presents a way for Russian teachers to improve their student’s speaking abilities when learning foreign languages, called individualised resources, which are based on the concept of individualisation. Individualised resources are designed to help students to actively participate in the learning process, contribute to their productivity of learning and compensate for missing abilities when mastering foreign languages. In order to verify the effectiveness of this educational tool, qualitative and quantitative indicators were applied to experimental teaching. The findings illustrate how the approach enhanced the students’ speaking abilities in terms of purposefulness, richness of speech content and logical progression of speech. We concluded that the students’ mastering of these qualities, using individualized resources, did improve and that this type of training is sufficient to shape speaking skills when teaching English.
    Keywords: individualisation, individualised resources, qualities of oral statement, aptitudes, learning strategies, personality variables.
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2015
  17. By: OECD
    Abstract: The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is the reference framework used to classify education programmes and related qualifications by education levels and fields. The basic concepts and definitions of ISCED are intended to be internationally valid and cover the full range of education systems. ISCED 2011, the second major revision of the classification, reflects significant shifts in the structure of tertiary education resulting from the Bologna process in Europe, the development of early childhood education, and increasing interest in statistics on the outcomes of education such as educational attainment. ISCED 2011 has been implemented for the first time in data collected for indicators published in Education at a Glance 2015. This new classification offers the potential for new analysis at both tertiary level and in early childhood education. The ISCED classification of fields of education was reviewed separately. The ISCED 2013 Fields of Education and Training classification (ISCED-F 2013) will be used for the first time in Education at a Glance 2017.
    Date: 2015–11–24
  18. By: Anja Deelen; Wouter Verbeek
    Abstract: Although wage rigidity is an important topic, there is no full consensus in the literature on how to measure downward nominal and real wage rigidity. We conceptually and empirically compare the three commonly used methods for estimating wage rigidity. The simple approach as developed by the International Wage Flexibility Project (IWFP), the model based IWFP approach and the Maximum Likelihood approach. We estimate the three models on administrative panel data at the individual level for the Netherlands (2006-2012). One main nding is that assumptions regarding the 'notional' wage change distribution (which would prevail in the absence of wage rigidity) are an important determinant of the level of wage rigidity measured. We conclude that the model-based IWFP approach is the preferred model of the three, for it has the most sophisticated method to address measurement error and the assumptions regarding the wage change distribution that would prevail in absence of wage rigidity are most plausible. Furthermore we have researched the correlation between wage rigidity and worker and rm characteristics. Although the methods do not agree on the amount of rigidity, they agree for a large part on what variables have a positive or negative relation with downward nominal or real wage rigidity. We nd that the presence of wage rigidity is unevenly distributed among groups of workers: downward nominal and real wage rigidity in the Netherlands are positively related to a higher age, higher education, open-end contracts, full-time contracts and to working in a rm that experiences zero or positive employment growth. The consistency in the ndings regarding the determinants of wage rigidity indicate that all three methods measure the same phenomenon, which implies that estimates of determinants of wage rigidity can be compared over countries using any of the three methods. However, for measuring the fraction of workers covered by downward nominal or real wage rigidity, the choice of the method matters. Besides, we contribute to the literature by providing accurate, internationally comparable estimates of wage rigidity in the Netherlands. The overall picture is that the Netherlands has a less than average amount of downward nominal wage rigidity but and an above average level of downward real wage rigidity, compared internationally.
    JEL: C23 J31 J5
    Date: 2015–11
  19. By: Taylor, Leon; Izbanova, Aigul; Kainazarova, Mansiya
    Abstract: When data are too scanty to permit direct estimates of the rate of return to a university degree, one may resort to an indirect estimate based on the enrollment rate. This rate rises when enrollees perceive an increase in the degree’s rate of return. Estimates for universities in Almaty suggest that the rate of return may differ substantially across universities in the short run.
    Keywords: Rate of return, education, enrollment, omitted variables, measurement error
    JEL: I22
    Date: 2015–11–21
  20. By: Claude Diebolt (BETA, University of Strasbourg Strasbourg, France); Gabriele Franzmann (GESIS); Jürgen Sensch (GESIS)
    Date: 2015
  21. By: Guillaume Vandenbroucke (Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis); B Ravikumar (Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis); Yu-Chien Kong (University of Iowa)
    Abstract: Earnings growth has been systematically decreasing from one cohort to the next, starting with the cohort that was 25-year-old in 1940. This cohort's labor earnings were multiplied by a factor of 4 between the ages of 25 and 55. For the 1980 cohort the same calculation yields a factor of 2.2. Why are recent cohorts facing flatter earnings profiles? Our theory combines two elements: (1) the incentives to accumulate human capital over one's work life are decreasing in the initial stock of human capital; (2) recent cohorts are more educated and do start their work lives with more human capital. We build and calibrate a parsimonious model of schooling and human capital accumulation on the job to fit the earnings of the 1940 cohort at different ages. Our model accounts for more than 60% of the decline in the growth rate of earnings between the 1940 and the 1980 cohorts as the result of a single exogenous factor: increasing aggregate productivity.
    Date: 2015
  22. By: Dennis Fredriksen; Nils Martin Stølen (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Over the life course members of an insurance system normally will contribute by payments when in working age, and later receive pension benefits as e.g. disabled or old-age pensioners. Total expected discounted contributions from labour market earnings may be compared to the expected discounted sum of benefits from pensions received. The first cohorts covered with benefits from a pay-as-you go pension system will normally receive higher benefits than what follows from their contributions. Reforms of the pension system may also affect the ratio between discounted life time pension benefits and discounted life time contributions. In Norway the former National Insurance Scheme was introduced in 1967, and a reform of this system has been implemented from 2011. Budgetary and distributional effects are analysed by the dynamic micro simulation model MOSART. The aim of this paper is to analyse the distributional consequences between generations from implementation of the system in 1967 and the reform from 2011. Problems arising in this kind of analyses are discussed, and effects are presented for different groups of the population by birth cohort, gender, education and for natives versus immigrants. As expected the results show that the cohorts who established the pay-as-you-go system experienced a substantial gain by letting future generations pay. For later cohorts discounted value of benefits received is lower than the discounted value of contributions. With a positive net rate of interest the value of contributions as young is more worth than the corresponding value of benefits received as old. Over the life course the pension system distributes incomes from men to women, but women are more affected by the pension reform in 2011 than men.
    Keywords: Pension systems; Intergenerational distribution; Dynamic micro simulation
    JEL: D31 H55 J16
    Date: 2015–10
  23. By: Awaworyi, Sefa; Yew, Siew Ling; Ugur, Mehmet
    Abstract: Using a sample of 306 estimates drawn from 31 primary studies, this paper conducts an empirical synthesis of the link between economic growth and government expenditure on education or health using meta-analysis. We also explain the heterogeneity in empirical results. We find that the effect of government education expenditure on growth is positive, whereas the growth effect of government health expenditure is negative. Our meta-regression analysis suggests that factors such as econometric specifications, publication characteristics as well as data characteristics explain the heterogeneity in the literature. We also find no evidence of publication selectivity.
    Keywords: Government education expenditure; government health expenditure; human capital; economic growth
    JEL: E6 E62 H5 H51 H52
    Date: 2015–04–11
  24. By: Petrolia, Daniel; Interis, Matthew; Hwang, Joonghyun
    Abstract: This paper presents what we believe to be the most comprehensive suite of comparison criteria regarding multinomial discrete-choice experiment elicitation formats to date. We administer a choice experiment focused on ecosystem-service valuation to three independent samples: single-choice, repeated-choice, and best-worst elicitation. We test whether results differ by parameter estimates, scale factors, preference heterogeneity, status-quo/action bias, attribute non-attendance, and magnitude and precision of welfare measures. Overall, we find very limited evidence of differences in attribute parameter estimates, scale factors, and attribute increment values across elicitation treatments. However, we find significant differences in status-quo/action bias across elicitation treatments, with repeated-choice resulting in greater proportions of “Yes” votes, and consequently, higher program-level welfare estimates. Also, we find that single-choice yields drastically less-precise welfare estimates. Finally, we find significant differences in attribute non-attendance behavior across elicitation formats, although there appears to be little consistency in class shares even within a given elicitation treatment.
    Keywords: best-worst elicitation, choice experiment, contingent valuation, ecosystem-service valuation, stated preference, survey, willingness to pay, Environmental Economics and Policy, Q51, Q57,
    Date: 2015–11
  25. By: Richard V. Burkhauser; Jan-Emmanuel De Neve; Nattavudh Powdthavee
    Abstract: The share of income held by the top 1 percent in many countries around the world has been rising persistently over the last 30 years. But we continue to know little about how the rising top income shares affect human well-being. This study combines the latest data to examine the relationship between top income share and different dimensions of subjective well-being. We find top income shares to be significantly correlated with lower life evaluation and higher levels of negative emotional well-being, but not positive emotional well-being. The results are robust to household income, individual's socio-economic status, and macroeconomic environment controls.
    Keywords: Top income, life evaluation, well-being, income inequality, World Top Income Database, Gallup World Poll
    JEL: D63 I3
    Date: 2015–11

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