nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2015‒11‒01
forty-two papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Affirmative Action in Higher Education: Impacts of the National Exam in Brazil By Joaquim Israel Ribas Pereira; Mauricio Bittencourt; Bernardo Braga
  2. The impact of study guides on “matric” performance: Evidence from a randomised experiment By Stephen Taylor; Patricia Watson
  3. The Effect of Contracting Out Low Performing Schools on Student Performance By Whitney Ruble
  4. Entrepreneurship Education in Ethiopian universities: Institutional assessment Synthesis Report By Huub Mudde; Dugassa Tessema Gerba; Alemfrie Derese Chekol
  5. Does community involvement affect teacher effort? Assessing learning impacts of Free Primary Education in Kenya. By Atuhurra, Julius
  6. Risk Management of Curriculum of Educational Administration Programs in Public Universities, Thailand By Jaruwan Ployduangrat
  8. Human Capital Concentration and the Place-Based Policies in Chile By Patricio Aroca; Juan Pedro Eberhard
  9. The Readiness for Implementing STEM Education Through the Basic Schools By Trairat Pipatpokkapole; Sukunya Roipila
  11. The Intergenerational Effect of Forcible Assimilation Policy on Education By Donna Feir
  12. Inside Online Charter Schools By Brian Gill; Lucas Walsh; Claire Smither Wulsin; Holly Matulewicz; Veronica Severn; Eric Grau; Amanda Lee; Tess Kerwin
  13. The Autonomy of High Schools and its importance for lifelong education in Albania after 90 years: A comparative analysis By Mirela Tase; Manjola Xhaferri
  14. Government per pupil expenditure in Uttar Pradesh: Implications for the reimbursement of private schools under the RTE Act By Geeta Kingdon; Mohd Muzammil
  15. The Effect of Compulsory Schooling on Spatial Distribution of Educational Attainment By Alpay Filiztekin; Can Karahasan
  16. Evolution of long distance students? mobility: the role of transport infrastructures in Italy By Mattia Cattaneo; Paolo Malighetti; Stefano Paleari; Renato Redondi
  17. Are the children of uneducated farmers doubly disadvantaged ? farm, nonfarm and intergenerational educational mobility in rural China By Emran,M. Shahe; Sun,Yan - EAPCE
  18. Competition Between and Within Universities: Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Group Identity and the Desire to Win By Chen, Zhuoqiong; Ong, David; Sheremeta, Roman
  19. Ethiopian University Capacity: Findings of Piloting the Organizational Capacity Assessment Tool By Rita van Deuren; Tsegazeab Kashu Abay; Seid Mohammed
  20. Expenditure and Displacement effects of Students in the Periphery: Impact on the Scottish Highlands and Islands By Kristinn Hermannsson
  21. The An Appropriate STEM Education Design for Secondary School,Thailand By Prapon Chaicharoen; Jaruwan Ployduangrat
  22. ‘Giving students the third degree: Using authentic assessment techniques in extra and co-curricular activities (ECCAs) to improve teaching standards on academic law programmes’ By Charles Wild; Daniel Berger
  23. Accounting for the Rise in College Tuition By Grey Gordon; Aaron Hedlund
  24. Is Shale Development Drilling Holes in the Human Capital Pipeline? By Dan S. Rickman; Hongbo Wang; John V. Winters
  25. New Public Management Also Came from the Left: The Case of Swedish Primary and Secondary Education By Wennström, Johan
  26. The Study of Multicultural Leadership of School Administrators Under The Department of Education Bangkok By Wilaiwan Teanpranomkorn; Jaruwan Ployduangrat
  27. Pension coverage for parents and educational investment in children: evidence from urban China By Mu,Ren; Du,Yang
  28. International Inequalities in The Local Economic Impact of Universities: The Case of Hungary and France By Balazs Kotosz; Marie-France Gaunard-Anderson; Miklos Lukovics
  29. Enrichment Curriculum Development Competency in Thai Language by Using Collaborative Learning via the Internet for Undergraduate Teacher Students, Thailand By Warintorn Phon-noi
  30. Life expectancy and education: Evidence from the cardiovascular revolution By Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger
  31. Research Assessment in the UK and Italy: Costly and Difficult, But Probably Worth it (At Least For a While) By Aldo Geuna; Matteo Piolatto
  33. Research Quality and Gender Gap in Research Assessment By Tullio Jappelli; Carmela Anna Nappi; Roberto Torrini
  34. Occupational Switching and Self-Discovery in the Labor Market By Satoshi Tanaka; David Wiczer; Burhanettin Kuruscu; Fatih Guvenen
  35. Design of an organizational capacity assessment tool for enhanced leadership and management in Ethiopian new public universities By Rita van Deuren; Tsegazeab Kashu Abay; Seid Mohammed
  36. Labor Market Outcomes of Highly Educated Immigrants: Does Your Name Matter? By Dafeng Xu
  37. The Concept of Intercultural Competence and the Fulbright Exchange as a Model of Intercultural Communication By Reny Radkova
  38. A Study Of Information Communication Technology (ICT) Competency for Students Of Teaching Profession By Wijit Chalopatham; Warintorn Phon-Noi; Jaruwan Ployduangrat
  39. Beyond Truth-Telling: Preference Estimation with Centralized School Choice By Gabrielle Fack; Julien Grenet; Yinghua He
  40. An analysis of the characteristics of firms and universities in shaping geographical distance of university-industry linkages By Garcia Renato; Araujo Veneziano; Mascarini Suelene; Santos Emerson; Costa Ariana
  41. Education Mismatch, Human Capital and Labour Status of Young People across European Union Countries By Fabrizio Pompei; Ekaterina Selezneva
  42. Challenges to academic freedom and institutional autonomy in South African universities By Edmore Kori

  1. By: Joaquim Israel Ribas Pereira; Mauricio Bittencourt; Bernardo Braga
    Abstract: In recent years, educational issues have been of greater importance in economic analysis. Many papers suggest that education is essential for economic growth as well as an important tool to achieve better equality. These effects have been discussed and confirmed by several researchers, whose papers delineate evidence that education promotes growth, adoption of technologies, increased wages, and additional positive externalities (LANGE and TOPEL; ACEMOGLU and ANGRIST, 2000). As a result, education is primarily considered by governments as a social policy tool. Some of these social policy tools are associated with affirmative action, because their goal is to promote equality by affording better conditions to groups that are initially experiencing worse conditions. The Brazilian case consists of the designation of some proportion of vacancies in university to blacks, native Indians and low-income people. We can number two main reasons commonly used in Brazil to justify affirmative action policy in higher education: a form of historical reparation for blacks, given that Brazil was the largest slave country in the world; and the small share of blacks, Indians and low-income individuals in higher education. This paper intends to contribute to the debate regarding the impact of quotas (social and racial) in the Brazilian higher education system, estimating their impacts on student grades as measured by a specific test ? ENADE ? or the National Survey of Student Performance. We use ENADE 2008 as the main source of data, which comprised 59 courses and surveyed more than 74,000 students. Within the theoretical discussion, we present Su?s Job Reservation Model (2005) and Bishop?s Effort Decision Model (2006); these models include factors such as degree, coursework selection, future wages, and quality of peers, as factors that affect the degree of effort and the human capital accumulation. We use a difference-in-differences (DD) method combined with the propensity score matching (PSM), where the main goal is to control unobservable characteristics that are related to the performance and some selection biases related to the treated group. The results demonstrate that the implementation of quotas negatively and significantly affected majors such as Pedagogy, History and Physics, and positively and significantly affected only Agronomy course.
    Keywords: social and racial quotas;difference-in-differences estimator;propensity score m
    JEL: I24 I25 I28
    Date: 2015–10
  2. By: Stephen Taylor (Department of Economics and Department of Basic Education); Patricia Watson (Department of Basic Education)
    Abstract: Most international literature on the impact of textbooks on educational achievement suggests that this is a relatively cost-effective intervention. However, recent experimental evidence from developing countries has called this into question, suggesting that resources alone are unlikely to impact on performance and that changes in school organisation, pedagogical methods or incentives facing teachers are more effective. South African studies, using observational data, typically show weak associations between achievement and additional resources, though in some studies textbooks emerge as an exception. Some argue that school management is a key mediating variable. This paper evaluates the impact of providing study guides to pupils shortly before their secondary school leaving examination (the “matric” exam). From a sampling frame of 318 schools in the Mpumalanga province, 79 schools were randomly selected to receive study guides, leaving 239 control schools. These study guides were developed by the National Department of Basic Education and distributed to treatment schools for four subjects – accounting, economics, geography and life sciences – resulting in four distinct treatments per school. The impact of the study guides was estimated using matric results from 2011 (baseline) and 2012 (endline). The accounting and economics guides did not have a significant impact on performance. However, the geography and life sciences guides improved scores in those subjects by approximately two percentage points. Treatment heterogeneity was apparent for geography where students in better-performing schools gained more from the guides than students in low-performing schools. This may relate to other studies suggesting that additional school resources matter conditionally upon overall school functionality, particularly management. A simulation indicated that distributing the geography and life science at scale could increase the overall matric pass rate by roughly one percentage point. A cost-benefit analysis calculating the standard deviations of impact on test scores per $100 spent indicates that this intervention is amongst the most cost-effective of educational interventions internationally that have been tested using randomised experiments. Possible reasons why the guides were effective in two subjects but not the other two are discussed.
    Keywords: South Africa, education, educational achievement, study guides, Randomised Controlled Trial
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Whitney Ruble (Department of Economics, Tulane University)
    Abstract: Proponents of charter schools and portfolio management models argue that contracting out entire schools to management organizations can improve student performance and decrease costs by giving schools autonomy in exchange for accountability. Little evidence exists, however, on whether contracting is an effective policy in education. In New Orleans, most of the public schools have been contracted out to nonprofit management organizations over the past ten years (referred to as district to charter or D2C). Several of those contracts have been terminated and schools are then contracted out to new management organizations (charter to charter or C2C). This study uses difference-in-differences to analyze the effect that D2Cs and C2Cs have on students. The results indicate that student test scores increase by the second year after both D2Cs and C2Cs. The scores increase even sooner, after only one year for C2Cs. However, if failing schools are closed instead of being contracted out, students do not experience any change in test scores.
    Keywords: low-performing schools, school quality, school closures
    JEL: H40 I21 I28 I24
    Date: 2015–10
  4. By: Huub Mudde (Maastricht School of Management); Dugassa Tessema Gerba; Alemfrie Derese Chekol
    Abstract: PThis report presents the findings of an entrepreneurship assessment of universities in Ethiopia, carried out within the context of the University Leadership and Management Capacity Development (ULMCD) project that has been implemented and coordinated by Maastricht School of Management (MSM), and funded by EP-Nuffic. Ethiopia is at the start of its second five year Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP2) which aspires to make Ethiopia a middle income county by 2025. As a result, the government of Ethiopia had been pursuing, as one of its strategies, measures to promote small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to spur the economies’ growth and to increase youth employability (64.1% of the population is below 25 years of age). Universities play a significant role in the production of human resources the economy demands; education including entrepreneurship is critical as it contributes to job creation and leads to considerable reduction of poverty. Equally, universities have an important role to play in regional innovation systems. In Ethiopia, the number of graduates is growing fast and institutional challenges of universities are large because more than 20 new universities have been established in the last decade and the foundation of another 11 universities announced in 2015. It is this pertinent challenge of capacitating the growing number of students put upon the (mostly very young) Ethiopian universities in which this study is framed with the purpose to advise the Ethiopian universities on how to strengthen their entrepreneurial policy, activities, facilities, and educational programs, and to advise the Ethiopian Ministry of Education/Education Strategy Centre (ESC) on how it could support the Ethiopian universities on these matters.
    Date: 2015–07
  5. By: Atuhurra, Julius
    Abstract: While the school participation impacts of the Universal Primary Education policies in Sub-Saharan Africa have been impressive, learning impacts’ assessment has received little attention. This study measures and explains the initial achievement impacts of the Free Primary Education (FPE) policy in Kenya using grade six pupils’ reading and math standardized test scores. We find large achievement declines, spillover effects to private schools and heterogeneous impacts by gender and socioeconomic status. The declines are associated with decreased teacher efforts and local community disengagement. Policy studies on pathways to increased local community involvement in public schools will lead to improved learning.
    Keywords: Educational policy Learning achievement Teacher Effort Community involvement
    JEL: H44 I20 I21
    Date: 2014–08
  6. By: Jaruwan Ployduangrat (Faculty of Education Srinakharinwirot University)
    Abstract: The purposes of this research are 1) the risk factors in curriculum management of educational administration program in public university,Thailand and 2) guidelines for the risk management. The research comprised of 3 phases: 1) analytical study to set the conceptual framework in risk management in curriculum management of educational administration program; 2) risk factors analysis in basic education schools; and 3) risk management analysis. The samples came from a management team, Teaching staff, Master and PhD student from 20 public universities. The risk management in curriculum management of educational administration program was acquired via experts’ references. The data collected by used document analysis, structured interviews, focus groups and questionnaires. The statistical data were analyzed by using frequency, percentage, and content analysis. The research findings revealed that : 1. Risk of curriculum management in educational program are Financial Risk , Lack of efficient technology, Educational management does not meet students need Risk , Organizational structure Risk ,Operation Risk , The curriculum management team Risk and , Result and service Risk , Competition risk ,Reputation risk 2. The guidelines for the risk management in each component were suggested as follows: are the approach strategy which can respond to the competitive circumstance, the complete database to plan for the implementation of curriculum management, The preparation of responsible staff, the reasonable budget allocation,and the increase in number and quality of permanent teaching staff.
    Keywords: Risk Management, Curriculum Management, Educational Administration Programs, Public University
  7. By: Nicolene Barkhuizen (Department of Industrial Psychology, North-West University); Elliot Diseko (Department of Industrial Psychology, North-West University); Nico Schutte (Department of Public Administration, North-West University)
    Abstract: Since independence, the Botswana education has developed very much, however, the National Commission on Education in Botswana has shown that Teachers are still experiencing some problems which can lead to them quitting the teaching profession. The main objective of this research was to determine the relationship between talent management and teacher’s intention to quit in Botswana. A quantitative research approach was followed with data collected from secondary school teachers in Botswana (N=299). A Talent Management Measure and Intention to Quit scale was administered. The data was analysed using SPSS. The results showed that talent management practices are poorly applied for teachers in the sample. Workforce planning, Performance and Talent Retention practices were the most problematic. Teachers perceived that most of the talent management practices are important with Talent Commitment the most important. Significant gaps exist between the current versus the importance of talent management practices Currently there seem to be limited empirical research studies on talent management in Botswana. Furthermore not much research has been done to determine the relationship between talent management and turnover intentions of teachers in Botswana. The results of this research will assist the Department of Education to detect the talent management problems among teachers in order to prevent future turnover.
    Keywords: Talent Management, Teachers, Turnover Intentions
    JEL: J24
  8. By: Patricio Aroca; Juan Pedro Eberhard
    Abstract: Chile is one of the most concentrated country in the world. Most of the 40 percent of the population live in the capital city, Santiago, where around 45 percent of the GDP is produced. At the same time, most of the policies promoting welfare are focus on people and they are spatially blind. This paper shows how the current array keeps concentrating people, especially with potential high human capital, around Santiago, and assesses whether this happened for difference in quality of life and opportunities or difference in the quality of the universities. The data available on individuals, who end the high school and take the university admission test, that lets students applying to the university and program that they wish to go, allows identifying the region of origin of the students, the region where the university that they apply is located and where they were selected. Three programs are chosen for this study given the quantity of people that apply to them and because they are available across different cities in the country are pedagogy, engineering and physician. In addition, in Chile they are more than 60 universities, however only the traditional 25 are the one that use this selection system for the period of this study that goes from 2006 to 2009. Recently some new universities have get into the system. Assuming that most of the students end up working around the city where they got the degree, we use an aggregate discrete choice model to develop a methodology that consist in following the destination of the students who got the best scores in the university admission test. Those students can choose any university in the country, and the majority prefers to go to those in the capital city. Contrasting with these results, lower scores have an inverse pattern. When we test if it is explained by the difference in the quality of life between cities versus the differences among the quality of the universities, the former has a larger explanatory power, which bring back the discussion if the policy should be oriented to place or people. It means, that will not be enough focus on increase the quality of the universities across the territories to attract better student to universities outside Santiago. It will need and strong complementary policies making those cities more interesting for the potential high human capital applicant.
    Keywords: Regional Development; Policy Analysis; Higher Education Polic
    JEL: R12 R13 R58
    Date: 2015–10
  9. By: Trairat Pipatpokkapole (Srinakharinwirot University,Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary)); Sukunya Roipila (Srinakharinwirot University,Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary))
    Abstract: This research aims to study the opinions of administrators, teachers and parents.About the availability of education in the STEM and proposed to guidelines for management STEM education. Research methodology by studying the documents and interviews with experts and questionnaires. In the following issues: The environment in teaching ,the preparedness planning, school administration, teacher, and educational resources. The samples in this study were teachers, administrators, parents in primary schools. And secondary education in a multi-stage random 370. And interviewed responsible for the Promotion of Teaching Science in Thailand. The results showed that the availability of STEM education and basic education in the country at a high level. But there is a limit on the policy of national education in the STEM activities used in teaching. In STEM teaching should start from kindergarten levels . And the development of teachers to understand the procedure. And development is Teachers should encourage innovative thinking by teaching school context . And units involved are The institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology is responsible for the creation and development of innovative teaching .
    Keywords: STEM education, Basic school in Thailand, STEM teaching
  10. By: Nico Schutte (North-West University - Mafikeng Campus); Annelize Cronje (North-West University - Mafikeng Campus); Mamolahluwa Mokoena (North-West University - Mafikeng Campus); Nicolene Barkhuizen (North-West University - Mafikeng Campus)
    Abstract: It becomes evident when we look at research and scholarly articles that the etymological emergences of ‘blended learning’ as a field of study and application are relatively new in educational practices. It is also become apparent that there are very limited references to the phrase before 2000; meanwhile, since then various articles encompassing the phrase have been published. Subsequently, it becomes noticeable that the term ‘blended learning’ has been grasped — in fact a growing body of literature on blended learning (BL) that is providing evidence on the fact that its use is undoubtedly on the rise in higher education The purpose of this paper is to explore the process of ‘blended learning’ in the context of higher education practice in a South African Higher Education Institution. A further aspect of this paper is to provide a discussion of the transformative potential of blended learning in the context of the challenges facing higher education in an emerging market such as South Africa. It is maintained that educationally useful research on blended learning needs to focus on the relationships between different modes of learning (for example, face-to-face and on-line) and especially on the nature of their integration. Blended approaches to learning are not just popular technology driven ideas and gadgets that will disappear as fast as they come. Blended learning strategies exemplify how higher education could revisit and strengthen the essential values and practices that have been seriously compromised over the last half-century. A supposition is that blended learning is consistent with the values of traditional higher education institutions and has the established ability to enhance both the effectiveness and efficiency of significant learning experiences. This paper concludes with a conceptual framework for the best practice of blended learning in higher education.
    Keywords: Blended learning; Emerging Markets, Higher education; Teaching
    JEL: I23
  11. By: Donna Feir (Department of Economics, University of Victoria)
    Abstract: For nearly a century, the Canadian government separated Indigenous children from their families and placed them in live-in institutions known as residential schools. Many speculate that this policy contributes to the struggles Indigenous children face today. Using a unique confidential data set, I identify the effects of a mother attending a residential school on her children. I find that children whose mother attended residential school fare better along health dimensions and yet worse along educational dimensions. I provide suggestive evidence that these findings are due to residential schooling impacting parenting style and parental attitudes towards education.
    Keywords: Education, Stature, Attitudes, Intergenerational, Indigenous Peoples
    JEL: I12 I21 J15 J18
    Date: 2015–10–28
  12. By: Brian Gill; Lucas Walsh; Claire Smither Wulsin; Holly Matulewicz; Veronica Severn; Eric Grau; Amanda Lee; Tess Kerwin
    Abstract: That National Study of Online Charter Schools is organized into three separate, topical report volumes. In Volume I, Mathematica describes the universe of online charter schools, the students they serve, and their operations. In Volume II, the Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE) at the University of Washington describes the policy environments of online charter schools and provides recommendations to state policymakers. In Volume III, the Center for Research on Education Outcomes (CREDO) at Stanford University describes the achievement effects of online charter schools.
    Keywords: Education, charter schools, student performance, college readiness, online charters, virtual charters, cyber charters, principals
    JEL: I
    Date: 2015–10–27
  13. By: Mirela Tase (University of\); Manjola Xhaferri (University of\)
    Abstract: Changes in the higher education system in Albania based on the requirements of the Bologna Process and European qualification for determining criteria of the workers. The Bologna process which began in 2003 with the signing of the Bologna declaration has led to the development of the European Higher Education Area combining respect for the diversity of programs, institutions and educational traditions in specific countries. As results of these process Albanian universities have introduced the following, training at three levels (licentiates, Master's and PhD). Through this paper we shall try to show what the tools are needed to achieve autonomy and put in the efficiency for our university system to serve a quality education and increase the academic quality of higher education institutions themselves
    Keywords: autonomy, training, competitive, efficiency, propaganda
    JEL: A00
  14. By: Geeta Kingdon; Mohd Muzammil
    Abstract: The Right to Education (RTE) Act was enacted in August 2009 to guarantee free and compulsory education to all children aged 6-14 years old in India. It is a powerful piece of legislation that specifies the duties of the government in the provision of schooling, lays down some norms and standards for the recognition of private schools, and makes provision for the inclusion of disadvantaged children in all types of schools. This short note seeks to estimate the per pupil expenditure in government elementary schools in Uttar Pradesh using the government’s own expenditure and enrolment data.
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Alpay Filiztekin; Can Karahasan
    Abstract: Compulsory schooling increases average level of education in a country and provides other benefits, its effect on geographical distribution is, however, not obvious. We explore the effect of a sudden change in compulsory schooling in Turkey, that increased mandatory years of schooling from five to eight years, on spatial distribution of educational attainment. Using data on two cohorts, the cohort that had affected by the change and the immediate cohort that had not, we show that an increase in the dispersion of the shares of people with voluntary education across space. We find that that an increase in years of compulsory schooling makes local conditions that already generate heterogeneity more important to shape the distribution.
    Keywords: I21; I24; J24; R12
    Date: 2015–10
  16. By: Mattia Cattaneo; Paolo Malighetti; Stefano Paleari; Renato Redondi
    Abstract: Introduction There is a large consensus that the amount of human capital in areas plays a crucial role for regional economic development. Previous evidence on regional economics highlight that a higher concentration of human capital is associated with more population, employment growth, income and ability to innovate (e.g., Carlino et al., 2007; Glaeser and Saiz, 2004; Glaeser, 2005). Therefore, it is crucial to identify the factors that drives differences in human capital accumulation in specific areas (e.g., Boschma at al., 2013). Among others, universities have been identified as focal institutions for the attraction of highly skilled human capital toward specific areas, being firstly responsible for the attractiveness to students from different areas. Although some recent contributions have already investigated whether universities are able to affect the distribution of human capital at a regional level (Ciriaci, 2013; Abel and Deitz, 2012), less attention has been paid to the effects that the evolution of transport infrastructures play in this respect. Due to the growth of interest in the concept and the few attempts to deal with this topic, this paper aims to investigate how the Italian higher education system and transport infrastructures co-evolve over time, mainly focusing on the impact of transports infrastructures? changes on the long distance mobility of students. In the last decade, students aiming to increase their opportunities in the labour market and enhance their social status have become more prone to move, relocating in wealthier areas, whereas, at the same time, long distance students? mobility has been facilitated by the decrease of travel costs (e.g. Ryanair, Freccia Rossa). Data and Methodology Relying on the population of 75 private and public universities in Italy over the period 2002-2012 and the changes that affected both the air transportation and the high-speed rail system we investigate the long distance mobility of first-time first-year university students (more than 300 km from their households) departing from each Italian province. Consistently with the literature on spatial interaction analyses, we investigate the effects of transport infrastructures rely on a competition destinations model (e.g., Sà et al. 2004, Cattaneo et al. 2014). Results Preliminary results suggest that long distance students? mobility has been affected by the evolution of transport infrastructures with an important impact of low cost airlines from Southern to Northern Italian regions. The change in the distribution of Italian students that has been occurred in the last years (Cattaneo et al. 2014; Long 2013) is found to be facilitated by the presence of more developed transport infrastructures, which have decreased the costs associated to long distance mobility.
    Keywords: University students; transport infrastructures; attractiveness to students
    JEL: L9 O1 I2
    Date: 2015–10
  17. By: Emran,M. Shahe; Sun,Yan - EAPCE
    Abstract: This paper relaxes the single-factor model of intergenerational educational mobility and analyzes heterogeneous effects of family background on children?s education in villages, with a focus on the role of nonfarm occupations. The analysis uses data from rural China that cover three generations, and are not subject to coresident sample selection. Evidence from a battery of econometric approaches shows that the mean effects of parents? education miss substantial heterogeneity across farm-nonfarm occupations. Having nonfarm parents, in general, has positive effects, but children of low educated non-farmer parents (with higher income) do not enjoy any advantages over the children of more educated farmer parents. Estimates of cross-partial effects without imposing functional form show little evidence of complementarity between parental education and nonfarm occupation. The role of family background remains relatively stable across generations for girls, but for boys, family background has become more important after the market reform. The paper explores causality using three approaches: Rosenbaum sensitivity analysis, minimum biased inverse propensity weighted estimator, and heteroscedasticity-based identification. The analysis results suggest that the advantages of having more educated parents, especially with nonfarm occupations, are unlikely to be due solely to selection on genetic transmissions. However, the estimated positive effects of nonfarm over farmer parents among the low educated households may be driven entirely by moderate selection on genetic endowment.
    Keywords: Education For All,Education and Society,Social Inclusion&Institutions,Population&Development,Primary Education
    Date: 2015–10–26
  18. By: Chen, Zhuoqiong; Ong, David; Sheremeta, Roman
    Abstract: We study how salient group identity, created through competition between students from different universities, as well as differences in the value of winning impact competitive behavior. Our experiment employs a simple all-pay auction within and between two university subject pools. We find that when competing against their peers, students within the lower tier university bid more aggressively than students within the top-tier university. Also, students from the lower tier university, in particular women, bid more aggressively when competing against students from the top-tier university. These findings, interpreted through a theoretical model incorporating both group identity and differential value of winning, suggest that students at the lower tier university have a stronger group identity as well as higher desire to win.
    Keywords: experiments, all-pay auction, competitiveness, group identity
    JEL: C91 D03 J7 Z13
    Date: 2015–10–21
  19. By: Rita van Deuren (Maastricht School of Management); Tsegazeab Kashu Abay (Aksum University); Seid Mohammed (Jigjiga University)
    Abstract: Ethiopian higher education in recent years has realized impressive quantitative growth in public higher education. However, the sector is also facing numerous challenges such as shortage of funding, shortage of qualified staff, programs lacking labour market relevance, limited research and community service output, gender issues and lack of adequate quality assurance. The quality of university leadership and management is considered a critical success factor in overcoming these challenges, especially where strategic planning and organisational capacity development are involved. Providing management information on the actual status of university organizational capacity aims to enhance managerial decision making. Organizational capacity assessment tools (OCAT) aim to provide management with this kind of information. The OCAT-project, as part of the EP-Nuffic funded University Leadership and Management Capacity Development project, aimed to develop an OCAT for Ethiopian New Public Universities. This paper informs on the findings and recommendations of piloting this tool at two Ethiopian universities belonging to the second generation of universities. The next paragraph introduces the capacity concept and capacity framework used in assessing university capacity. Then, in paragraph three the data-collections is described. The findings of using the OCAT in two universities are described and discussed in paragraph four. The policy brief ends with conclusions and recommendations resulting from the study. Part of the text in this paper draws from the document describing OCAT (Van Deuren, Abay & Mohammed, 2015).
    Date: 2015–10
  20. By: Kristinn Hermannsson
    Abstract: A ubiquitous feature of life in peripheral communities is that school leavers have to move away to attend further and higher education. From the point of view of an individual student and his family significant amounts have to be spent to pay for term time costs. These are at least partially funded through saving incomes earned locally. These term time expenditures are then spent at the place of study, typically a central city. This gives rise to a spatial demand-shift effect, where students increase consumption where they study and reduce consumption where they are from. Because of this, the location of HEIs can have an important impact not only upon their host economies but also on the localities where students originate from. This paper analysis the flow of students within Scotland and the resulting spatial shift of consumption expenditures. The focus is on the peripheral region of the Highlands and Islands (HI) and its interaction with the Rest of Scotland (ROS). Student records data are used to determine the origin and destination of HE students in Scotland. This reveals a significant net-outflow of students from the HI to the ROS. Using survey-based expenditure profiles and a custom built 2-region Input-Output table the economic impact of these student flows are estimated for both sending and receiving regions.
    Keywords: Input-Output; Impact; Higher Education; Students; Expenditures; Displacement
    JEL: I23 I25 R12 R15
    Date: 2015–10
  21. By: Prapon Chaicharoen (Srinakharinwirot University); Jaruwan Ployduangrat (Faculty of Education, Srinakharinwirot University)
    Abstract: This research is aimed to study a STEM education (STEM; Science,Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) for secondary school. And assess the possibility of bringing the model into practice.The study consisted of two stages: creating patterns by studying documents, interviewing. A focus group of 22 people. And assess the possibility of bringing the model into practice by the opinion of the administrators and teachers of secondary school of 225 people. The results showed that the modeling experts have agreed at the highest level.And steps to assess the possibility of bringing the model into practice.The development consists of five elements contain. 1) The course is flexible in line with the group on ethics issues. 2) Learning Management In terms of learning methods. Basic education is well equipped to handle teaching STEM. 3 ) evaluation of learning. Assess the knowledge, skills, experience, ethics. 4 ) administration and management . Teachers need to have a better understanding about the management of STEM education and resources are available to facilitate learning . 5 ) the involvement of parents and the community need to support their children's learning .Participation and support learning and teaching. Factors and conditions that encourage educational achievement in STEM related entities such as the office of the basic education, The university offered the course of Undergraduate Teaching Profession and The institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology . Policymakers must work together Cognition And to guide the activities of teaching.
    Keywords: STEM education, Secondary school in Thailand, STEM teaching, Science,Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, Teaching Science and Technology
  22. By: Charles Wild (University of Hertfordshire); Daniel Berger (University of Hertfordshire)
    Abstract: Authentic assessments are closely aligned with activities that take place in real work settings, as distinct from the often artificial constructs of university courses. The undergraduate law degree differs from many other degrees, in that it requires arguments to be constructed, at even the most academic level. While the traditional ‘paper-based’ assessment strategy provides a pragmatic solution to the problem of a general lack of time and resources to grade students en masse, the authors believe that the use of authentic assessment techniques, in accredited and university-run extra and co-curricular activities (ECCAs), are perfectly placed to augment legal education. As long as the ECCAs are delivered with academic law degree learning outcomes taken under consideration, and are rigorously delivered by staff who are trained and experienced to elicit optimum student performance, students will benefit from authentic assessment in other indirectly connected areas of their academic lives.By delivering authentic assessments methods in ECCAs, a combination of formative and summative techniques used throughout the assessment processes improves student performance, which thereby has positive cross-impact onto law degree academic performance. This two-way communicative assessment strategy allows students to benefit from continuous mid-assessment feedback, which serves to best demonstrate the adversarial nature of the legal system and the demands placed on lawyers to provide clear, simple, usable legal advice – a skill best learned in the ECCA authentic assessment environment, rather than in the artificial ‘one-shot’ approach to traditional coursework and paper-based exam assessments, which provides primarily a summative assessment and/or a weak/unusable formative element in future assessments. Further benefits, such as increased confidence in critical reasoning skills, also improves the students’ academic performance.Since authentic assessment is a two-way process, the authors assert that the deployed techniques improve teaching performance on the law degree programmes by encouraging the identification of crucial critical analysis points in legal topics, and rewarding the construction of legal arguments. The authors have constructed a set of interactive questions which demonstrates that traditional paper-based assessment strategies are not the optimum way to monitor and improve teaching practices, and that authentic assessment, when used in conjunction with ECCAs, improves student performance on the academic law degree programme.
    Keywords: Authentic assessment, co-curricular activities, enhanced student performance, enhanced teaching performance
    JEL: I21 I23
  23. By: Grey Gordon (Indiana University); Aaron Hedlund (University of Missouri)
    Abstract: We develop a quantitative model of higher education to test explanations for the steep rise in college tuition between 1987 and 2010. The framework extends the quality maximizing college paradigm of Epple, Romano, Sarpca, and Sieg (2013) and embeds it in an incomplete markets, life-cycle environment. We measure how much changes in underlying costs, reforms to the Federal Student Loan Program (FSLP), and changes in the college earnings premium have caused tuition to increase. All these changes combined generate a 106% rise in net tuition between 1987 and 2010, which more than accounts for the 78% increase seen in the data. Changes in the FSLP alone generate a 102% tuition increase, and changes in the college premium generate a 24% increase. Our ?ndings cast doubt on Baumol’s cost disease as a driver of higher tuition.
    Keywords: Higher Education, College Costs, Tuition, Student Loans
    JEL: E21 G11 D40 D58
    Date: 2015–09–28
  24. By: Dan S. Rickman (Oklahoma State University); Hongbo Wang (Oklahoma State University); John V. Winters (Oklahoma State University)
    Abstract: Using the Synthetic Control Method (SCM) and a novel method for measuring changes in educational attainment we examine the link between educational attainment and shale oil and gas extraction for the states of Montana, North Dakota, and West Virginia. The three states examined are economically-small, relatively more rural, and have high levels of shale oil and gas reserves. They also are varied in that West Virginia is intensive in shale gas extraction, while the other two are intensive in shale oil extraction. We find significant reductions in high school and college attainment among all three states’ initial residents because of the shale booms.
    Keywords: shale development, energy boom, human capital, education; synthetic control method
    JEL: I2 Q4 R1
    Date: 2015–10
  25. By: Wennström, Johan (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: New Public Management (NPM) reforms have emerged in the public administration systems of many Western countries in recent decades. The dominant view in international research on NPM is that these reforms are the product of neo-liberal ideas. In this article, I set out to nuance this view by studying the political ideas that paved the way for NPM in the Swedish school system. I analyze political books and articles on teaching and education and find that both Left and Right views on education are congruent with the central aspects of NPM as it is commonly defined and operationalized. This finding casts the ideological basis for NPM reforms in a new light, at least in the context of the Swedish school system.
    Keywords: New Public Management; Education; Teachers; Intrinsic motivation
    JEL: B24 H83 I20
    Date: 2015–10–09
  26. By: Wilaiwan Teanpranomkorn (Faculty of Education Srinakharinwirot University); Jaruwan Ployduangrat (Faculty of Education Srinakharinwirot University)
    Abstract: This research to study elements of multicultural leadership of school administrators under the department of education bangkok The purpose of research were to study the elements of multicultural leadership of school administrators under the department of education bangkok. Method comprised of 3 steps: 1. The study analyzed the synthesis and related research 2. Expert interviews for 12 people. 3. The results of the study of documents and interviews. The instruments used were the interviews. The results showed that : the elements of multicultural leadership of school administrators under the department of education bangkok There are 4 factors 15 variables. 1. Multicultural Competencies: Multicultural awareness, Multicultural knowledge , Multicultural skill. 2. Diversity Management: Commitment from Leadership, Part of Strategic Plan, Recruitment, Employee involvement, Diversity Training, Accountability and measurement. 3. Trust: Competence, Character. 4. Vision-oriented leadership: Communication, Empowerment, Create Image, Determining achieve the goal.
    Keywords: Multicultural Leadership, School Principals , Leadership , Principals Leadership
  27. By: Mu,Ren; Du,Yang
    Abstract: When social security is established to provide pensions to parents, their reliance upon children for future financial support decreases, and their need to save for retirement also falls. In this study, the expansion of pension coverage from the state sector to the non-state sector in urban China is used as a quasi-experiment to analyze the intergenerational impact of social security on education investments in children. In a difference-in-differences framework, a significant increase in the total education expenditure is found to be attributable to pension expansion. The results are unlikely to be driven by other observable trends. They are robust to the inclusion of a large set of control variables and to different specifications, including one based on the instrumental variable method.
    Keywords: Debt Markets,Youth and Government,Pensions&Retirement Systems,Population&Development,Primary Education
    Date: 2015–10–26
  28. By: Balazs Kotosz; Marie-France Gaunard-Anderson; Miklos Lukovics
    Abstract: Nowadays the realization that certain economic units, universities or other objects have impact on the economy of their region comes more and more into prominence. A growing demand appears to generate more precise studies regarding the quantification of economic impact of these entities. The topic of the examination of economic impact is especially interesting and exciting when we can compare regions with different level of development, but with the presence of an internationally successful university. The local economic impact of a large tertiary education institution such as a university is an issue which has attracted considerable attention in literature. Different methods used in literature make results hardly comparable, we use the same method to investigate universities in different countries: in the lack of regional input-output matrices a multiplier based approach for first and second missions (education and research), while an application of Jongbloed?s indicator set for third mission. Generally, there are four substantial problems. First, the definition of impact, second, measuring and estimating first-round expenditures and avoiding double-counting, third, estimating the correct value of the multiplier, fourth, the quantification of the third mission activities. The economic impact study has become a standard tool used by Western universities to persuade state legislatures of the importance of expenditures on higher education. As economic impact studies become a political tool in the review of education, conservative assumptions and methods should be used to promote objectivity in the research process. The goal of our study is to unravel the effects and impact of the University of Szeged (Hungary) and the University of Lorraine (France) regarding their local economy. The topic is quite unique, as the NUTS2 regions in which the examined universities are located in a lagging behind region compared to national average, but per capita GDP is 3.6 higher in Lorraine. On the other hand these universities have the institutional ranking around the 500th place as published on the Academic Ranking of World Universities and employers of about 7000 employees. The socio-economic welfare of the region supposedly depends on the university in Hungary, nevertheless the same amplitude in France. The goal of the study is to attempt the quantification of this presumption. As our results show, the impact per student is in the same magnitude in both countries, however third mission is much more implemented in France. The reasons of this difference can be found in historical facts and in different level of economic development.
    Keywords: regional economics; multipliers; university; economic impact
    JEL: C81 I23 I25 R11
    Date: 2015–10
  29. By: Warintorn Phon-noi (Faculty of Education, Srinakharinwirot University)
    Abstract: This research aims to develop enrichment curriculum for complementary competencies in Thai Language by using collaborative learning via the Internet for Student Undergraduate Teaching Profession, Srinakharinwirot University. Conducted by the research and development process is divided into four stages include. Step 1: The literature and research related to enrichment curriculum development. Step 2: Expert opinions about the use of Thai language competency needed and the promotion of Thai language competency for student undergraduate teachingprofession. Step 3: Studies to strengthen the Thai language competencies of student Undergraduate teaching profession. Step 4: Enrichment curriculum sketch to develop Thai language competency by cooperative learning through the Internet for teacher students and improvement. The sample of students who study teaching undergraduate first-year students in 2014, 60 were selected by purposive sampling and includes teaching professionals and Thai language experts. Curriculum developed structures include the rationale of the courses, basic concepts in curriculum development and enhance collaborative learning via the Internet, the purpose of the curriculum aimed at developing competencies in Thai language, knowledge skills and attitude towards Thai. The course consists of five modules were included grammar of Thai language, developing listening skills, the development of speaking skills, developing reading skills and the development of writing skills. It takes four hours to one module, a total of five modules consists of 20 hours. Each module contains a description of the module, learning objectives, content outline, collaborative learning activities on the Internet, learning media and measurement and evaluation of learning.
    Keywords: Enrichment Curriculum, Thai Language Competency, Collaborative learning, Internet, Student Undergraduate Teaching Profession
  30. By: Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger
    Abstract: This paper exploits the unexpected decline of deaths from cardiovascular diseases since the 1970s as a large positive health shock that affected predominantly old-age mortality; i.e., the fourth stage of the epidemiological transition. Using a differences-in-differences estimation strategy, we find that U.S. states with higher levels of cardiovascular-disease mortality prior the 1970s experienced greater increases in adultlife expectancy and higher education enrollment. Our estimates suggest that the cardiovascular revolution caused an increase in life expectancy of 1.5 years and an increase in education enrollment of 9 percentage points, i.e. 52 percent of the observed increase from 1960 to 2000.
    Keywords: adult life expectancy,higher education,cardiovascular diseases,differences-in-differences strategy
    JEL: I15 J24 N30 O10 O40
    Date: 2015
  31. By: Aldo Geuna (Department of Economics; Statistics Cognetti De Martiis, University of Torino); Matteo Piolatto (Department of Social and Political Studies, University of Milan)
    Abstract: This paper provides a comparative analysis of the development of the UK and Italian university research funding systems with a special focus on Peer Review-Based Research Assessment (PRBRA) and its cost. Much of the debate surrounding the value of performance-based allocation systems hinges on the disadvantages versus the benefits of their implementation, and there is very little evidence on either their absolute cost or their cost relative to other allocation systems. Our objective is to fill this gap, collating the best possible estimates of the costs of alternative research funding methods to inform the ongoing policy debate. First, we compare funding in the UK and Italy during the period 2005-2012 and analyze the development of performance-based allocation in the two systems. Second, based on public reports and documents collected from universities, we discuss the public agency and university costs of RAE2008 and REF2014 and provide some estimates for VQR2012. We find that RAE2008 costs accounted for less than 1% of the total performance allocation in the related period while the VQR2012 efficiency ratio is estimated at around 2.5%. Finally, we compare the costs and efficiency ratios of PRBRA with metrics-based assessment and Research Council allocations and show that costs increase going from metrics to PRBRA to Research Council allocation.
    Keywords: Higher Education Policy, Public Funding, Research Assessment, University Research challenges, public finance, financialisation, innovation
    JEL: I2 Z18 H5
    Date: 2015–10
  32. By: Aleksandra Tabaj (University Rehabilitation Institute Republic of Slovenia)
    Abstract: The purpose is to present the transition of youth with disabilities from education to labour market in Slovenia. Youth unemployment during last years increased in all parts of the world, with the impact of prolonging the duration of unemployment. The programme presented is based on connecting vocational rehabilitation, education institutions and labour market as the key to successful integration into labour.In Slovenia, the transition of youth with disabilities from school to the labour market has not been satisfactory. Youth with disabilities are often left to themselves after finishing the education. Many of them stay at home, some register at the Employment Service of Slovenia, others enter vocational rehabilitation programs, and rare individuals become employed. Often a young person enters vocational rehabilitation after many years of having stayed at home unemployed and having lost the basic employability skills, professional knowledge, working habits and confidence.The action research theory was set as a framework for the training model. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Participants were trainers (15) and young people with disabilities (50) in the education system.To implement a successful and effective practice model of the transition of youth from school to labour in Slovenia, Racio Social, University Rehabilitation Institute and Auris launched a three-year project which started in December 2011 and closed in December 2013.The project comprised an analysis of the current transition from school to the Slovene labour market, theoretical and practice models, presentation of global good practices and a training program for transition trainers. At first, trainers were given training for working with transition of youth PwD. Young people with disabilities met with employers and gained practical insight into what awaits them when they successfully complete their studies and become active job seekers.A possible solution of vocational rehabilitation from education to labour market is presented.
    Keywords: vocational rehabilitation, persons with disability, youth, transition from education to labour market
    JEL: E24
  33. By: Tullio Jappelli (Università di Napoli Federico II, CSEF and CEPR); Carmela Anna Nappi (ANVUR); Roberto Torrini (ANVUR)
    Abstract: The literature on the gender gap in science reveals differences in wages, productivity, access to funding and impact on the scientific community that disadvantage women. This paper contributes to work on the gender gap in science by investigating issues such as the presence of differences in research quality between genders, the effect of family responsibilities on research quality, differences in collaborations and international co-authorships, the effect of evaluation methodology, i.e. whether bibliometric evaluation disadvantages women, and the presence of discrimination defined by referees’ gender. We use the data from the National Research Assessment (VQR 2004-2010) conducted by the Italian Agency for the Evaluation of Universities and Research Institutes. These rich data allow us to control for individual variables, research output characteristics and university and scientific sector fixed effects. We find that gender differences in research quality are reduced if we control for researchers' observable characteristics, evaluation method, and referees. In particular, we find that maternity and the intensity of research collaborations and international co-authorships play no role in explaining research quality differences. Further analysis of a random sample of papers evaluated using bibliometric indicators and peer review reveals that bibliometric evaluation does not penalize women with respect to men.
    Keywords: household saving, household debt, financial fragility, pension reforms
    Date: 2015–10–25
  34. By: Satoshi Tanaka (University of Queensland); David Wiczer (FRB St. Louis); Burhanettin Kuruscu (University of Toronto); Fatih Guvenen (University of Minnesota)
    Abstract: This paper studies workers' occupational switching behavior and how lifetime earnings inequality is affected by the match between workers' ability and the skills required by their occupation. Using Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB), O*NET, and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), we create empirical measures of the match quality between each worker's ability and the skills emphasized by his/her occupation, and analyze their effects on workers' labor market outcomes. We find that low match quality---what we also call 'skill mismatch'---between one's skills and required occupational skills reduces wage growth during an occupational tenure. Furthermore there is a persistence across occupations: match quality in occupations held early in life has a strong effect on wages in future occupations. We view these findings within the context of a general equilibrium model of occupational choice and human capital accumulation. We believe that our study sheds light on the importance of (i) occupational match on determination of wages, and (ii) workers' learning on their ability and the skills required by occupations.
    Date: 2015
  35. By: Rita van Deuren (Maastricht School of Management, PO Box 1203, 6201 BE Maastricht, Netherlands. +31 43 38 70 808, E-mail:; Tsegazeab Kashu Abay; Seid Mohammed
    Abstract: Design of an organisational capacity assessment tool for enhanced leadership and management in Ethiopian new public universities The Ethiopian higher education system has realized enormous growth in the recent years and its future ambitions require additional capacity development in quality and in quantity. In planning and monitoring capacity development, organisational assessment plays a major role. This paper outlines the design of on organisational capacity assessment tool for Ethiopian new public universities following a six-step design oriented research approach in which empirical research contributes to decision making in the design process.
    Date: 2015–10
  36. By: Dafeng Xu
    Abstract: Prior empirical research shows that acculturation in the host country might be positively related to immigrants? labor market outcomes. However, whether acculturation helps highly educated immigrants in the labor market is in question, as they have completed a significant fraction of human capital accumulation in their home country. In this paper, I attempt to identify the effect of acculturation on labor market outcomes of Chinese students with bachelor?s degrees in Chinese colleges and graduate degrees in US schools. Acculturation is measured by the use of Westernized names on the online social networking site. Various statistical models show no evidence that the use of Westernized names has significant impacts on labor market outcomes.
    Keywords: J1 J6 Z1
    Date: 2015–10
  37. By: Reny Radkova (University of Sofia St. Kliment Ohridski)
    Abstract: The focus in the suggested research is on the role of intercultural communication in English language education and the program of English teacher assistant (ETA), which is part of the international Fulbright educational exchange in Bulgaria, for the enhancement of intercultural competence. It will present not only the context of English language acquisition in Bulgaria, but also the development of multicultural awareness and tolerance in the language classroom. The new concepts of teaching intercultural communication and competence promote the idea that they are not free from language learning and language-in-culture. The main goal of the ETA program is to improve the quality of English language teaching and learning in Bulgaria by assigning native speakers with adequate academic credentials to (English) language high schools all over the country and especially in underdeveloped regions. This model has real importance as it represents training by native speaker who functions as an intercultural moderator.The main goals of the research are:•To promote the Fulbright program •To strengthen educational advising.•To promote cultural sensitivity among Americans and Bulgarians.English language skills and intercultural communication should better be taught by native speakers. It is not only because they are a priceless tool and a natural way for learning English, but meanwhile they teach intercultural communication and intercultural competence. Also they use interactive and productive methods of teaching and presenting American and British culture and conversational English. As a part of the Fulbright program ETA gives the students, mentor teachers, teacher stuff, and the local community the possibility to stay in touch with English and American language and culture, thus imperceptibly enhancing intercultural competence.
    Keywords: English; Bulgarian; intercultural communication; intercultural competence; Fulbright educational exchange;
  38. By: Wijit Chalopatham (Srinakharinwirot University,Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary)); Warintorn Phon-Noi (Faculty of Education, Srinakharinwirot University); Jaruwan Ployduangrat (Faculty of Education, Srinakharinwirot University)
    Abstract: This research aims to study the performance the information and communications technology (ICT) for teacher students . The the data collection information from education research papers related to and interviews depth technical expertise in the ICT. To determine the physical the ICT for teacher students. The results showed that performance of the information and communications technology (ICT) for teacher students are offered.1 ) contain substantive knowledge of architecture or architectural information , communication technology, the design of the course on the Web. 2 ) skills include knowledge, to create the product knowledge, storage and night knowledge , knowledge exchange and collaboration with others ,integrating knowledge and to communicate with others. 3 ) Attitudes toward the information and communications technology include the desire to know .The regular class activities,to create the creation portfolio using information and communications technology (ICT) , trying to solve the problem occurs, have confidence in the use of information and communications technology (ICT). The results of the research will use the information in curriculum development to develop teacher students .
    Keywords: Information Communication Technology, Competency for Students Of Teaching Profession, Students Of Teaching Profession, Engineering, teachers students, ICT competency
  39. By: Gabrielle Fack (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics); Julien Grenet (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics); Yinghua He (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - Toulouse School of Economics)
    Abstract: We propose novel approaches and tests for estimating student preferences with data from school choice mechanisms, e.g., the Gale-Shapley Deferred Acceptance. Without requiring truth-telling to be the unique equilibrium, we show that the matching is (asymptotically) stable, or justified-envy-free, implying that every student is assigned to her favorite school among those she is qualified for ex post. Having validated the methods in simulations, we apply them to data from Paris and reject truth-telling but not stability. Our estimates are then used to compare the sorting and welfare effects of alternative admission criteria prescribing how schools rank students in centralized mechanisms.
    Keywords: Gale-Shapley Deferred Acceptance Mechanism,School Choice,Stable Matching,Student Preferences,Admission Criteria,C78, D47, D50, D61, I21
    Date: 2015–10
  40. By: Garcia Renato; Araujo Veneziano; Mascarini Suelene; Santos Emerson; Costa Ariana
    Abstract: University has being playing an increasing role in supporting innovation. In this way, university-industry linkages has become a growing subject in the literature, in order to understand how these relationships are shaped on space. Recent issue is about the role of geographical distribution of these relations, since geographical proximity can provide important benefits for firms in accessing these sources of information and new knowledge. The aim of this paper is to examine the main factors that affect geographical distance of university-industry linkages, by analysing both sides of collaboration, the characteristics of firms and universities. Several studies show that there are important benefits related to the co-location of firms? R&D staff and academic researchers (Jaffe, 1989; Audrescht & Feldman, 1996; Arundel & Geuna, 2004; D?Este & Iamarino, 2010; De Fuentes & Dutrenit, 2014). However, recent analyses show that, several times, firms prefer to collaborate with geographically distant universities, since there are some factors that stimulate firms to go far to interact with university (D?Este & Iamarino, 2010; Laursen et al, 2011; Muscio, 2013). Hence, the main question that the literature are trying to answer is why firms go far to interact with university. General results points to two main drivers. First, firms look for distant universities when they cannot find local high-performance academic research. Second, firms must have high absorptive capacity in order to be able to search for universities that are able to solve their innovative problems. Previous studies show important evidence to this debate. However, they left an important gap that requires deeper analysis, since evidence presented in previous studies are based only on information about the university (D?Este & Iammarino, 2010; Muscio, 2013) or only of the firm (Laursen et al, 2011; De Fuentes & Dutrenit, 2014). Linked to this issue, this paper aims to contribute to this debate not only by presenting new evidence on the main drivers of the pattern of geographical distance of university-industry linkages, but also by presenting a comprehensive analysis of the collaboration by using complete information of both universities and firms. To do that, a wide-ranging database of interactions between university and industry was used in the scientific fields of Engineering and Agrarian Sciences in Brazil. Main results of the empirical analysis show that bigger firms with higher absorptive capacity tend to interact with more distant research groups, which shows the importance of the skills of the firm to find universities, local or distant, that are able to solve their innovative problems. On the side of the university, larger research groups and those who perform higher quality academic research presents higher average geographical distance of interactions, which shows that they are able to attract more distant firms to collaborate.
    Keywords: O18
    JEL: R12
    Date: 2015–10
  41. By: Fabrizio Pompei (University of Perugia); Ekaterina Selezneva
    Abstract: This paper analyses the influence of country-level education mismatch on the individual-level relationship between education and the probability of being unemployed or staying in alternative labour statuses, for young people aged 15–34 in 2006, 2008 and 2010, living in 21 EU countries. We assume that young people may fall in five labour market statuses: 1) Employee;2) Self-employed; 3) Unemployed; 4) In Education; 5) Inactive, and perform a multinomial logit model to study the effects of years of education on relative probability of being in labour statuses 2, 3, 4, or 5, compared to the base category (Employee). Afterwards, we interact the individual-level years of education with a country-level indicator of education mismatch in order to identify the heterogeneous effects of the aggregate mismatch among people with different educational attainments. Results show that more years of education: i) reduce the relative probability of being unemployed; ii) have a cumulative effect by extending the period of education; iii) slightly raise the relative probability to be self-employed. As regards country-level education mismatch, we found that only after 2008 it produces an additional effect on better educated young people by further reducing their relative unemployment risk when it is compared to that of low educated youngsters. This outcome tells us that improving access to university degrees remains the main road to tackle youth unemployment caused by education mismatch, even after the outburst of the current financial and economic crisis.
    Keywords: youth unemployment, education mismatch, multinomial logit mode
    JEL: I20 J24 Z13
    Date: 2015–07
  42. By: Edmore Kori (Department of Geography and Geo-Information Sciences, University of Venda)
    Abstract: Academic freedom can be defined as the absence of outside interference, censure or obstacles in the pursuit and practice of academic work. This freedom is embedded in the right to education. The United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights views education as a window to other rights. Institutional autonomy speaks to self-regulation or the right of self-government; self-determination; autonomy with respect to local or internal matters. Academic freedom (and institutional autonomy) is a constitutional right in South Africa. There is debate whether there is a threat to the constitutionally guaranteed academic freedom in South Africa. This comes from the background that universities often function as centres of political and intellectual dissent, and regimes are thus reluctant to allow institutions the freedom and autonomy that may contribute to instability. This paper looks at academic freedom and institutional autonomy in South Africa before and after 1994. The pre-1994 era grouped the universities into two – the open universities, which enjoyed many privileges and the “other” universities which were tightly controlled by the government. The post-1994 era saw the national Constitution guaranteeing academic freedom. The new government adopted new policies creating a unitary tertiary education system. This was built around the “cooperative governance” framework. However, with dynamics in the higher education system, this framework had to be amended. The amendments give the government more powers to intervene where necessary. Whatever justification, increased government involvement has implications on academic freedom and institutional autonomy.
    Keywords: freedom; autonomy, academic, university; higher education

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