nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2015‒09‒11
27 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. What Differences a Day Can Make: Quantile Regression Estimates of the Distribution of Daily Learning Gains By Hayes, Michael S.; Gershenson, Seth
  2. Test-Based Promotion Policies, Dropping Out, and Juvenile Crime By Briggs Depew; Ozkan Eren
  3. On the Political Economy of University Admission Standards By Philippe De Donder; Francisco Martinez-Mora
  4. Investing in Schools: Capital Spending, Facility Conditions, and Student Achievement By Francisco Martorell; Kevin M. Stange; Isaac McFarlin
  5. The Academic Progress of Hispanic Immigrants By Hull, Marie C.
  6. Do Boys and Girls Use Computers Differently, and Does It Contribute to Why Boys Do Worse in School than Girls? By Fairlie, Robert W.
  7. Can Universal Screening Increase the Representation of Low Income and Minority Students in Gifted Education? By David Card; Laura Giuliano
  8. Academies 2: The New Batch By Andrew Eyles; Stephen Machin; Olmo Silva
  9. School Vouchers: A Survey of the Economics Literature By Dennis Epple; Richard E. Romano; Miguel Urquiola
  10. The Distributional Consequences of Public School Choice By Christopher Avery; Parag A. Pathak
  11. Análisis Descriptivo de Competencias en el Uso de Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación. Evidencia para Uruguay. By Inés Bouvier; Gioia de Melo; Alina Machado; Magdalena Viera
  12. Une collaboration entre directeurs d’établissement et conseillers pédagogiques pour soutenir l’ajustement de pratique du personnel enseignant By Suzanne Guillemette; Louise Royal; Monette Kevin
  13. The network of international student mobility: Enlargement and consolidation of the European transnational education space? By Vögtle, Eva Maria; Windzio, Michael
  14. Raising sustainability awareness and understanding in higher education By Graf, Erika
  15. Returns to Education and the Demand for Labour in Vietnam By McGuinness, Seamus; Kelly, Elish; Pham Thi Thu, Phuong; Ha Thi Thu, Thuy
  16. On the Optimal Provision of Social Insurance: Progressive Taxation versus Education Subsidies in General Equilibrium By Krueger, Dirk; Ludwig, Alexander
  17. Estimation of Drivers of Public Education Expenditure: Baumol’s Effect Revisited By Manabu Nose
  18. Discordant Implementation of Multilateral Higher Education Policies: Evidence from the case of the Bologna Process By Murasawa, Masataka; Oba, Jun; Watanabe, Satoshi P
  19. Network Effects in Knowledge Creation: Evidence from Academia By Nelson Sá; Ana Paula Ribeiro; Vitor Carvalho
  20. The Great Expectations: Impact of One-Child Policy on Education of Girls By Huang, Wei; Lei, Xiaoyan; Sun, Ang
  21. LIBERALIZING THE ACADEMY: The Transformation Of Higher Education In the United States And Germany* By Schulze-Cleven, Tobias
  22. The Impact of the Expansion of the Programa Bolsa Família on School Attendance By Lia Chitolina; Miguel Nathan Foguel; Naercio Menezes-Filho
  23. Income inequality, economic growth, and the effect of redistribution By Gründler, Klaus; Scheuermeyer, Philipp
  24. Exports in a Tariff-Free Environment: What Structural Reforms Matter? Evidence from the European Union Single Market By Jesmin Rahman; Ara Stepanyan; Jessie Yang; Li Zeng
  25. THE LIBERAL ARTS AND THE UNIVERSITY* Tracing the Origins and Structure Of Undergraduate Education In the US and at the University Of California By Dirks, Nicholas B
  26. Bantuan Siswa Miskin (BSM): Indonesian Cash Transfer Programme for Poor Students By Dyah Larasati; Fiona Howell
  27. Delay of Gratification and the Role of Defaults: An Experiment with Kindergarten Children By Sutter, Matthias; Yilmaz, Levent; Oberauer, Manuela

  1. By: Hayes, Michael S. (Rutgers University); Gershenson, Seth (American University)
    Abstract: Recent research exploits a variety of natural experiments that create exogenous variation in annual school days to estimate the average effect of formal schooling on students' academic achievement. However, the extant literature's focus on average effects masks potentially important variation in the effect of formal schooling across the achievement distribution. We address this gap in the literature by estimating quantile regressions that exploit quasi-random variation in the number of school days between kindergarten students' fall and spring tests in the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K). The marginal effect of a typical 250-day school-year on kindergarten students' math and reading gains varies significantly, and monotonically, across the achievement distribution. For example, the marginal effect on the 10th percentile of the reading achievement distribution is 0.9 test score standard deviation (SD), while the marginal effect on the 90th percentile is 2.1 test score SD. We find analogous results for math achievement.
    Keywords: education production function, school year length, quantile regression, ECLS-K
    JEL: I2
    Date: 2015–08
  2. By: Briggs Depew; Ozkan Eren
    Abstract: Over the past decade, several states and school districts have implemented accountability systems that require students to demonstrate a minimum level of proficiency through standardized tests. With many states and school districts ending social promotion, policy makers and researchers have gained renewed interest in the role of grade retention and remedial education in US schools. This paper examines the potential effects of summer school and grade retention on high school completion and juvenile crime. To do so, we use administrative data from a number of state agencies in Louisiana and a regression discontinuity design to analyze Louisiana's statewide promotion policy administered to students in fourth and eighth grades. In general, our results indicate that potential grade retention, even at fourth grade, increases the propensity that a student drops out of school at a later point in time. In addition, eighth grade remedial education assignment in the form of summer school appears to provide a positive benefit by decreasing the likelihood that a student later drops out. As for fourth grade students, however, we do not find any effect of summer school assignment on the likelihood of dropping out. Finally, for eighth graders, we find that the test-based promotion policies decrease the probability of committing serious juvenile offenses.
  3. By: Philippe De Donder; Francisco Martinez-Mora
    Abstract: We study the political determination of the proportion of students attending university when access to higher education is rationed by admission tests. Parents differ in income and in the ability of their unique child. They vote over the minimum ability level required to attend public universities, which are tuition-free and financed by proportional income taxation. University graduates become high skilled, while the other children attend vocational school and become low skilled. Even though individual preferences are neither single-peaked nor single-crossing, we obtain a unique majority voting equilibrium, which can be either classical (with 50% of the population attending university) or “ends-against-the-middle”, with less than 50% attending university (and parents of low and high ability children favoring a smaller university system). The majority chosen university size is smaller than the Pareto efficient level in an ends-against-the-middle equilibrium. Higher income inequality decreases the majority chosen size of the university. A larger positive correlation between parents’ income and child’s ability leads to a larger university populated by a larger fraction of rich students, in line with the so-called participation gap. Our results are robust to the introduction of private schooling alternatives, financed with fees.
    Keywords: majority voting, ends-against-the-middle, non single-peaked preferences, non single-crossing preferences, higher education participation gap, income ability correlation, size of university
    JEL: D72 I22
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Francisco Martorell; Kevin M. Stange; Isaac McFarlin
    Abstract: Public investments in repairs, modernization, and construction of schools cost billions. However, little is known about the nature of school facility investments, whether it actually changes the physical condition of public schools, and the subsequent causal impacts on student achievement. We study the achievement effects of nearly 1,400 capital campaigns initiated and financed by local school districts, comparing districts where school capital bonds were either narrowly approved or defeated by district voters. Overall, we find little evidence that school capital campaigns improve student achievement. Our event-study analyses focusing on students that attend targeted schools and therefore exposed to major campus renovations also generate very precise zero estimates of achievement effects. Thus, locally financed school capital campaigns – the predominant method through which facility investments are made – may represent a limited tool for realizing substantial gains in student achievement or closing achievement gaps.
    JEL: H75 I22 I24
    Date: 2015–09
  5. By: Hull, Marie C. (University of North Carolina, Greensboro)
    Abstract: Past research has shown that Hispanic students make test score gains relative to whites as they age through school; however, this finding stands in contrast to the experience of blacks, who show little change in their relative position over the same time frame. Distinguishing Hispanic students by immigrant generation, I find that the children of immigrants (first- and second-generation Hispanics) drive the improvement in Hispanic test scores. Later-generation Hispanics consistently perform slightly below whites, perhaps due to negative selection into ethnic identification. Thus, previous estimates vastly understate the progress of first- and second-generation Hispanic immigrants. From a negative gap in 3rd grade, these students surpass socioeconomically similar whites in math and reading by middle school and end 8th grade as much as a quarter of a standard deviation ahead. Assimilation alone cannot explain this progress; a potential explanation is that immigrant parents create a home environment that fosters achievement.
    Keywords: human capital, achievement gap, Hispanic immigrants
    JEL: J24 I24 J15
    Date: 2015–08
  6. By: Fairlie, Robert W. (University of California, Santa Cruz)
    Abstract: Boys are doing worse in school than are girls, which has been dubbed "the Boy Crisis". An analysis of the latest data on educational outcomes among boys and girls reveals extensive disparities in grades, reading and writing test scores, and other measurable educational outcomes, and these disparities exist across family resources and race. Focusing on disadvantaged schoolchildren, I then examine whether time investments made by boys and girls related to computer use contribute to the gender gap in academic achievement. Data from several sources indicate that boys are less likely to use computers for schoolwork and are more likely to use computers for playing games, but are less likely to use computers for social networking and email than are girls. Using data from a large field experiment randomly providing free personal computers to schoolchildren for home use, I also test whether these differential patterns of computer use displace homework time and ultimately translate into worse educational outcomes among boys. No evidence is found indicating that personal computers crowd out homework time and effort for disadvantaged boys relative to girls. Home computers also do not have negative effects on educational outcomes such as grades, test scores, courses completed, and tardies for disadvantaged boys relative to girls.
    Keywords: technology, computers, ICT, education, gender, field experiment, poverty
    JEL: C93 I24 J16
    Date: 2015–08
  7. By: David Card; Laura Giuliano
    Abstract: Low income and minority students are under-represented in gifted education programs. One explanation for this pattern is that the usual process for identifying gifted students, through parent and teacher referrals, systematically misses many potentially qualified disadvantaged students. We use the experiences in a large urban school district following the introduction of a universal screening program for second grade students to study this hypothesis. With no change in the standards for gifted eligibility the screening program led to large increases in the fractions of economically disadvantaged students and minorities placed in gifted programs. Comparisons of the newly identified gifted students with those who would have been placed in the absence of screening show that blacks and Hispanics, free/reduced price lunch participants, English language learners, and girls are all systematically "under-referred" in the traditional parent/teacher referral system.
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2015–09
  8. By: Andrew Eyles; Stephen Machin; Olmo Silva
    Abstract: The English education system has undergone a large restructuring programme through the introduction of academy schools. The most salient feature of these schools is that, despite remaining part of the state sector, they operate with more autonomy than the predecessor schools they replace. Two distinct time periods of academy school introduction have taken place, under the auspices of different governments. The first batch was initiated in the 2002/03 school year by the Labour government of the time and was directly aimed at turning around badly performing schools. The second batch involved a mass academisation process following the change of government in May 2010 and the Academies Act of that year and resulted in increased heterogeneity of new academies. This paper compares the two batches of introduction with the aim of getting a better understanding of their similarities and differences. To do so, we study what types of schools were more likely to change to academy status in the two programmes, and the impact of this change on the quality of new pupil enrolments into the new types of school. Whilst we do point out some similarities, these are the exception rather than the norm. For the most part, our analysis reveals a number of marked dissimilarities between the two programmes in terms of both the characteristics of schools that become academies and the subsequent changes in intakes.
    Keywords: Academies, pupil intake
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2015–09
  9. By: Dennis Epple; Richard E. Romano; Miguel Urquiola
    Abstract: We review the theoretical, computational, and empirical research on school vouchers, with a focus on the latter. In this substantial body of work, many studies find insignificant effects of vouchers on educational outcomes; however, multiple positive findings support continued exploration. Specifically, the empirical research on small scale programs does not suggest that awarding students a voucher is a systematically reliable way to improve educational outcomes. Nevertheless, in some settings, or for some subgroups or outcomes, vouchers can have a substantial positive effect on those who use them. Studies of large scale voucher programs find student sorting as a result of their implementation, although of varying magnitude. Evidence on both small scale and large scale programs suggests that competition induced by vouchers leads public schools to improve. Moreover, research is making progress on understanding how vouchers may be designed to limit adverse effects from sorting while preserving positive effects related to competition. Finally, our sense is that work originating in a single case (e.g., a given country) or in a single research approach (e.g., experimental designs) will not provide a full understanding of voucher effects; fairly wide ranging empirical and theoretical work will be necessary to make progress.
    JEL: H4 I2
    Date: 2015–09
  10. By: Christopher Avery; Parag A. Pathak
    Abstract: School choice systems aspire to delink residential location and school assignments by allowing children to apply to schools outside of their neighborhood. However, the introduction of choice programs affect incentives to live in certain neighborhoods, which may undermine the goals of choice programs. We investigate this possibility by developing a model of public school and residential choice. We consider two variants, one with an exogenous outside option and one endogenizing the outside option by considering interactions between two adjacent towns. In both cases, school choice rules narrow the range between the highest and lowest quality schools compared to neighborhood assignment rules, and these changes in school quality are capitalized into equilibrium housing prices. This compressed distribution generates incentives for both the highest and lowest types to move out of cities with school choice, typically producing worse outcomes for low types than neighborhood assignment rules. Paradoxically, even when choice results in improvement in the worst performing schools, the lowest type residents may not benefit.
    JEL: H44 I20
    Date: 2015–09
  11. By: Inés Bouvier (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Proyecto Flor de Ceibo); Gioia de Melo (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Alina Machado (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Magdalena Viera (Presidencia de la República (Uruguay). Oficina de Planeamiento y Presupuesto)
    Abstract: This paper summarizes the results of the first evaluation of skills in searching for information on the net, and in management of some applications of the laptop provided by Plan Ceibal, implemented to a representative sample of 3rd grade students of junior high in 2012. The evaluation was applied in 47 centers of junior high. It is a descriptive analysis, because given that there is no baseline evaluation prior to the implementation of Plan Ceibal, we cannot determine the impact of the program on digital skills. The test consisted on three sections. The first measured the knowledge of basic concepts regarding the laptop´s operating system. The second tested the ability to find information on the net. The third assessed the use of the following tools: word processor, presentations and spreadsheets. In line with what has been verified for math and reading tests, ITC skills also seem to be positively correlated with family background. However, it seems that differences in internet skills among those that already had some computing knowledge and those that had not, are smaller than differences observed in the basic tools section. In this sense, it could be interpreted that internet access provided by Plan Ceibal could have reduced the internet skills gap. Moreover, students that use the laptop in class more frequently performed better in the basic tools section. Furthermore, those who connect to internet outside school more frequently and use the laptop for leisure, seen to perform better in the test.
    Keywords: ITC competences, digital skills, One Laptop per Child, Plan Ceibal, Uruguay
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2015–08
  12. By: Suzanne Guillemette (Université de Sherbrooke (CANADA), Département de gestion de l'éducation et de la formation - Université de Sherbrooke); Louise Royal (Université de Sherbrooke (CANADA), Département de gestion de l'éducation et de la formation - Université de Sherbrooke); Monette Kevin (Université de Sherbrooke (CANADA), Département de gestion de l'éducation et de la formation - Université de Sherbrooke)
    Abstract: The actual governance in education leads to the emergence of new expectations towards school principals (SPs) and educational counselors (ECs) to successfully carry through student success (Lessard et coll., 2003; Royal, 2008). This context necessitates getting off the beaten tracks, wondering and innovating along with the school team through a differentiated approach (Guillemette, 2014). It is important to grasp the collaboration between the SPs and the ECs in regard of their mutual support to teachers. Relying on an action research involving SPs and ECs, the communication objective is to describe how they cooperated during the implementation of an accompanying process intended to support the adjustment of teaching practices.
    Abstract: La gouvernance actuelle en éducation entraine l'émergence de nouvelles attentes envers les directeurs d'établissement (DÉ) et les conseillers pédagogiques (CP) pour mener à bien la réussite éducative des élèves (Lessard, Héon, Ognaligui et Verdy, 2003; Royal, Gagnon et Ménard, 2013). Ce contexte incite à sortir des cadres habituels, à se questionner et à innover avec l'équipe-école dans une perspective différenciée (Guillemette, 2014). Il importe de comprendre la collaboration entre les DÉ et CP quant au soutien à apporter aux enseignants. S'appuyant sur une recherche-action réunissant des DÉ et des CP, l'objectif de cet article est de décrire comment ils ont collaboré dans la mise en oeuvre d'une démarche en vue de soutenir l'ajustement des pratiques du personnel enseignant.
    Date: 2015–06–30
  13. By: Vögtle, Eva Maria; Windzio, Michael
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the impact of membership in the Bologna Process on patterns and driving forces of cross-national student mobility. Student exchange flows are analyzed for Bologna Process member states and non-Bologna OECD members over a ten-year period (from 2000 to 2010). We apply a social network approach focusing on outbound diploma-mobility. Based on social network analyses, we first visualize the exchange patterns between sampled countries. In doing so, we analyze the student exchange linkages to first gain descriptive insights into the development of the network. Second, we use exponential random graph models (ERGM) to test which factors determine transnational student mobility. The results of our network analyses reveal that cross-national student exchange networks are stable over time. At the core of these networks are the United States, Great Britain, France, and Germany; they attract the highest shares of students from the remaining countries in our sample. Moreover, the results of the ERGM demonstrate that homophily between countries determines student exchange patterns. The most relevant ties exist between bordering countries. Moreover, membership in the Bologna Process impacts mobility patterns, but surprisingly, it has a mitigating effect.
    Abstract: In diesem Beitrag untersuchen wir den Einfluss der Mitgliedschaft im Bolognaprozess auf Muster internationaler Mobilität von Studierenden. Über eine Periode von 10 Jahren (2000 bis 2010) wird der internationale Austausch von Studierenden sowohl für Länder analysiert, die sich dem Bolognaprozess verpflichtet haben, als auch für Länder, bei denen dies zum jeweiligen Zeitpunkt (noch) nicht der Fall war. Wir bilden die internationale Verflechtung von 41 Ländern als Netzwerke ab, die aufgrund von Strömen von Studierenden entstehen. Im ersten Schritt stellen wir die Verflechtungen grafisch dar und beschreiben die Veränderung des Netzwerkes über die Zeit. Sodann schätzen wir Exponentielle Zufallsgraphenmodelle (p*) und testen, welche Faktoren die Verflechtung bestimmen. In den empirischen Analysen zeigt sich, dass das untersuchte Netzwerk vergleichsweise stabil ist. Im Zentrum des Netzwerkes stehen die Länder USA, Frankreich, Großbritannien und Deutschland. Dies sind die häufigsten Ziele der studentischen Mobilität. Die Ergebnisse weisen zudem darauf hin, dass sich die Mobilität eher zwischen Ländern mit ähnlichem ökonomischen Leistungsniveau abspielt. Den stärksten Effekt weist die gemeinsame Grenze auf, d.h. die räumliche Nähe in Form von direkter Nachbarschaft ist letztlich entscheidend. Auch die Mitgliedschaft im Bologna-Raum hat einen Einfluss, der aber interessanterweise über die Zeit abzunehmen scheint.
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Graf, Erika
    Abstract: Sustainability has been defined by the Brundtland Commission (Brundtland, 1987) as "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". In times of increasing expectations of customers, shareholders, employees, and communities as well as the general public about corporations' contributions to sustainability (WBCSD - World Business Council for Sustainable Development), the latter are severely and continuously criticized for actions that contradict their glossy sustainability reports (Holliday, 2010). However, it is often the case that such criticism is rooted in a lack of awareness of the complexity of relationships and the role that sustainability plays within the context of a firm's operations, particularly SMEs, which cannot dedicate major resources to cope with the issues. Therefore, the question arises of what universities can do to build awareness and understanding among students in order to prepare them to cope with sustainability aspects in their future careers (Starik et al., 2010). This paper presents findings based on quantitative and qualitative data from five consecutive crossfunctional courses in sustainability for students in business, law, architecture, health management and engineering, and evaluates the extent to which their attitude and awareness changed over the course. Recommendations are given for institutions in higher education as well as for companies to follow up with further training initiatives for junior managers.
    Keywords: sustainability,education,corporate social responsibility,ethics,cross-functional learning
    Date: 2015
  15. By: McGuinness, Seamus; Kelly, Elish; Pham Thi Thu, Phuong; Ha Thi Thu, Thuy
    Abstract: Using data from the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey, this paper examines the returns to education in Vietnam in 2002 and 2010, and how these returns changed over time. Given the economic growth that took place during this time period, the relative demand for labour is also assessed in order to identify if skill-biased technical change played a role in explaining the returns to education in Vietnam at a time of exceptional economic growth. The male and female education returns displayed a linear pattern in both 2002 and 2010, with earnings rising with increased levels of education. Relative to males with no qualifications, the returns to those with a vocational training qualification or below fell between 2002 and 2010, while the economic returns to a college education and above increased. Similar results were observed for females. In relation to relative labour demand, the results indicated that the demand for all levels of education (apart from males with a high school qualification) relative to those with no qualifications grew between 2002 and 2010. However, there was particularly strong growth in the demand for those with a vocational training qualification and above, especially an advanced degree qualification. Findings from the paper show that high levels of economic growth in Vietnam between 2002 and 2010 have facilitated increasing returns to education and demand for high skilled labour. In addition, there appears to be shortages for some types of skilled labour.
    Date: 2015–07
  16. By: Krueger, Dirk; Ludwig, Alexander
    Abstract: In this paper we compute the optimal tax and education policy transition in an economy where progressive taxes provide social insurance against idiosyncratic wage risk, but distort the education decision of households. Optimally chosen tertiary education subsidies mitigate these distortions. We highlight the quantitative importance of general equilibrium feedback effects from policies to relative wages of skilled and unskilled workers: subsidizing higher education increases the share of workers with a college degree thereby reducing the college wage premium which has important redistributive benefits. We also argue that a full characterization of the transition path is crucial for policy evaluation. We find that optimal education policies are always characterized by generous tuition subsidies, but the optimal degree of income tax progressivity depends crucially on whether transitional costs of policies are explicitly taken into account and how strongly the college premium responds to policy changes in general equilibrium.
    Keywords: education subsidy; progressive taxation; transitional dynamics
    JEL: E62 H21 H24
    Date: 2015–09
  17. By: Manabu Nose
    Abstract: This paper analyzes drivers of rising per-pupil public education spending, including Baumol’s “cost disease†effect. Higher wages paid to teachers contributed significantly to the increase in per-pupil spending over the past decades. Empirical analyses using a large dataset of advanced and developing economies show that the contribution of Baumol’s effect was much smaller than impled by theory. Rather, the spending inccrease reflects rising wage premiums paid for teachers in excess of market wages, especially in middle-income countries. The strong wage premium effect suggests that institutional characteristics that govern teachers’ wage setting are key determinants of education expenditure.
    Keywords: Education spending;Wage increases;Unit labor cost;Developed countries;Developing countries;Econometric models;Parameter estimation;Public education expenditure, Baumol’s effect, wage premium, institutions
    Date: 2015–07–28
  18. By: Murasawa, Masataka; Oba, Jun; Watanabe, Satoshi P
    Keywords: Education
    Date: 2013–12–01
  19. By: Nelson Sá (Department of Economics, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York 12604, USA); Ana Paula Ribeiro (CEF.UP and FEP, Universidade do Porto, Portugal); Vitor Carvalho (CEF.UP and FEP, Universidade do Porto, Portugal)
    Abstract: This paper makes use of a sample of articles published between 1999 and 2013 by economists affiliated in Portuguese institutions to examine the impact of co-authorship over the quality of academic research. We build a unique database to characterize the role played by distinct affiliations and educational backgrounds on this process, while controlling for experience and individual quality levels. Mentoring relations are identified as one possible source of negative bias on the measurement of teamwork productivity, which we proxy for and quantify here for the first time. The empirical results also suggest that co-authorship across domestic institutions does not carry any significant impact on research quality, but international collaboration enhances it. A doctorate earned abroad is shown to directly improve publication outcomes, besides making it easier to establish partnerships across frontiers. These findings underscore the importance of accessing external knowledge networks in academia, offering relevant policy insights for a large number of small and less developed countries.
    Keywords: Knowledge Networks; Co-Authorship; Academic Productivity
    JEL: A11 J44 I23
    Date: 2015–09
  20. By: Huang, Wei (Harvard University); Lei, Xiaoyan (Peking University); Sun, Ang (Renmin University of China)
    Abstract: The rise in education of women relative to men is an emerging worldwide phenomenon in recent decades. This paper investigates the impact of the birth control policies on teenage girls' education attainment. The estimates suggest that the policies explain 30 percent of the education increase for women born in 1945-1980 and 50 percent of the gender gap narrowing in China. Further analysis provides some suggestive evidence for potential mechanisms, including the policy-induced expectations for labor and marriage market and subjective attitudes on children and gender-equality. These findings highlight the role of fertility policies in women's empowerment of last century.
    Keywords: One-Child Policy, education of girls, expectation
    JEL: D84 I20 J13 J16 J18
    Date: 2015–08
  21. By: Schulze-Cleven, Tobias
    Keywords: Education
    Date: 2015–02–01
  22. By: Lia Chitolina (IPC-IG); Miguel Nathan Foguel (IPC-IG); Naercio Menezes-Filho (IPC-IG)
    Keywords: Impact, Expansion, Programa Bolsa Família, School Attendance
    Date: 2014–09
  23. By: Gründler, Klaus; Scheuermeyer, Philipp
    Abstract: Evidence from a current panel of harmonized worldwide data highlights a robust negative effect of income inequality on economic growth that we trace back to its transmission channels. Less equal societies tend to have less educated populations and higher fertility rates, but not necessarily lower investment shares. The first two effects are harmful for growth and reinforced by limited credit availability. Higher public spending on education attenuates the negative effects of inequality. In addition to the inequality-growth relationship, we examine the direct influence of effective redistribution. When net inequality is held constant, public redistribution negatively affects economic growth. Redistribution hampers investment and raises fertility rates. Combining the negative direct growth effect and the indirect positive effect operating through lower net inequality, the overall impact of redistribution is insignificant. Whereas this result stems mainly from advanced economies, redistribution is beneficial for growth in low and middle-income countries.
    Keywords: Economic Growth,Redistribution,Inequality,Panel Data
    JEL: O11 O15 O47 H23
    Date: 2015
  24. By: Jesmin Rahman; Ara Stepanyan; Jessie Yang; Li Zeng
    Abstract: How do countries enhance their exports of goods in a largely tariff-free environment? Our investigation of export performance of new member states in the European Union single market, which provides a natural control for barrier-free environment, points to the importance of structural reforms, particularly in the areas of higher education, skills upgrade, wage structure’s ability to provide incentives to work and foreign investment environment. In addition, establishing links with supply chains, which in addition to the above-mentioned reforms also depend on better institutions and infrastructure, are important. The analysis in the paper shows that new member states are at varying levels of quality and integration, which highlights the need for country-specific policy priorities. Services trade, which is subject to significant non-tariff barriers in the EU market even after the implementation of the Services Directive, shows considerable room for growth given the comparative advantage of some of the new member states.
    Keywords: Economic integration;Fiscal reforms;European Economic and Monetary Union;European Union;Export performance;Exports;Trade integration;Comparative advantage;Export integration, structural reform, supply chain, new member states, environment, trade, incentives, Country and Industry Studies of Trade,
    Date: 2015–08–03
  25. By: Dirks, Nicholas B
    Keywords: Education
    Date: 2015–06–01
  26. By: Dyah Larasati (IPC-IG); Fiona Howell (IPC-IG)
    Keywords: Bantuan Siswa Miskin, BSM, Indonesian, Cash Transfer Programme, Poor Students
    Date: 2014–12
  27. By: Sutter, Matthias (University of Cologne); Yilmaz, Levent (University of Innsbruck); Oberauer, Manuela (University of Innsbruck)
    Abstract: The ability to delay gratification has been shown to be related to higher education and income and better health status. We study in an experiment with 336 kindergarten children, aged three to six years, whether intertemporal choice behavior is malleable. In a control condition, about 50% of children prefer two rewards the next day over one reward immediately. By setting a simple default this fraction increases to more than 70%, indicating that simple defaults work very successfully in promoting delay of gratification. We also find that patience increases with age and that more patient children have a lower BMI.
    Keywords: delay of gratification, intertemporal choice, default, experiment, children
    JEL: C91 D03
    Date: 2015–08

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