nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2015‒10‒10
forty-nine papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Effects of State Merit Aid Programs on Attendance at Elite Colleges By Sjoquist, David L.; Winters, John V.
  3. Teacher education for global citizenship: A case study of foreign language teachers preparing our young learners for new brave, new globalised world. By Teresa De Fazio
  4. History of Traditional and Modern High Education in Iran: An Analitical Survey By Mohsen Modir Shanechi
  5. The introduction of academy schools to England’s education By Andrew Eyles; Stephen Machin
  6. Stress among Medical Students in the Deep South of Thailand By Norman Mudor; Adhhiyah Mudor
  7. How do differences in social and cultural background influence access to higher education and the completion of studies? By OECD
  8. Interpretation of Pleasure Time By Zsófia Csiszár
  9. College Major Choice, Spatial Inequality and Elite Formation: Evidence from South Africa By Biniam B. Bedasso
  10. Lifting the Iron Curtain: School-Age Education and Entrepreneurial Intentions By Falck, Oliver; Gold, Robert; Heblich, Stephan
  11. Explaining (in)efficiency in higher education: a comparison of parametric and non-parametric analyses to rank universities By Barra, Cristian; Lagravinese, Raffaele; Zotti, Roberto
  12. Where has all the education gone? Nowhere, but too much By HONGCHUN ZHAO
  13. Determinants of School Enrollment of Girls in Rural Yemen: Parental Aspirations and Attitudes toward Girls’ Education By Igei, Kengo; Yuki, Takako
  14. The project program in the model of education of teachers in Western Hungary By Ildiko Koos
  15. Crime, Compulsory Schooling Laws and Education By Brian Bell; Rui Costa; Stephen Machin
  16. Long-Term Direct and Spillover Effects of Job Training: Experimental Evidence from Colombia By Herrera Prada, Luis Omar; Kugler, Adriana D.; Kugler, Maurice; Saavedra, Juan Esteban
  17. Race, Class, Gender, and the Happiness of College Students By Owen, Ann L.; Handley-Miner, Isaac
  18. Occupational Attainment and Earnings among Immigrant Groups: Evidence from New Zealand By Maani, Sholeh A.; Dai, Mengyu; Inkson, Kerr
  19. Reform Strategies of Medical Education in Egypt By Shahira Elshafie
  20. Academic apprenticeship: Developing novice academic teaching and research skills through a focussed mentoring program By Teresa De Fazio
  21. Donors and Founders on Charter School Boards and Their Impact on Financial and Academic Outcomes By Elif Sisli Ciamarra; Charisse Glosino
  22. Academies 2: the new batch By Andrew Eyles; Stephen Machin; Olmo Silva
  23. Education and Criminal Behavior: Insights from an Expansion of Upper Secondary School By Aslund, Olof; Grönqvist, Hans; Hall, Caroline; Vlachos, Jonas
  24. L’intention de création de spin-offs académiques : le cas des établissements supérieurs bas-normands By Jean Bonnet
  25. Inequality of Opportunities of Educational Achievement in Turkey over Time By Aysit Tansel
  26. The Unfolding of Gender Gap in Education By Nadir Altinok; Abdurrahman Aydemir
  27. The Views of University Students towards Public Relations Profession and Its Practitioners By Omer Bakan; Ahmet Tarhan; Kadir Canoz
  28. Education and Marriage Decisions of Japanese Women and the Role of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act By Linda N. Edwards; Takuya Hasebe; Tadashi Sakai
  29. Elearning Creativity evaluation methods in organizations By FARIBA FATTAHZADEH
  30. Examining Teachers' Organizational Socialization Levels In Terms Of Various Variables By Elif Aydo
  31. Procedures vs. Incentives: The Case of the University Promotion System in Italy By dal Maso, Carlo; Rettore, Enrico; Rocco, Lorenzo
  32. Laboratory measure of cheating predicts misbehavior at school By Alain Cohn; Michel André Maréchal
  33. Post-Secondary Education and Information on Labor Market Prospects: A Randomized Field Experiment By Pekkala Kerr, Sari; Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Sarvimäki, Matti; Uusitalo, Roope
  34. Volatilities of Investment in Human Capital on Iran’s Economic Growth: A Bound Testing approach and GARCH Mod By Mosayeb Pahlavani
  35. The Correlation between school directors’ Patternalist Leadership level and the teachers’ organization sinism By Aynur B. BOSTANCI; Önder ARSLAN
  36. The Youngest Get the Pill: ADHD Misdiagnosis and the Production of Education in Germany By Schwandt, Hannes; Wuppermann, Amelie
  37. Undergraduates’ Achievement Goal Orientations, Academic Self-Efficacy and Hope as the Predictors of Their Learning Approaches By Makbule Kali Soyer; Berke Kirikkanat
  38. Education to bridge Socio-Economic Gap: in the context of Naxalism in India By Aishwarya Diwan; Rajnandini Shukla; Aishwarya Diwan
  39. Making Effective Use of Postsecondary Data in K-12 Education Settings By Luke Heinkel; Kristin Hallgren; Brian Gill; Megan Shoji
  40. Changes and determinants of teacher’s burnout syndrome By Anita Holecz
  41. Advancing research through a university-community partnership By Catherine N Dulmus; Maria Cristalli
  42. Wage Gaps between Native and Migrant Graduates of Higher Education Institutions in the Netherlands By Gheasi, Masood; Nijkamp, Peter; Rietveld, Piet
  43. What We Know About Data-Driven Decision Making In Higher Education: Informing Educational Policy and Practice By Jana Bouwma-Gearhart; Jennifer Collins
  44. Your Move: The Effect of Chess on Mathematics Test Scores By Gumede, Kamilla; Rosholm, Michael
  45. Academic achievement trajectories and risk factors during early childhood By Laëtitia Lebihan; Charles Olivier Mao Takongmo
  46. Heterogeneity of Skill Needs and Job Complexity: Evidence from the OECD PIAAC Survey By Pouliakas, Konstantinos; Russo, Giovanni
  47. Social Infrastracture the case of Higher Education in Ethiopia By Tekalign Gidi Kure
  48. The Impact of Early Childbearing on Schooling and Cognitive Skills among Young Women in Madagascar By Herrera, Catalina; Sahn, David E.
  49. E-Assessment for Learning: An Online Assessment for Science Literacy (OASL) By Kuan-Ming Chen

  1. By: Sjoquist, David L. (Georgia State University); Winters, John V. (Oklahoma State University)
    Abstract: State merit aid programs have been found to reduce the likelihood that students attend college out-of-state. Using the U.S. News & World Report rankings of colleges and universities to measure college quality and Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System data to measure enrollment, we explore how this reduction in out-of-state enrollment differs by the academic quality of the institution. Our results suggest that state merit aid programs do not reduce the likelihood that a student attends a top ranked school, but that these programs do reduce the likelihood of enrolling at less prestigious out-of-state schools, with generally larger effects the lower the ranking of the schools.
    Keywords: merit aid, college choice, college quality, elite college
    JEL: H31 I22 J24
    Date: 2015–09
  2. By: Fadia Nasser-Abu Alhija (Tel Aviv University)
    Abstract: Effective or quality teaching is considered as essential for student learning, academic attainment, and contribution to society. Much of the research on university teaching has been devoted to investigating faculty views of regarding quality teaching, outstanding teachers and students' satisfaction. In order to translate findings regarding student satisfaction to actions for advancing quality teaching, it is crucial to learn about students' perceptions of quality teaching. In other words, issues related to major components of quality teaching and thinks that teachers should do in order to excel still to be addressed. An internet survey was forwarded during the year 2014 to students in all higher education institutions in Israel. The sample included 2475 participants who are distributed by gender, age, type of higher education institution, field of study, type of degree and year of study. A two-part internet survey was used. The first part included questions concerning students' personal and academic background variables (gender, age, higher education institution, field of study, degree, and year of study). The second part included 29 items referring to six dimensions of quality teaching: intellectually challenging teaching, advancing non-academic skills, fostering creative thinking, constructive relations with students, clear instruction, and valid and reliable assessment. Reliability coefficients (Cronbach's
    Keywords: Good teaching, higher education, students' perceptions, teaching dimensions
  3. By: Teresa De Fazio (Victoria University)
    Abstract: From a socio-cultural perspective, language teachers take up the responsibility of mediating and supporting a student’s language learning by designing a curriculum which goes further than just teaching the linguistic elements of a language. When language teachers draw on culture and interculturality, language becomes an instrument whilst social interaction becomes a significant driver for meaningful communication. Australia is one of the most culturally diverse nations in the world. 23% of the population is overseas born and 25% of the Australian born has at least one or both parents born overseas. Across the total Australian school population, about 25% of all students are of a language background other than English. In short, Australian classrooms have a linguistic and cultural richness which brings a unique vibrancy to the classroom. However, schools are also aware of the unique position they are in understanding and engaging young learners in mainstream society. This paper proposes that language teachers are in a unique yet often, undervalued position of being multicultural educators as well as language educators. Further, that language teachers are often powerful mediators of a student’s entry into global citizenship. This paper reports on a case study of a pilot program where primary school teachers (elementary level) of various languages took up the challenge of addressing issues of multicultural awareness, global citizenship and interculturality through the development of communicative competence in the target language. It looks at how these teachers drew on strategies that connect culture and language in a way that moves the student towards cognitive, social and personal development whilst learning the language. The case study provides insights into a model and considerations that might be used in professional learning and teacher education courses to help students negotiate their own lived experience and entry to what is often a new linguistic and socio-cultural context for students. The case study demonstrates that teacher education has a particular role to play in preparing teachers to establishing a classroom culture of respect and cultural curiosity via subtle but considered themes around interculturality and citizenship. Moreover, that the languages teacher plays a strong role in facilitating a student’s sense of these concepts and engagement in an increasing multicultural society.
    Keywords: teacher education, socio-cultural theory, globalisation, multiculturalism, intercultural education, languages, citizenship, distributed leadership model
    JEL: F01 A00
  4. By: Mohsen Modir Shanechi (Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University)
    Abstract: History of Traditional and Modern High Education in Iran: An Analytical Survey Mohsen Modir Shanechi, Ph.D. Department of Political Science, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran AbstractIn this article, after mentioning a brief history of Iranian education and schools from ancient to contemporary times, dispatching students abroad and establishing modern high schools in Qajar era has considered. Then founding Tehran University as the first modern university of Iran, other universities outside Tehran and establishing non- governmental universities as well as academic and educational style of them has studied. Islamic revolution of 1979, cultural revolution, Islamization of educational programs and founding related centers is the later discourse of the article. Finally, establishing Azad University as a great non- governmental university and its status is considered. The article ends in mentioning the role and function of Iranian high educational institutions in cultural and social development of the country
    Keywords: high education, ancient universities, modern universities
    JEL: I23 I23 I20
  5. By: Andrew Eyles; Stephen Machin
    Abstract: We study the origins of what has become one of the most radical and encompassing programmes of school reform seen in the recent past amongst advanced countries – the introduction of academy schools to English secondary education. Academies are state schools that are allowed to run in an autonomous manner which is free from local authority control. Almost all academies are conversions from already existent state schools and so are school takeovers that enable more autonomy. Our analysis shows that this first round of academy conversions that took place in the 2000s generated significant improvements in the quality of pupil intake and in pupil performance. There is evidence of heterogeneity as improvements only occur for schools experiencing the largest increase in their school autonomy relative to their predecessor state. Analysis of mechanisms points to changes in head teachers and management structure as key factors underpinning these improvements in pupil outcomes.
    Keywords: Academies; pupil intake; pupil performance
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2015–08
  6. By: Norman Mudor (Medical Education Center, Yala Hospital); Adhhiyah Mudor (Sirindhorn College of Public Health Yala)
    Abstract: Medicine has been widely known as a high stress profession and medical school is often where stress begins. Identifying the common stressors among the medical students in our Medical Education Center, would help the supervisors to develop the suitable curriculum structure. This study aims to investigate the perceived sources of stress among 4th and 5th year medical student at Medical Education Center, Yala Hospital, Thailand, and to compare if the student with different gender, religion and study year perceives the source of stress differently. A descriptive cross sectional quantitative study was conducted using a 40 items self administered questionnaire adapted from the Medical Student Stressor Questionnaire (MSSQ). The determinants are gender, religion and the study year. T-test was used for analyzing the difference in group. A 92.73% response rate was obtained. The results indicated that falling behind in reading schedule, test and examination, large amount of content to be learnt, national test exam, and lack of time to review what have been learnt were the first five commonest stressors for students. Interestingly, the Muslim students had significantly higher total stress scores than Buddhist students, and the fifth year students had significantly higher stress than the fourth year students. In contrast, gender did not associated with the total stress scores. Medical instructor should design and develop a curriculum structure which is enhancing the student’s well being and focus on academic and clinical performance for producing graduates with a positive professional attitude.
    Keywords: stress, the Medical Student Stressor Questionnaire, medical student.
  7. By: OECD
    Abstract: Parents’ level of education still greatly influences that of their children: individuals are 4.5 times more likely to attend higher education if one of their parents has a higher education degree than if both their parents have below upper secondary education. Inequalities in higher education reflect to a great extent what happened earlier in an educational career. Upper secondary students from disadvantaged backgrounds are less likely to perform well in PISA assessments, less likely to complete upper secondary education and less likely even to aspire to attend higher education. Nevertheless, higher education institutions still have an important role to play in reducing inequalities. Policies must aim to make higher education more accessible for students from disadvantaged backgrounds as well as to support these students and improve their success at this level.
    Date: 2015–10
  8. By: Zsófia Csiszár (University of West Hungary - Savaria Campus)
    Abstract: In recent times museums – with their unique and special world, functioned as a kind of learning scene - play central roal in formal education. Museums open and change more and more with the aim to receive a wider scale of visitors. Discovering learning lays stress upon the active and information-searching self of children and students. Contemporary pedagogy puts the active learning with objects and interactivity into the centre of the learning process. Children are more sensitive to receive new knowledge in such an environment that gives the experience through direct, practical activity and training. Museumpedagogy is a tendency in pedagogy that helps even small kids to be sensitive to previous times by showing their collections based on acquiring knowldege and also with the help of infrastructural opportunities. In my lecture I would like to search and show some possibilities that are hidden in museumpedagogy and are capable to widen educational work. I am going to show all this through the museumpadagogical supply of Savaria City Museum. I am also going to reveal the connection-system within Szombathely, through which experience, knowledge and a special athmosphere gets to kids and families. Finally I am going to deal with museumandragogy as well. Basing museumandragogy on museumpedagogy is significant. My research focuses on the programmes of Savaria City Museum, on its relationship with the educational institutions of the city and on the museum’s efforts to form adults’ personality. The following institutions and people took part in the research: the teachers and pupils of Zrínyi Ilona Primary School, the educators of Aréna and Donászy Magda Kindergarden (questionarre) and the educators of the museum (interview).I draw up my statements about the possibilities of delivering knowledge not only in institutional frames by valuing their opinions and by taking my own experiences into consideration. One of my students helped me to prepare the research and agreed to publish it.
    Keywords: education, life long learning, interpretation, interactivity, museumpedagogy, contemporary pedagogy
    JEL: I29
  9. By: Biniam B. Bedasso
    Abstract: This paper explores the determinants of college major choice in the presence of significant inter-group and spatial inequalities. I combine four years of admissions application data at an elite university in South Africa with quarterly labor force data to trace the link between aptitude-weighted expected earnings, spatial inequality and the choice of college major. The results show that much of the effect of expected earnings on college major choice operates through the choice of high school curriculum. Black and white individuals respond to differentials in expected earnings differently. Spatial inequality influences major choice through high school curriculum, near-peer role models and relative achievement at high school level. Identification is achieved through the help of a rich set of academic and geographic information contained in the admissions database.
    Keywords: College majors; Spatial inequality; Expected earnings; Non-market returns; South Africa
    JEL: J24 R23
    Date: 2015
  10. By: Falck, Oliver (Ifo Institute for Economic Research); Gold, Robert (Kiel Institute for the World Economy); Heblich, Stephan (University of Bristol)
    Abstract: We exploit Germany's reunification to identify how school-age education affects entrepreneurial intentions. We look at university students in reunified Germany who were born before the Iron Curtain fell. During school age, all students in the West German control group received formal and informal education in a free-market economy, while East German students did or did not receive free-market education. Difference-in-differences estimations show that school-age education in a free-market economy increases entrepreneurial intentions. An event study supports the common-trends assumption. Results remain robust in matched samples and when we exploit within-student variation in occupational intentions to control for unobserved individual characteristics.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, socialism, formal education, informal education
    JEL: L26 I21 J24 P30
    Date: 2015–09
  11. By: Barra, Cristian; Lagravinese, Raffaele; Zotti, Roberto
    Abstract: In recent years more and more numerous are the rankings published in the newspapers or technical reports available, covering many aspects of higher education, but in many cases with very conflicting results between them, due to the fact that universities’ performances depend on the set of variables considered and on the methods of analysis employed. The aim of this study is to rank higher education institutions (HEIs) in Italy, comparing parametric and non-parametric approaches: we firstly apply a so-called double bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to generate unbiased coefficients (Simar and Wilson, 2007) and then a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA), modelling the production set through an output distance function, applying a within transformation to data as developed by Wang and Ho (2010), to evaluate which determinants have an impact on universities’ efficiencies. The findings reveal that, on average and among the macro-areas of the country, the level of efficiency does not change significantly among estimation methods which, instead, generate different rankings. This may guide universities’ managers and policymakers as rankings have a strong impact on academic decision-making and behaviour, on the structure of the institutions and also on students and graduates recruiters. Variables describing institution, market place and environment have an important role in explaining (in)efficiency.
    Keywords: Universities; Efficiency; Data Envelopment Analysis; Stochastic Frontier Analysis
    JEL: C14 C67 I21 I23
    Date: 2015–10–06
    Abstract: Lant Pritchett (2001) asked a famous question, “Where has all the education gone?†bringing the lack of correlation between the growth of measured education and the growth of income in developing countries to broad attention. This finding confirms that after WWII the human capital-output ratios tend to be higher in less developed countries than those in developed countries. I explain this pattern using a dynamic general equilibrium model which explicitly considers that workers with different types have different costs when choosing schooling years and employers are unable to directly observe workers’ types, and find that simulation results with public subsidies to schooling could well mimic the features of data. At last, I make a speculative but reasoned conjecture about the schooling years-output relation in 2040.
    Keywords: education, informational asymmetry, signaling model, general equilibrium, heterogeneity
    JEL: D82 E24 I25 O15 O47
    Date: 2015–05–15
  13. By: Igei, Kengo; Yuki, Takako
    Abstract: Parental perceptions have been considered important for the primary school enrollment of girls, particularly in countries where female activities are constrained by social norms and values. In Yemen, primary school enrollment steadily improved throughout the 2000s, but the gender gap still remains. We conducted a comprehensive survey of households and schools in rural Yemen, in which fathers and mothers were separately asked about their educational aspirations for girls and their general attitudes toward girls’ education, the marriage age for girls, and their attitudes toward women in the workforce. This paper describes the perceptions of fathers and mothers, and empirically examines their relationship to primary school enrollment for girls aged 6-9 years and 10-14 years, controlling for both demand- and supply-side factors. As a result, we observe a certain degree of variation in paternal and maternal perceptions among households and son preference in both the paternal and maternal aspirations. The regression analyses reveal that both the paternal and the maternal aspirations, and the son preference in their aspirations are strongly related to the enrollment of older girls. Additionally, the analyses show that other paternal perceptions of girls’ education, the desirable marriage age, and women in the workforce are statistically significant for older girls. We also found that paternal perceptions are more highly correlated to the enrollment of both younger and older girls than maternal perceptions, and that the supply-side factors such as the qualification of teachers and the presence of female teachers are also significant to the enrollment of girls.
    Keywords: access , primary education , gender , Yemen
    Date: 2015–08–15
  14. By: Ildiko Koos (The University of West Hungary)
    Abstract: The model has a general approach towards initial teacher education and teachers’ continuous professional development. This model gives teachers bachelor programmes, the trainee phase of their work, and lifelong learning (with the help of professional development courses) in a standardised system. We have programmes for primary teachers who teach in the lower grades 1 to 4; for teachers in grades 5 to 8 and for teachers in grades 9 to 12. Our goal is to create balance in the education of teachers between research based university studies and teaching practices. The teachers need to have the highest level of professional knowledge as well as knowledge of teaching and methodology. The model of teacher education in Western Hungary also provides CPG (continuous professional development courses) for teachers during their whole career. These developmental courses show the best practices. These courses also provide stimulating, motivational attitudes for teachers. Those who take part can join innovations and researches. These projects are in connection with practical challenges and problems of the public education. The results of the projects can immediately be use in classrooms or during teaching and in pedagogical service.The high level of realization depends on the motivation on lifelong learning of students and teachers, professors. Therefore, some skills are especially important in our teachers’ character, such as: -being open-minded;-having a problem-solving attitude: organising team word and project tasks for university students;-improving students’ responsibility: helping students express their personal opinion;-at university, teaching by using the excellent and new methods, so the up-to-date methods can be seen in one’s work;-being empathetic with students, so that they will study with enthusiasm and curiosity;-being able to reflect to their own work and emotions.We think, this teaching attitude can reach its goal when teaching generation Z. Nowadays, children grow up in a visual (digitalized) world. They spend a lot of time sitting in front of the computer, and they don’t exercise much. Therefore, kids of generation Z have a need for motion, like working using creative methods, like multi-tasking at school and while learning (like using their smart phones, X-boxes, computers). Teachers should use this motivation while teaching. University professors and teachers can show teachers different methods for teaching generation Z. For example, projects, creative reading comprehension, co-operative working, cloose techniques.
    Keywords: teacher education; lifelong learning; organising team word; project tasks
    JEL: A20
  15. By: Brian Bell; Rui Costa; Stephen Machin
    Abstract: Do compulsory schooling laws reduce crime? Previous evidence for the U.S. from the 1960s and 1970s suggests they do, primarily working through their effect on educational attainment to generate a causal impact on crime. In this paper, we consider whether more recent experience replicates this. There are two key findings. First, there is a strong and consistent negative effect on crime from stricter compulsory schooling laws. Second, there is a weaker and sometimes non-existent link between such laws and educational attainment. As a result, credible causal estimates of the education-crime relationship cannot in general be identified for the more recent period, though they can for some groups with lower education levels (in particular, for blacks).
    Keywords: Crime, education, compulsory schooling laws
    JEL: I2 K42
    Date: 2015–10
  16. By: Herrera Prada, Luis Omar; Kugler, Adriana D.; Kugler, Maurice; Saavedra, Juan Esteban
    Abstract: We use administrative data to examine medium and long-term formal education and labor market impacts among participants and family members of a randomized vocational training program for disadvantaged youth in Colombia. In the Colombian program, vocational training and formal education are complementary investments: relative to non-participants, randomly selected participants are more likely to complete secondary school and to attend and persist in tertiary education eight years after random assignment. Complementarity is strongest among applicants with high baseline educational attainment. Training also has educational spillover effects on participants’ family members, who are more likely to enroll in tertiary education. Between three and eight years after randomization, participants are more likely to enter and remain in formal employment, and have formal sector earnings that are at least 11 percent higher than those of non-participants.
    Keywords: education complementarities; formal employment; long-term effects; randomized experiments; spillover effects; vocational training; youth employment
    JEL: C9 I2 J24 J68 O2
    Date: 2015–10
  17. By: Owen, Ann L.; Handley-Miner, Isaac
    Abstract: Using data from students at 25 selective colleges from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshman (NLSF), we estimate regressions with college-specific random effects and find that males, white students, those who have at least one parent who completed college, and those with higher family incomes relative to others at their college report higher levels of emotional well-being and life evaluation. We also investigate college characteristics that are correlated with student happiness and find that students report higher levels of happiness at schools that are more racially homogeneous, have lower tuition, and fewer students that have financial need. We show that fraternity dominance reduces the negative impact of greater racial diversity on student happiness, possibly because fraternities allow students to reduce the incidence of cross-racial interactions.
    Keywords: diversity; happiness; race; class; gender
    JEL: I2 Z1
    Date: 2015–09
  18. By: Maani, Sholeh A. (University of Auckland); Dai, Mengyu (University of Auckland); Inkson, Kerr (University of Auckland)
    Abstract: This paper concerns the prediction of career success among migrants. We focus specifically on the role of occupation as a mediating variable between the predictor variables education and time since migration, and the dependent variable career success as denoted by occupational status, linked to earnings. Following a review of the literature specifically focused on occupation, we apply Ordered Probit analysis to a sample of over 37,900 employed males surveyed in New Zealand. New Zealand provides an interesting case, as a country where migrants from diverse ethnic groups comprise a significant part of the population. We focus on the occupational attainment of immigrants and the native-born populations and provide evidence on the mediating effect of occupational attainment on earnings. Our analyses show the interplay of factors leading to occupational attainment: for example, education level is of greatest importance, and much of its effect on earnings is through occupational attainment; different immigrant groups have differentiable outcomes, and years of experience in the host country enable gradual occupational advancement. This is the first application of this analysis to New Zealand data. Our results highlight the significant mediating role of occupational attainment in explaining earnings across immigrant and native-born groups.
    Keywords: occupational attainment, earnings, immigrants, ethnic group
    JEL: J30 J31
    Date: 2015–09
  19. By: Shahira Elshafie (FAyoum University)
    Abstract: – The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges facing medical education system in Egypt particularly in the area of education quality. It builds upon several existing studies conducted in Egypt to make the case for improving education outcomes.Design/methodology/approach– Samples were drawn from existing studies conducted in Egypt by experts in the education field.Findings– Results suggest that there is a chance for improvement of the quality of medical education in Egypt with subsequent potential increase of graduates employability and direct impact on national and global healthcare. Conclusion– Strategies of reform are suggested including academic network, curriculum comparative studies, joint degrees and internationalization.
    Keywords: Education, Medical, Internationalization, Egypt
  20. By: Teresa De Fazio (Victoria University)
    Abstract: Novice academics often transition into the world of academia via PhD or doctoral studies. During their studies, PhD students are often charged with casual teaching responsibilities as part of their ‘apprenticeship’. Duties often include assessing student work and providing feedback through tutorials and assessment tasks. Whilst undertaking teaching duties they are also attempting to develop their own research skills repertoire, often struggling with developing the requisite academic literacies required by such high level studies. Thus, these novice academics and researchers, face considerable challenges in their dual roles and support for these academics can be sporadic or even inexistent in terms of professional development. Research findings demonstrate that the marginalisation of casual novice teachers from professional conversations and professional development activities adversely affects universities in three ways: limiting the potential for quality teaching; impacting student satisfaction negatively; and, reducing staff retention of promising academics.This paper reports on a case study of a professional learning initiative delivered through a mentoring framework that was established at an Australian university. The initiative is called the Learning through teaching program (LTTP). This paper will report on how the LTTP sought to provide an intervention that brought together PhD students as mentees, and experts from across the university as mentors. The focus was to enter into discourse on learning and teaching with the aim of fostering teaching and research competence. Further, the case study reports on how explicit unpacking of academic and intercultural writing literacies through a series of targeted discussions around the themes of assessment and feedback supported the mentees, as both novice teachers and ‘apprentice’ researchers, in gaining deeper level understandings of these complex, critical aspects that were core to their dual roles. The case study provides a consideration of another rather unexpected outcome, the positive impact of the mentoring framework itself and how this can be used as a professional development approach to foster understandings, skill development and engagement of, as was discovered, all participants.
    Keywords: academic literacies, intercultural literacies, casual teachers, academic dialogue, assessment, feedback, mentoring, professional development, PhD students, novice academics
    JEL: A00
  21. By: Elif Sisli Ciamarra (Brandeis University); Charisse Glosino (University of Memphis)
    Abstract: This study provides the first systematic analysis of the composition of charter school governing boards. We assemble a dataset of charter school boards in Massachusetts between 2001 and 2013 and investigate the consequences of donor and founder representation on governing boards. We find that the presence of donors on the charter school boards is positively related to financial performance and attribute this result to the donors' strong monitoring incentives due to their financial stakes in the school. We also show that financial outcomes are not generated at the expense of academic outcomes, as the presence of donors on the boards is also associated with higher student achievement. Founder presence on charter school boards, on the other hand is associated with lower financial performance, but higher academic achievement.
    Date: 2015–09
  22. By: Andrew Eyles; Stephen Machin; Olmo Silva
    Abstract: The English education system has undergone a large restructuring programme through the introduction of academy schools. The most salient feature of these schools is that, despite remaining part of the state sector, they operate with more autonomy than the predecessor schools they replace. Two distinct time periods of academy school introduction have taken place, under the auspices of different governments. The first batch was initiated in the 2002/03 school year by the Labour government of the time and was directly aimed at turning around badly performing schools. The second batch involved a mass academisation process following the change of government in May 2010 and the Academies Act of that year and resulted in increased heterogeneity of new academies. This paper compares the two batches of introduction with the aim of getting a better understanding of their similarities and differences. To do so, we study what types of schools were more likely to change to academy status in the two programmes, and the impact of this change on the quality of new pupil enrolments into the new types of school. Whilst we do point out some similarities, these are the exception rather than the norm. For the most part, our analysis reveals a number of marked dissimilarities between the two programmes in terms of both the characteristics of schools that become academies and the subsequent changes in intakes.
    Keywords: Academies; pupil intake
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2015–09
  23. By: Aslund, Olof (IFAU); Grönqvist, Hans (Uppsala University); Hall, Caroline (IFAU); Vlachos, Jonas (Stockholm University)
    Abstract: We study the impact on criminal activity from a large scale Swedish reform of vocational upper secondary education, extending programs from two to three years and adding more general theoretical content. The reform directly concerns age groups where criminal activity is high and students who are highly overrepresented among criminal offenders. The nature of the reform and the rich administrative data allow us to shed light on several behavioral mechanisms. Our results show that the prolonged and more general education lead to a reduction in property crime, but no significant decrease in violent crime. The effect is mainly concentrated to the third year after enrollment, which suggests that being in school reduces the opportunities and/or inclinations to commit crime.
    Keywords: education, delinquency
    JEL: K42
    Date: 2015–09
  24. By: Jean Bonnet (CREM UMR-CNRS 6211, UFR SEGGAT, Université de Caen Normandie, France)
    Abstract: In France the Technology Transfer Offices, within universities and more generally in higher education institutions, have developed over the past fifteen years, both in terms of the funding and affected human resources. Academic spin-offs are however few and create few jobs (PHILIPART, 2012). In the US the results are much more convincing, SIEGEL (2013). Few French academic staff value their academic work (or even think to do so) by creating companies or more generally by economic exploitation including through patents or partnerships with existing companies (EMIN, 2003). And when they do spin-offs, business does not necessarily know an important development in the image of Anglo-Saxon "gazelles" (BONNET, LE PAPE, NELSON, 2015). Also few students are also considering the option of creating their own business even though the numbers are improving thanks to the development of entrepreneurship training (BOISSIN, CHOLLET, EMIN, 2009). This study aims to highlight the characteristics of the intention of the creation of academic spin-offs by staff and doctoral students of Lower-Normandy colleges.
    Keywords: Economic Valuation of Research, Academic Staff, Professional Values, Dissatisfactions, Incentives
    JEL: L26 M12 M13
    Date: 2015–09
  25. By: Aysit Tansel (Department of Economics, METU; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonn, Germany; Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo, Egypt)
    Abstract: This study investigates inequality of opportunity in educational achievements in Turkey over time. For this purpose we use test scores of PISA in mathematics, science and reading achievement of 15-year-olds over the period 2003-2012. Since the different waves of the samples cover only a fraction of the cohorts of 15-year olds we take into account the inequality of opportunity in access to the PISA test as well as the inequality of opportunity of the academic achievement in the PISA test. This procedure enables proper over time comparisons. We estimate the effect of circumstances children are born into on their academic achievement as evidenced in their PISA test scores. The main findings are as follows. First, confirming the previous studies we find that inequality of opportunity is a large part of the inequality of educational achievement in Turkey. Second, the inequality of opportunity in educational achievement shows a slightly decreasing trend over time in Turkey. Third, the inequality of opportunity figures based on the mathematics, science and reading achievements exhibited the similar trend over time. Forth, the family background variables are the most important determinants of the inequality in educational achievement which is a consistent pattern over time. However, there is also evidence of slight weakening of these factors over time. Policies are necessary to improve equality of opportunity in education in Turkey.
    Keywords: Inequality of opportunity, Education, Turkey.
    JEL: I24 D63
    Date: 2015–04
  26. By: Nadir Altinok (BETA - Bureau d'économie théorique et appliquée - CNRS - Université Nancy 2 - Université de Strasbourg, IREDU - Institut de recherche sur l'éducation : Sociologie et Economie de l'Education - UB - Université de Bourgogne); Abdurrahman Aydemir (Sabanci University)
    Abstract: The gender gap in education against females becomes smaller as the level of development increases and turns in their favor in developed countries. Through analysis of regional variation in the gender gap within Turkey,which displays a similar pattern to the cross-country pattern, this paper studies the factors that lead to the emergence of a gender gap against females. The data for student achievement and aspirations for further education during compulsory school show that females are just as well prepared and motivated for further education as their male counterpartsacross regions with very different levels of development. Despite this fact, large gaps arise in high school registration and completion in less developed regions, but not in developed ones. We find that larger sibship size is the main driver of gender gaps in less developed regions. While social norms have a negative influence on female education beyond compulsory school, they play a relatively small role in the emergence of gender gaps. Theseresultsare consistent with the fact that resource-constrained families give priority to males for further education, leading to the emergence of education gender gaps.
    Keywords: gender gap, education, achievement, social norm
    Date: 2015–09–24
  27. By: Omer Bakan (Selcuk University Communication Faculty); Ahmet Tarhan (Selcuk University Communication Faculty); Kadir Canoz (Selcuk University Communication Faculty)
    Abstract: Numerous studies was carried out to explain the concept, function and profession of public relations. Public relations is a copcept that is percieved differently by different segments of the society. To reveal the views of university students on public relations is important to understand the image of public relations. This study has been conducted to determine the image of public relations profession and practitioners in the eyes of university students. A face to face survey was carried out on 514 students from Selcuk University. Several statistical tests were used to analyze the obtained data. Results of the study reveal that most of the respondents have positive views towards the concept of public relations profession and its practitioners. Most of the respondents stated that the public relations profession requires expertise and this job can only be performed by people who have finished their university education in the field of public relations.
    Keywords: public relations, public relations practitioners, university students
  28. By: Linda N. Edwards (Ph.D. Program in Economics, Graduate Center, CUNY); Takuya Hasebe (Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan); Tadashi Sakai (Hosei University, Tokyo, Japan)
    Abstract: Prompted by concordant upward trends in both the university advancement rate and the unmarried rate for Japanese women, this paper investigates whether the Equal Employment Opportunity Act (EEOA), which was passed in 1985, affected women•s marriage decisions either directly or via their decisions to pursue university education. To this end, we estimate a model that treats education and marriage decisions as jointly determined using longitudinal data for Japanese women. We find little evidence that the passage of EEOA increased the proportion of women who advance to university, but strong support for the proposition that it increased the deterrent effect of university education on marriage.
    Keywords: Equal Employment Opportunity Act, marriage, university education
    JEL: J12 J24 I21 K31
    Date: 2015–09–01
  29. By: FARIBA FATTAHZADEH (Department of Mathematics, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Iran)
    Abstract: Today, the amount of information that education should produce,review, archive, processing and sharing is large. So how to manage thisinformation and evaluate this type of information to learn a subject isimportant. Combination of education, networking and web lead to newways of organizing education system has been web-based learningManagement System has. This method is able to surround any time andany place easily materials based on predefined options, access orparticipate in virtual classroom, so training organizations and commercialorganizations, are using e-learning their students and employees. ManyE-learning organizations use variety of indicators to assess the course andmeasures. Provide a model or method of assessment to be able to displayonline can be very useful, indicators of educational organizations isemphasized creativity in this research is to be paid. Business intelligencetools and dashboards to display performance indicators are used. Inaddition to this research study used indicators of organizationalperformance assessment, and provide a comprehensive model ofbalanced score card for virtual learning, the tools available as standard invirtual courses offered are studied and compared, and also placed aSample training evaluation using existing tools as organizationaldashboard is provided.
    Keywords: Keywords:, E-learning, LearningManagement System, Key Performance Indicator, Creativity.
  30. By: Elif Aydo (Eski)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine organizational socialization levels of teachers working at primary and secondary schools. As well as the study was revealed that whether their organizational socialization levels differ acording to individual and institutional variables such as gender, age, seniority, branch, working experience in the school, level of education, number of teachers and students in the school and school level. Survey model was used in this quantitative study. The sample included 374 teachers working at public primary and secondary school in Eski
    Keywords: primary school, secondary school, education, teacher, socialization
    JEL: A20 A29 A00
  31. By: dal Maso, Carlo (IMT Lucca); Rettore, Enrico (University of Padova); Rocco, Lorenzo (University of Padova)
    Abstract: A common observation is that individuals strive to neutralize the effect of procedural rules designed to drive choices away from their private optimum. An example of this phenomenon is offered by the reaction of Italian academia to two reforms that modified the procedures of recruitment and promotion, by introducing random selection of the examiners not appointed by the recruiting school and reducing from two to one the number of candidates to be qualified. We model the negotiation occurring within evaluation committees and test the decision rule implied by the theoretical model on the sample composed of all selections to associate and full professorship initiated by the Italian schools of economics between 2004 and 2011. Particularly, we investigate whether these reforms decreased the relative weight of the examiner appointed by the recruiting school on committee's decision. Empirical results suggest that both reforms had little if no effect on examiners' weights.
    Keywords: university recruitment, incentives, negotiation, formal procedures
    JEL: D71 M51 I2
    Date: 2015–09
  32. By: Alain Cohn; Michel André Maréchal
    Abstract: We study the external validity of a standard laboratory measure of cheating. The results show that cheating in the lab significantly predicts classroom misbehavior in middle and high school students.
    Keywords: Cheating, honesty, experiment, external validity, misbehavior
    JEL: C93 K42
    Date: 2015–09
  33. By: Pekkala Kerr, Sari (Wellesley College); Pekkarinen, Tuomas (Government Institute for Economic Research, Helsinki); Sarvimäki, Matti (Aalto University); Uusitalo, Roope (HECER)
    Abstract: We examine the impact of an information intervention offered to 97 randomly chosen high schools in Finland. Graduating students in treatment schools were surveyed and given information on the labor market prospects associated with detailed post-secondary programs. A third of the students report that the intervention led them to update their beliefs. Experimental estimates suggest that it also affected the application behavior of the least informed students. However, this group of affected students is not sufficiently large for the intervention to have an average impact on applications or enrollment.
    Keywords: education, information, earnings, randomized field experiments
    JEL: J24 I23
    Date: 2015–09
  34. By: Mosayeb Pahlavani (University of Sistan and Baluchestan)
    Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effect of "volatility" of investment in human capital on Iran’s economic growth, such that the government expenditure on educational and R & D budget have been replaced as proxies of human capital variable. Volatility of government expenditure on education and volatility in research and development budget have been estimated using the Generalize Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) Models. Coefficients of the short term and long term are estimated using Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) pattern. The results indicate that the costs of educational and R & D budget have a positive effect on economic growth, but the effect of volatility in these variables on economic growth is negative and significant. More addition, the effect of long term coefficients is more than the short term. Therefore, to achieve a high growth rate, development of human capital and its continuation is essential.
    Keywords: Human capital, Volatility, R&D, expenditure on education, Economic growth
    JEL: C32 E24 H52
  35. By: Aynur B. BOSTANCI (Usak University); Önder ARSLAN (Ministry of National Education)
    Abstract: Paternalist leadership is a type of behavior which depends on paternalistic thought, and in the basis of this behavior which identifies with father in the family the defending sense, love , selfsacrifise which need taking decisions towards the benefits of other family members without taking his own needs and benefits lie. Patternalist leadership was defined three dimension authotarian leadership, assistant leadership and ethic leadership . Organizational sinism is stated as the thought of organization’s being away from honesty and integrity and as employees’ negative attitudes towards his organization. When the relation between attitude and organizational sinism studied, in cognitive dimension of organizational sinism the belief of organizations’ lack of honesty, in emotional dimension the behaviours disrespect, anger, trouble, embaressment, anxiety, stress, in behavioral dimension employees’ complaints about their organisations, making fun of their organisations and criticising their organisations are seen. In this study the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of the level of Patternalist Leadership of School Directors and the level of teachers’ organizational sinism was tried to be identified.In this sense the answers of these questions were searched:1.What are the teachers’ perceptions about school directors’ patternalist leadership level and the level of organizational sinism?2.Are there any differences of teachers’ opinions about school directors patternalist leadership level and level of organizational sinism in terms of gender, professional seniority, graduate level,professional time at the same school and type of school?3.Is there a correlation between teachers’ perceptions of school directors’ Patternalist Leadership level and the level of teachers’ organizational sinism ? The research is in the relational screening model . The sample group teachers in U
    Keywords: Paternalist leadership, organizational sinism,teachers
    JEL: I29
  36. By: Schwandt, Hannes (University of Zurich); Wuppermann, Amelie (University of Munich)
    Abstract: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a leading diagnosed health condition among children in many developed countries but the causes underlying these high levels of ADHD remain highly controversial. Recent research for the U.S., Canada and some European countries shows that children who enter school relatively young have higher ADHD rates than their older peers, suggesting that ADHD may be misdiagnosed in the younger children due to their relative immaturity. Using rich administrative health insurance claims data from Germany we study the effects of relative school entry age on ADHD risk in Europe's largest country and relate the effects for Germany to the international evidence. We further analyze different mechanisms that may drive these effects, focusing on physician supply side and demand side factors stemming from the production of education. We find robust evidence for school-entry age related misdiagnosis of ADHD in Germany. Within Germany and internationally, a higher share of misdiagnoses are related to a higher overall ADHD level, suggesting that misdiagnoses may be a driving factor of high ADHD levels. Furthermore, the effects in Germany seem to be driven by teachers and parents in an attempt to facilitate and improve the production of education.
    Keywords: ADHD, misdiagnosis, age cutoff, education
    JEL: I1 I2 J1
    Date: 2015–09
  37. By: Makbule Kali Soyer (Marmara University Atatürk Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Sciences, Department of Guidance and Psychological Counseling); Berke Kirikkanat (Istanbul Commerce University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Educational Sciences)
    Abstract: The aim of the present study was to figure out whether university students’ learning approaches were shaped via their achievement goal orientations, academic self-efficacy and hope or not. The other objective was to examine if these psychological constructs varied in accordance with the demographic variables including gender, age and class level. 332 undergraduates from Marmara University and Istanbul Commerce University who were in the year of junior and senior participated in the study. The Achievement Goal Orientations Scale, the Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, the Dispositional Hope Scale and the Demographic Form were utilized to reveal the predictive power of these constructs on their learning attitudes measured by the Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that learning goal orientation was a pivotal predictor of both deep and surface approach to learning. Academic self-efficacy and hope were the crucial precursors of deep approach while performance-avoidance goal inclination was a considerable predictor of surface approach. Independent samples t-test analysis displayed that the female undergraduates were superior to the male ones in terms of the learning goal tendency. And the students (20 to 22 aged) demonstrated higher scores on the same variable than the other ones (23 to 25 aged). On the basis of class level, there were no significant differences in the scores of achievement goal orientations, academic self-efficacy, hope and learning approaches. The results pointed out the fact that such concepts pertinent to an undergraduate’s academic performance could be viewed as distinctive features engendering different learning attitudes toward scholastic training.
    Keywords: Achievement goal orientation, academic self-efficacy, hope, learning approaches, undergraduates
  38. By: Aishwarya Diwan (Hidayatullah National Law University); Rajnandini Shukla (Hidayatullah National Law University); Aishwarya Diwan (Hidayatullah National law University)
    Abstract: Education and learning is one of the most important aspects in any society. Being indispensable and cohering, society and education cannot be ever separated into two distinct entities. India, having one of the fastest growing economies in the world, and being the most populous democratic country has a great potential to become a future superpower. However, in this increasingly globalised environment, India faces several threats to her security, and the question is whether the greatest security threat is external (i.e. terrorism) or internal – naxalism - the Maoist communist groups in India. Naxalism which originated as a rebellion against marginalized poor forest dwellers and gradually against the lack of development and poverty in the rural parts of eastern Indian, today have declared themselves a terrorist organization engaged in unlawful activities with a goal to destroy government functionaries. These groups use local illiterate villagers- who are eager to escape the system of oppression- to strengthen their hold and exploit the gap between government and local villagers. This gap apart from highlighting various underlying weaknesses of India’s governance, political institutions and socio-economic structure, also makes India vulnerable to external threats and the solution which the present paper focuses on is – providing education. The present paper talks about importance of developing education as an instrument for the eradication of Naxalism and to position it as a major engine of economic growth, poverty elimination, job creation and eliminating extremists. The Government looks into the issue as the issue of law and order however, the root cause is neglected by them –socio-economic disparity and illiteracy. The paper, as a solution in this regards also put the steps which the law making body should follow to curb this problem.
    Keywords: Education; Social Disparity; Economic disparity, India, Maoist communist group
  39. By: Luke Heinkel; Kristin Hallgren; Brian Gill; Megan Shoji
    Abstract: Services such as the National Student Clearinghouse StudentTracker for High Schools provide states, districts, and schools the capability to examine college enrollment, persistence, and completion data on students they previously served in K–12 settings. This issue brief (1) summarizes the uses and limitations of postsecondary data in raw form, (2) describes three sophisticated ways that K–12 officials can use these data to inform K–12 policy and practice, and (3) discusses the importance of dissemination.
    Keywords: Postsecondary data, linked data, education data, college data
    JEL: I
    Date: 2015–09–30
  40. By: Anita Holecz (University of West Hungary)
    Abstract: Our research focuses on teachers’ burnout to show that the passage of 15 years has been any change in burnout syndrome and analyze what kind of workplace-, personality- and behavioral characteristics explaining the factors of burnout.Our sample, a total of 783 practising teachers (primary and secondary school teachers). A survey tests were conducted at the beginning of the 2000s, in 2011 and 2014. Such as: MBI Test (Maslach, Jackson, 1986) version was made for teachers (Byrne, 1991), a Psychological Immune System (Oláh, 2005), a Preference of Coping Strategy (Oláh, 2005), a Temperament and Character Factors (TCI, Hungarian adaptation by Rózsa et al., 2004), a Big Five Questionare (BFQ, Hungarian adaptation by Rózsa et al., 2000). The job characteristics (eg. in court for years, workload, status), and satisfaction and happiness at work was measured by our questionare. Our results show that: teachers differ in some personality factors compared to other higher education graduates. Among the factors temperament harm avoidance and reward dependence is higher, while the persistence is lower. The dimensions of characters indicates the low level of self-worth and self-acceptance among teachers. The BFQ test results also showed meaningful differences. Significant differences were observed in two dimensions, energy and openness to experience. In both cases, there was lower means. Coping with stress also has found a significant difference compared to other graduates in higher education. On the positive difference that teachers often prefer person-oriented coping strategies. However, unfortunately, it appears the self punishment and the resignation in stressful situations. The three factors of burnout syndrome (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment) are relatively constans in different groups being tested three times since 2003 despite changes in the conditions of education. However, the proportion at risk of burnout is increasing. Until in 2003, 17.83% of the teachers were endangered, in the group tested in 2014 this rate is already 36%. The results of the regression analysis, the prevention of burnout workplace factors of happiness at work play one of the most important role. The personality factors are the need to strengthen, the self-directedness, intellectual openness, friendliness and self-regulatory system in prevention.
    Keywords: teachers, burnout, personality, coping preferencies, Psychological Immune System, happiness at work
    JEL: I00 I29
  41. By: Catherine N Dulmus (University at Buffalo); Maria Cristalli (Hillside Family of Agencies)
    Abstract: Human service organizations are uniquely positioned given their scope of practice and access to consumers with the widest range of needs to significantly increase the national capacity for research if they were effectively equipped with the knowledge, skills and funding to integrate research and development into their on-going organizational activities. A university-community research partnership is one approach to achieving this goal. This presentation describes the Hillside/University at Buffalo (HUB) Research Model, a formal research partnership between Hillside Family of Agencies (HFA) in Rochester, NY and the Buffalo Center for Social Research (BCSR) at the University at Buffalo. The HUB Research Model combines the practice expertise and research subject access of HFA with the BCSR research expertise and resources to develop collaboratively a vibrant research partnership based on community-based participatory research principles that garners the strengths and assets of both partners to realize a true research to practice and practice to research agenda. The HUB Research Model is based on CBPR principles that hold much promise for decreasing the 17-year delay between development of new knowledge and the availability of that knowledge at the practice setting. When researchers and practitioners form a research partnership whereby each are contributing members in the development of research questions, methodological design, data collection and analysis, as well as dissemination of findings everyone benefits in a variety of ways. Subsequently, when you train MSW and doctoral students within the HUB Research Model a new generation of practitioners and scholars are developed with knowledge of CBPR and an understanding and value of community-based research. Potential benefits abound for clients, agencies, universities and students alike.
    Keywords: Research partnerships, University-community partnerships, CBPR
  42. By: Gheasi, Masood (VU University Amsterdam); Nijkamp, Peter (VU University Amsterdam); Rietveld, Piet (VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: In the Netherlands the share of immigrants in the total population has steadily increased in recent decades. The present paper takes a look at wage differences between natives and migrants who are equally educated. This reduces potential skills biases in our analysis. We apply a Mincer equation in estimating the wage differences between natives and migrants. In our study we analyze only young graduates, so that conventional human capital factors cannot explain the differences in monthly gross wages. Therefore, we focused on "otherness" factors, such as parents' roots to find an alternative explanation. Our empirical results show that acquiring Dutch human capital, Dutch-specific skills, language proficiency, and integration in the long-term (second-generation with non-OECD background) are not sufficient to overcome wage differences in the Dutch labor market, especially for migrants with parents from non-OECD countries.
    Keywords: immigration, education, wage
    JEL: F22 I2
    Date: 2015–09
  43. By: Jana Bouwma-Gearhart (Oregon State University); Jennifer Collins (Oregon State University)
    Abstract: In this paper we review the vast literature on data driven decision-making (DDDM) in institutions of higher education (IHEs). Given increasing pressure for IHEs to use data to inform decision-making, it is important to understand what is known about the opportunities and challenges facing DDDM. To contextualize the literature we briefly review the history of DDDM in education settings. We then summarize how scholars have conceptualized and studied DDDM in IHEs in general, and then regarding curriculum and instruction specifically. Our review found that scholars have examined DDDM in regard to institutional functioning and structures (e.g., total quality management, knowledge management, and strategic planning), supporting institutional decision-making (e.g., decision support systems, data mining, and academic analytics), meeting institutional or programmatic accreditation, quality assurance, developing and honing methods for improving data use, analysis, and distribution, facilitating participatory models of decision-making, and curricular and/or instructional improvements. We found curriculum and instruction specific research on course management, learning analytics, curriculum planning, assisting teaching and learning centers, in-class formative assessment, and post-class data use. We discuss implications of our findings in a framework of considerations related to successful DDDM implementation and study, including review of DDDM in K-12 environments in the US and postsecondary education worldwide. Recommendations for successful DDDM include acknowledging and attending to local realities, ensuring salience of data and DDDM processes to key stakeholders, fostering and capitalizing on local data savvy and collaboration among stakeholders towards meaningful objectives, and formalizing and normalizing adequate data collection and management systems and access. Based on these results we recommend that educators, policymakers, and researchers look to the experiences of K-12 educators in the US and European and Australasian IHEs with DDDM movements, focus on linking larger data systems and policies with local needs and practices and locally derived data, engage in more descriptive research on how local actors perceive and utilize data, and focus on linking larger data systems and policies with these local needs and practices.
    Keywords: Data-driven decision-making, higher education, literature review
    JEL: I20 I21 I23
  44. By: Gumede, Kamilla (Aarhus University); Rosholm, Michael (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: We analyze the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lessons in primary school grades 1-3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data base from administrative register. We use a difference-in-differences approach to investigate treatment effects on the treated and tend to find positive effects. Looking at sub groups, we find significant positive effects for native Danish children, while we find no effects for children of immigrants.
    Keywords: mathematics and chess, primary school, learning
    JEL: I21 I28
    Date: 2015–09
  45. By: Laëtitia Lebihan; Charles Olivier Mao Takongmo
    Abstract: This study aims to: i) model the mathematical abilities trajectories of Canadian children from 7 to 15 years and ii) identify risk factors during early childhood for low math skills trajectories. Using a group-based trajectory approach, we identify three groups of children with distinct mathematical abilities trajectories: average abilities (47.6%), high abilities (30.1%), and low abilities (22.3%). The differences between the groups are increasing over time, especially in early adolescence. Multivariate logistic regressions indicate that the children at risk are those who have a mother with a low level of education, low cognitive score at age 4-5, and have parents with poor parenting skills.
    Keywords: Academic achievement trajectories and risk factors during early childhood, achievement trajectories; mathematical abilities; group-based trajectory modeling; risk factors
    Date: 2015–09–28
  46. By: Pouliakas, Konstantinos (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop)); Russo, Giovanni (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop))
    Abstract: We use information from the new OECD Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) to investigate the link between job tasks and cognitive skill demand in 22 advanced economies. Skill demand is operationalized by the assessed literacy and numeracy skills of workers with well-matched skills to their job duties. Jobs are categorised according to the nature of tasks, including the intensity of abstract reasoning, employee latitude, interactivity or manual work. The analysis confirms the significant relation between task complexity and higher skill needs. The significant relation holds independently of the endogenous supply of formal human capital, occupational or industrial structure and other job or individual characteristics. The results confirm the (indirect) mapping between tasks and skills as predicted by the task approach to labour economics. Given the marked heterogeneity in workplace practices adopted by employers, it is clear that enterprise level workplace development policies are warranted as enablers of skills matching and higher labour productivity.
    Keywords: skills, tasks, skill demand, job complexity, PIAAC, mismatch
    JEL: J24 M12 M54
    Date: 2015–09
  47. By: Tekalign Gidi Kure (Addis Ababa University)
    Abstract: This paper addresses a range of serious problems involving higher education in Ethiopia. In spite of increased enrollment in higher education, educational quality is deteriorating afterwards. Thus, this paper tried to assess the role of social infrastructure in education for economic development of the country and examined major critical problems in higher education of Ethiopia such as higher education finance, curriculum development, and instructor’s career development.Primarily the paper discusses the fundamental contributions of social infrastructure in higher education to economic development; namely development of human capital, improved health, life expectancy, increased productivity, and personal saving, then, the paper examines critically higher education in three regimes of Ethiopia (Emperor Regime, Derg Regime and EPDRF/current government). Thus, four main questions were raised during this research: 1. what are the antecedents of Ethiopia Higher Education System under three regimes? 2. what are the current and emerging higher educational needs in Ethiopia economic development? 3. what are the role of private sector in addressing the gaps in higher education of the country and its adverse effect on quality issues. 4. what improvements are needed in higher education system of Ethiopia?Documents from Ministry of Education in Ethiopia, Natioanl Statistical Abstracts, and Reports form the World Bank and other recognized institutions were used in addition to recent empirical researches conducted in the country. In doing so, care had been taken to reduce prejudiced reports by involving different reports from multiple sources.The paper concludes that during emperor system higher education enrollment was among the very lowest in the world, therefore, the skilled human resource available to guide development were little, but the cost was very high. During the Derg regime where ideological change in the system penetrated in to higher education resulted with lack of large amount of resources to support higher education; the war inside and outside the country diverts resources from the sector. The main purpose of this paper is not only to discuss the problems and issues of higher education in the past, but it also investigates the influence that the current expansion of higher education has on the finance, staff, and other resources for the quality of education. The paper concludes that higher education in Ethiopia are finance by government, outdated curriculum and lagging behind the standard regarding qualified staff. Finally, it provided inevitable solutions if the country wants to gain well record in quality of education as well.
    Keywords: Social-infrastructure, Higher-Education, Ethiopia
  48. By: Herrera, Catalina (Northeastern University); Sahn, David E. (Cornell University)
    Abstract: Female secondary school attendance has recently increased in Sub-Saharan Africa and so has the risk of becoming pregnant while attending school. Using panel data in Madagascar, we analyze the impact of teenage pregnancy on young women's human capital. We instrument early pregnancy with the young woman's community-level access, and exposure to condoms since age 15. We control for an extensive set of community social and economic infrastructure characteristics to deal with the endogeneity of program placement and conduct several robustness checks to validate our instruments. Early childbearing increases the likelihood of dropping out of school by 42 % and decreases the chances of completing secondary school by 44%. This school-pregnancy related dropout is associated with a reduction of 1.1 standard deviations in Math and French test scores. Delaying the first birth by a year increases the probability of current enrollment by 5% and the test scores by 0.2 standard deviations.
    Keywords: fertility, female education, cognitive skills, instrumental variables, Madagascar
    JEL: I25 J13 O15
    Date: 2015–09
  49. By: Kuan-Ming Chen (Science Education Center, National Taiwan Normal University)
    Abstract: In accordance with the modern educational reform, the implementation of educational assessment differs from the past and requires innovative techniques. At individual and teaching levels, an effective assessment should meet both the summative purpose of precise assessment of students’ ability and the formative purpose of immediate feedbacks to improve learning and teaching. Through combining the multimedia presentation with interactive interface of information technology, an online assessment platform OASL ( has been established to help the authentic and effective assessment. The platform consists of item bank database, an interface to establish items, a test management interface, a testing interface to deliver examinees’ responses, a scaling system, and a system to generate the reports at individual, class and curriculum levels. Eventually, OASL aims to improve interactive teaching in classroom, beyond the traditional viewpoint of test scoring.
    Keywords: online assessment, formative assessment, science education, science literacy, item response theory

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