nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2015‒08‒13
25 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Who Believes in Me? The Effect of Student-Teacher Demographic Match on Teacher Expectations By Gershenson, Seth; Holt, Stephen B.; Papageorge, Nicholas W.
  2. Primary Education Expansion and Quality of Schooling: Evidence from Tanzania By Valente, Christine
  3. The Impact of Digital Skills on Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Performance Tests By Laura Pagani; Gianluca Argentin; Marco Gui; Luca Stanca
  4. Heterogeneity in graduate earnings by socio-economic background By Claire Crawford; Anna Vignoles
  5. Socio-economic differences in university outcomes in the UK: drop-out, degree completion and degree class By Claire Crawford
  6. Inferring School Quality from Rankings: The Impact of School Choice By Claudia Herresthal
  7. Charter school entry and school choice: the case of Washington, D.C. By Ferreyra,Maria Marta; Kosenok,Grigory
  8. On the Political Economy of University Admission Standards By De Donder, Philippe; Martinez-Mora, Francisco
  9. The impact of financial education on adolescents' intertemporal choices By Melanie Lührmann; Marta Serra-Garcia; Joachim Winter
  10. The impact of secondary schooling in Kenya : a regression discontinuity analysis By Ozier,Owen
  11. Gender differences on sexual behavior and school inputs: evidence from Bogota By Andrea Atencio; Juan Gallego
  12. Social Interactions Through Space and Time: Evidence from College Enrollment and Academic Mobility By Goulas, Sofoklis; Megalokonomou, Rigissa
  13. Education and the local equity bias around the world By Udichibarna Bose; Ronald MacDonald; Serafeim Tsoukas
  14. Immigration and School Choices in the Midst of the Great Recession By Farré, Lídia; Ortega, Francesc; Tanaka, Ryuichi
  15. Job Loss at Home: Children's School Performance during the Great Recession in Spain By Jenifer Ruiz-Valenzuela
  16. Understanding the Effects of Education on Health: Evidence from China By Huang, Wei
  17. Validación de un instrumento de medición de ambiente escolar para docentes Colombianos By Juan Pablo Román Calderón; Mónica Patricia Ospina Londoño; José David Garcés Ceballos
  18. Does market-oriented education systems improve performance or increase inequality: A configurational comparative method for understanding (un)intended educational outcomes By Wise, Ramsey
  19. Education, Social Mobility, and Talent Mismatch By Yuki Uchida
  20. ‘We Remain What We Are’. North Schleswig German Identities in Children’s Education after 1945 By Tobias Haimin Wung-Sung
  21. The impact of family composition on educational achievment By Stacey Chen; Yen-Chien Chen; Jin-Tan Liu
  22. Optimal Capital and Progressive Labor Income Taxation with Endogenous Schooling Decisions and Intergenerational Transfers By Alexander Ludwig; Dirk Krueger
  23. Land Access Inequality and Education in Pre-Industrial Spain By Julio Martinez-Galarraga;Francisco Beltrán Tapia
  24. Pensions, Education, and Growth: A Positive Analysis By Tetsuo Ono; Yuki Uchida
  25. Uma Análise dos Rendimentos do Trabalho entre Indivíduos com Ensino Superior no Brasil By Maurício Cortez Reis; Danielle Carusi Machado

  1. By: Gershenson, Seth (American University); Holt, Stephen B. (American University); Papageorge, Nicholas W. (Johns Hopkins University)
    Abstract: Teachers are an important source of information for traditionally disadvantaged students. However, little is known about how teachers form expectations and whether their expectations are systematically biased. We investigate whether student-teacher demographic mismatch affects high school teachers' expectations for students' educational attainment. Using a student fixed effects strategy that exploits expectations data from two teachers per student, we find that non-black teachers of black students have significantly lower expectations than do black teachers. These effects are larger for black male students and math teachers. Our findings add to a growing literature on the role of limited information in perpetuating educational attainment gaps.
    Keywords: educational attainment, expectations, stigmatization, mismatch
    JEL: I24 D84 J15 J16
    Date: 2015–07
  2. By: Valente, Christine (University of Bristol)
    Abstract: The rapid increase in primary enrollment seen in many developing countries might worsen schooling quality. I estimate the effect of enrollment growth following the removal of primary school fees in Tanzania and find that it led to large increases in the pupil-teacher ratio and a reduction in observable teacher quality, but rule out a substantial effect on test scores overall. These results are robust to instrumenting enrollment growth using predetermined fertility and migration decisions, and not driven by compositional changes. In urban areas, however, where baseline achievement was higher, test scores deteriorated where enrollment growth was larger.
    Keywords: universal primary education, pupil-teacher ratio, test scores, Tanzania
    JEL: I21 I28 O15
    Date: 2015–07
  3. By: Laura Pagani; Gianluca Argentin; Marco Gui; Luca Stanca
    Abstract: Digital skills are increasingly important for labor market outcomes and social participation. Do they also matter for academic performance? This paper investigates the effects of digital literacy on educational outcomes by merging data from the Italian National Assessment in secondary schools with an original data set on performance tests of Internet skills for 10th grade students. Our identification strategy relies on a rich set of individual, family, school and classroom control variables that are not commonly available in previous studies. The findings indicate that, overall, Internet skills have a positive impact on academic achievement. This effect is stronger for students with low academic performance or low family background. It is also stronger for students in technical or vocational schools.
    Keywords: Human capital, Academic achievement, Digital skills, Internet skills, Digital divide
    JEL: I21 J13 J24
    Date: 2015–07
  4. By: Claire Crawford (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Anna Vignoles (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute of Education)
    Abstract: Education is often regarded as a route to social mobility. For this to be the case, however, the link between family background and adult outcomes must be broken (or at least reduced) once we take account of an individual’s education history. This paper focuses on individuals who have completed university and provides new evidence on differences in graduates’ earnings by socio-economic background, with a particular focus on whether they attended a private school. We use data on the population of individuals graduating from UK universities in 2006-07 and find that those who attended private schools earn around 7% more per year, on average, than state school students some 3.5 years after graduation, even when comparing otherwise similar graduates and allowing for differences in degree subject, university attended and degree classification. This work complements Macmillan et al. (2013), who found that graduates from private schools were more likely to enter “high status” occupations. However, our results show that earnings differences persist even within occupations, with graduates who attended private schools earning 6% more than their state school compatriots working in the same occupations. This is equivalent to around £1,500 extra per year in our data. Together, these results suggest that there is a pressing need to understand why private schooling confers such an advantage in the labour market, even amongst similarly achieving graduates, and why higher education does not appear to be the leveller it was hoped to be.
    Date: 2014–10
  5. By: Claire Crawford (Institute for Fiscal Studies)
    Abstract: There are large socio-economic gaps in higher education participation. But returns to education in the UK derive largely from the attainment of qualifications rather than years of study, and additionally vary by institution, subject and degree class for graduates. This paper provides new evidence on what happens to young people from different backgrounds once they arrive at university, exploring socio-economic differences in drop-out, degree completion and degree class. We find that the large raw differences in university outcomes between individuals from different socio-economic backgrounds can largely be explained by the fact that they arrive at university with very different levels of human capital. Comparing individuals on the same course makes relatively little difference to the remaining socio-economic gaps in university outcomes, with those from higher socio-economic backgrounds still 3.4 percentage points less likely to drop-out, 5.3 percentage points more likely to graduate and 3.7 percentage points more likely to graduate with a first or 2:1 than those from lower socio-economic backgrounds. These findings are in stark contrast to similar analysis by school characteristics (e.g. Crawford, 2014), which shows that, amongst students with the same grades on entry to university, those from worse-performing schools are less likely to drop-out, more likely to complete their degree and more likely to obtain a first or 2.1 than those from better-performing schools. This suggests that it is more challenging for universities interested in using contextual data to inform their admissions policies to predict those with high potential based on socio-economic background than based on school characteristics.
    Date: 2014–11
  6. By: Claudia Herresthal
    Abstract: School choice reforms allow families to apply to non-local schools and assign additional funding to schools based on families' demand. For these reforms to promote high-quality schools, families need to infer school quality from past performance, but past performance also depends on student ability. Because reforms alter the allocation of students to schools, it is unclear whether performance becomes more or less informative about quality. I model families as trading off estimated quality against proximity, and analyze a steady-state Bayesian-Nash equilibrium. I show that performance-based rankings become more informative about quality only if oversubscribed schools can choose whom to accept.
    Keywords: rankings, performance, school quality, school choice
    JEL: D80 I20
    Date: 2015–06–11
  7. By: Ferreyra,Maria Marta; Kosenok,Grigory
    Abstract: This paper develops and estimates an equilibrium model of charter school entry and school choice. In the model, households choose among public, private, and charter schools, and a regulator authorizes charter entry and mandates charter exit. The model is estimated for Washington, D.C. According to the estimates, charters generate net social gains by providing additional school options, and they benefit non-white, low-income, and middle-school students the most. Further, policies that raise the supply of prospective charter entrants in combination with high authorization standards enhance social welfare.
    Keywords: Education For All,Cultural Policy,Secondary Education,Tertiary Education,Primary Education
    Date: 2015–07–29
  8. By: De Donder, Philippe; Martinez-Mora, Francisco
    Abstract: We study the political determination of the proportion of students attending university when access to higher education is rationed by admission tests. Parents differ in income and in the ability of their unique child. They vote over the minimum ability level required to attend public universities, which are tuition-free and financed by proportional income taxation. University graduates become high skilled, while the other children attend vocational school and become low skilled. Even though individual preferences are neither single-peaked nor single-crossing, we obtain a unique majority voting equilibrium, which can be either classical (with 50% of the population attending university) or ends-against- the-middle, with less than 50% attending university (and parents of low and high ability children favoring a smaller university system). The majority chosen university size is smaller than the Pareto efficient level in an ends-against-the-middle equilibrium. Higher income inequality decreases the majority chosen size of the university. A larger positive correlation between parents income and childs ability leads to a larger university populated by a larger fraction of rich students, in line with the so-called participation gap. Our results are robust to the introduction of private schooling alternatives, financed with fees.
    Keywords: majority voting, ends-against-the-middle, non single-peaked preferences, non single-crossing preferences, higher education participation gap, income ability correlation, size of university
    JEL: D72 I22
    Date: 2015–05
  9. By: Melanie Lührmann (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Marta Serra-Garcia (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Joachim Winter (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München)
    Abstract: We study the impact of financial education on intertemporal choice in adolescence. The program was randomly assigned among high-school students and intertemporal choices were measured using an incentivized experiment. Students who participated in the program display a decrease in time inconsistency; an increase in the allocation of payment to a single payment date, compared to spreading payment across two dates; and increased consistency of choice with the law of demand. These findings suggest that the effect of such educational programs is to increase comprehension and decrease bracketing in intertemporal choice. This working paper was updated in May 2015.
    JEL: D14 D91 C93
    Date: 2014–07
  10. By: Ozier,Owen
    Abstract: This paper estimates the impacts of secondary school on human capital, occupational choice, and fertility for young adults in Kenya. The probability of admission to government secondary school rises sharply at a score close to the national mean on a standardized 8th grade examination, permitting the estimation of causal effects of schooling in a regression discontinuity framework. The analysis combines administrative test score data with a recent survey of young adults to estimate these impacts. The results show that secondary schooling increases human capital, as measured by performance on cognitive tests included in the survey. For men, there is a drop in the probability of low-skill self-employment, as well as suggestive evidence of a rise in the probability of formal employment. The opportunity to attend secondary school also reduces teen pregnancy among women.
    Keywords: Public Examination System,Education For All,Population Policies,Secondary Education,Tertiary Education
    Date: 2015–08–06
  11. By: Andrea Atencio; Juan Gallego
    Abstract: Abstract: This paper explores the correlation between school factors and the differentiated results on sexual behavior between boys and girls in Bogota. A school stratified propensity score matching was performed to match each boy of the sample with the most similar girls in individual, household and school characteristics. A regression analysis was performed to estimate the correlation between school factors and the main outcomes, namely sexual status, condom use in last intercourse, teenage childbearing and age at first intercourse. Boys - in relation to girls - begin earlier their sexual life, report larger use of condom and lower incidence of teenage childbearing. These differences are correlated with sex education at school, and teachers characteristics { age, education level and pedagogy degree. The results suggest that the content of sex education that is delivered to girls at school is not complete or accurate and that teachers play a key role to reduce this gender bias.
    Keywords: Sexual Behavior, Schools, Gender Differences, Bogota
    JEL: H51 I28 J13 O15
    Date: 2015–01–22
  12. By: Goulas, Sofoklis; Megalokonomou, Rigissa
    Abstract: In the recent years, the importance of one's group of peers-be that friends, colleagues, neighbors- has been widely emphasized in the literature. In this paper, we ask whether individuals derive utility from conformity in college enrollment and academic mobility. We propose a new methodology in mitigating reflection and endogeneity issues in identifying social interactions. We exploit a special institutional setting, in which schools are very close to each other, allowing for students from different schools to interact. We investigate utility spillovers from the educational choices of students in consecutive cohorts. Spatial variation allows us to identify social interactions in groups of various sizes. Using a new dataset that spans the universe of high school graduates, we estimate general equilibrium effects of social interactions. We find positive and significant externalities in the decision to enrol in college and the decision to migrate to a different city among peers that belong to the same social group.
    Keywords: college enrollment, social interactions, mobility, geography, reflection problem
    JEL: J24
    Date: 2015–08–01
  13. By: Udichibarna Bose; Ronald MacDonald; Serafeim Tsoukas
    Abstract: Using a panel of 38 economies, over the period 2001 to 2010, we analyse the link between different facets of education and diversification in international portfolios. We find that university education, mathematical numeracy, in addition to financial skill, play an important role in reducing home bias. After separating countries according to their level of financial development, we find that less developed economies with more university graduates, or with higher level of mathematical numeracy, have lower level of local equity bias compared to more developed countries. We also find that the beneficial effect of education is more pronounced during the most recent financial crisis, especially for economies with less developed financial markets.
    Keywords: Home bias; Equity markets; International diversification; Education; Financial crisis.
    JEL: F30 G11 G23 E20
    Date: 2015–06
  14. By: Farré, Lídia (University of Barcelona); Ortega, Francesc (Queens College, CUNY); Tanaka, Ryuichi (University of Tokyo)
    Abstract: This paper empirically analyzes the effects of immigration on the schooling decisions of natives. We employ household-level data for Spain for years 2000-2012, a period characterized by a large immigration wave and a severe recession. Our estimates reveal that Spanish households responded to immigration by increasing their educational expenditures. This result was mainly driven by an important native flight from tuition-free schools toward private ones. We also find strong evidence of cream-skimming: only the more educated native households switched to private schools in response to immigration. Finally, our simulations suggest that the reduction in household income due to the Great Recession mitigated the flight toward private schools triggered by immigration but was not enough to offset it. We argue that these findings are driven by several factors: school assignment rules, concerns over negative peer effects, and political economy forces.
    Keywords: education, public school, recession, immigration
    JEL: D7 F22 H52 H75 J61 I22 I24
    Date: 2015–07
  15. By: Jenifer Ruiz-Valenzuela
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of parental job loss on children's school performance during the Great Recession in Spain, using an original panel dataset for students observed since the beginning of the crisis in a school in the province of Barcelona. By using fixed effects, this paper is more likely to deal with the problem of selection into troubled firms which is prevalent in the literature. Fixed effect estimates show that students experience a negative and significant decrease on average grades of about 13% of a standard deviation after father's job loss. The impact of paternal job loss is not homogeneous across students, but it is largely concentrated among children whose fathers suffer long unemployment spells after job loss and students in already disadvantaged families in terms of the father's education level. These results suggest that paternal job loss is a mechanism through which further inequalities might develop during and after a deep economic crisis.
    Keywords: Parental job loss, school performance, Great Recession
    JEL: I20 I24 J63 J65
    Date: 2015–07
  16. By: Huang, Wei (Harvard University)
    Abstract: Using a national representative sample in China from three largest on-going surveys, this study examines the effects of education on health among working-age population and explores the potential mechanisms. Using the exogenous variation in temporal and geographical impacts of Compulsory Schooling Laws (CSLs), it finds an additional year of schooling decreases 2-percentage points in reporting fair or poor health, 1-percentage points for underweight and 1.5-percentage points for smoking, and increases cognition by about 0.16 standard deviation. Further analysis also suggests that nutrition, income, cognition and peer effects are important channels in the education-health nexus, and all of these factors explain almost half of the education's impact. These suggest that CSLs have improved national health significantly in China and the findings help to explain the mixed findings in the literature.
    Keywords: education, health, China
    JEL: I12 I21 I28
    Date: 2015–07
  17. By: Juan Pablo Román Calderón; Mónica Patricia Ospina Londoño; José David Garcés Ceballos
    Abstract: This study explores the validity and reliability of a school environment instrument supplied to 3160 teachers from Medellin – Colombia public schools in 2011. The multilevel factorial analysis allowed establishing that through 20 reactives, the instrument evaluates four school environment dimensions at individual level: communication from the school to the teachers and communication from the teachers to the parents, participation level into the school decisions, respect-emotional security and academic expectations. At the group level, the same reactives allowed measuring a general school environment dimension. Therefore, results suggested the instrument permits to establish differences between schools in school environment terms.
    Keywords: Ambiente escolar; análisis factorial exploratorio multinivel; percepción de losdocentes; validación.
    JEL: C38 C83 I20
    Date: 2015–07–15
  18. By: Wise, Ramsey
    Abstract: Since the introduction of PISA in 2000, school choice has been featured as a mechanism by which students gain equal educational opportunities and schools are pressured to improve their performance. In opposition, critics have argued that geographic and socioeconomic disparities may cause choice to unintentionally contribute to further educational inequalities, while performance gains are only marginal. To further explore the market rationale behind these claims, this study develops a conceptual framework that theoretically identifies complementary school-level characteristics of market-oriented education systems. These include choice, autonomy and accountability. Both educational outcomes - educational performance and inequality - are then analyzed with regard to these characteristics of market-oriented education systems using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). This configurational comparative approach further allows for the analysis of complex causality in order to understand how features of market orientation (i.e. choice, autonomy and accountability) also interact with a country's socio-structural context. Therefore, market orientation is modeled along with two well known contributing factors of the outcomes explored, namely social stratification and the institutional stratification of educational systems. Data is derived from the 2009 PISA study and aggregated for 21 OECD countries. The results demonstrate that a strong trade-off between performance and inequality is demonstrated in most countries sampled here. Although many of these countries indeed have market-oriented education systems, few cases contradict this association - the primary difference being the socio-structural context. Theoretically and empirically relevant configurations are identified to explain cross-national variation of educational outcomes; however, these solutions are highly sensitive and possibly subject to model ambiguities.
    Abstract: Seit der ersten PISA Studie im Jahr 2000 wird "school choice" als Mittel angesehen, um Schülern gleiche Bildungschancen zu gewähren und die Leistungen von Schulen zu verbessern. Dagegen argumentieren Kritiker, dass die Schulwahl aufgrund geografischer und sozioökonomischer Disparitäten zu weiteren Bildungsungleichheiten beiträgt - während Leistungssteigerungen nur marginal sind. Um das hinter dieser Debatte stehende Marktprinzip zu untersuchen, liefert die vorliegende Studie einen konzeptionellen Rahmen, in dem theoretisch relevante, komplementäre Merkmale marktorientierter Bildungssysteme auf der Schulebene identifiziert werden. Hierbei handelt es sich um Wahl, Autonomie und Verantwortlichkeit. Beide Bildungsoutcomes - Ungleichheit und Leistung - werden in Bezug auf die genannten Merkmale marktorientierter Bildungssysteme unter Verwendung einer "fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis" (fsQCA) untersucht. Diese Methode ermöglicht die Analyse komplexer Kausalitäten, sodass zudem überprüft werden kann, inwiefern Wahl, Autonomie und Verantwortlichkeit mit dem sozialstrukturellen Kontext eines Landes interagieren. Auf diese Weise wird Marktorientierung zusammen mit zwei bekannten Einflussfaktoren für Ungleichheit und Leistung modelliert: soziale Stratifizierung und institutionelle Stratifizierung des Bildungssystems. Als Datenbasis dient die PISA-Studie 2009, auf deren Grundlage Daten für 21 OECD-Länder aggregiert wurden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass ein Großteil der hier betrachteten Länder einen starken Trade-off zwischen Leistung und Ungleichheit zeigt. Dies betrifft vornehmlich marktorientierte Bildungssysteme. Allerdings, widerlegt eine kleine Anzahl von marktorientierten Ländern, die sich im Wesentlichen im sozialen Kontext unterscheiden diesen Zusammenhang. Theoretisch und empirisch relevante Merkmalskonfigurationen werden ermittelt, um länderübergreifende Veränderungen in den Bildungsoutcomes zu erklären. Die Ergebnisse sind allerdings anfällig für Modell-Ambiguität.
    Date: 2015
  19. By: Yuki Uchida (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: This study presents a two-class, overlapping-generation model featuring social mobility inhibited by the mismatch of talents. Mobility decreases as the private education gap between the two classes widens, whereas it increases with an increased public education spending. Within this framework, we consider the redistributive politics of public education and show that the private education gap provides the government with an incentive to increase public education. We also show that social mobility reveals a cyclical motion across generations when the political power of the poor is weak.
    Keywords: Social mobility; Public education; Redistribution; Voting
    JEL: H20 I24 J62
    Date: 2015–08
  20. By: Tobias Haimin Wung-Sung (Department of Border Region Studies, University of Southern Denmark)
    Abstract: Like many other ethnic Germans in Europe, the German minority in Denmark supported the Nazi regime in Germany and its policy of territorial expansion. But unlike most German minorities of Europe, the Germans in Denmark avoided post-war forced deportation or assimilation. Able to stay in their native region, the minority reconstructed their civic life over the next 25 years. The minority regarded education vital for securing the group’s long-term survival. The success of re-building schools, however, did not leave the minority unchanged. Over time, the identities that were constructed and communicated in the new schools changed as much as society surrounding them. The article brings forward this identity transformation through an analysis of the education system reconstruction process, 1945-1970. The article shows that children and youths of the German-minded minority in post-war North Schleswig attended schools that gradually replaced hostility and national separatism with transnational inclusion and an international outlook.
    Keywords: minorities, children, education, identity, history, Schleswig, Denmark, Germany
    JEL: J15 I20 N44
    Date: 2015–07
  21. By: Stacey Chen (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Academia Sinica); Yen-Chien Chen (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Jin-Tan Liu (Institute for Fiscal Studies)
    Abstract: Parents preferring sons tend to go on to have more children until one or more boys are born, and to concentrate investment in boys for a given sibsize. Therefore, having a brother may affect child outcomes in two ways: indirectly, by decreasing sibsize, and directly, where sibsize remains constant. We develop an identification strategy that allows us to separate these two effects. We then apply this to capture the heterogeneous effects of male siblings in both direct and indirect channels, using 0.8 million Taiwanese first-borns. Our empirical evidence indicates that neither effect is important in explaining first-born boys' education levels. In contrast, both effects for first-born girls are evident but go in opposite directions, resulting in a near-zero total effect which has previously been a measure of gender bias. These results offer new evidence of sibling rivalry and gender bias in family settings that has not been detected in the literature.
    Date: 2014–10
  22. By: Alexander Ludwig (Goethe University Frankfurt); Dirk Krueger (University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: In this paper we characterize quantitatively the optimal mix of progressive labor income and capital income taxes as well as and education subsidies in a model with endogenous human capital formation, borrowing constraints, income risk. and incomplete financial markets. Progressive labor income taxes provide social insurance against idiosyncratic income risk and redistributes after tax income among ex-ante heterogeneous households. In addition to the standard distortions of labor supply progressive taxes also impede the incentives to acquire higher education, generating a non-trivial trade-off for the benevolent utilitarian government. The latter distortion can potentially be mitigated by an education subsidy. We find that the welfare-maximizing fiscal policy is indeed characterized by a substantially progressive labor income tax code and a positive subsidy for college education. The optimal degree of the education subsidy is larger than in the current U.S. status quo.
    Date: 2015
  23. By: Julio Martinez-Galarraga;Francisco Beltrán Tapia
    Abstract: By collecting a large dataset in mid-19th century Spain, this paper contributes to the debate on institutions and economic development by examining the historical link between land access inequality and education. This paper analyses information from the 464 districts existent in 1860 and confirms that there is a negative relationship between the fraction of farm labourers and literacy rates. This result does not disappear when a large set of potential confounding factors are included in the analysis. The use of the Reconquest as a quasi-natural experiment allows us to rule out further concerns about potential endogeneity. Likewise, by employing data on schooling enrolment rates and number of teachers, this paper explores the mechanisms behind the observed relationship in order to ascertain to which extent demand or supply factors are responsible for it. Lastly, the gender composition of the data, which enables distinguishing between female and male literacy levels, together with boys and girls schooling enrolment rates, is also examined.
    Keywords: economic history, inequality, land access inequality, education inequality, Spain, Pre-Industrial Spain
    Date: 2015–06–01
  24. By: Tetsuo Ono (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University); Yuki Uchida (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: This study presents an overlapping generations model to capture the nature of the competition between generations regarding two redistribution policies, public education and public pensions. From a political economy viewpoint, we investigate the effects of population aging on these policies and economic growth. We show that greater longevity results in a higher pension-to-GDP ratio. However, an increase in longevity produces an initial increase followed by a decrease in the public education- to-GDP ratio. This, in turn, results in a hump-shaped pattern of the growth rate.
    Keywords: economic growth; population aging; public education; public pen-sions
    JEL: D78 E24 H55
    Date: 2014–12
  25. By: Maurício Cortez Reis; Danielle Carusi Machado
    Abstract: Este texto tem como objetivo analisar o mercado de trabalho para indivíduos que concluíram o ensino superior no Brasil, usando dados do Censo de 2010. A desigualdade de rendimentos entre os trabalhadores brasileiros de nível superior é extremamente elevada. De acordo com os resultados encontrados, um dos fatores que contribui para isso é a acentuada disparidade nos rendimentos do trabalho entre as áreas de formação profissional. Além disso, uma parcela dos trabalhadores com nível superior no Brasil atua em ocupações sem relação com a área de formação, e as evidências indicam que quanto maior o grau de desajuste entre a formação e a ocupação maior tende a ser a penalidade sobre os rendimentos. Os resultados mostram também que a influência desses fatores varia substancialmente ao longo da distribuição de rendimentos do trabalho. This paper provides an analysis of the labor market for individuals with tertiary education in Brazil using data from the 2010 Census. Labor earnings inequality is remarkable among Brazilian workers with a bachelor’s degree. Evidence indicates that heterogeneous returns across fields of study and mismatches between the individuals’ occupations and their fields of study help to explain part of the labor earnings disparities among workers with tertiary education in Brazil. Also according to the results, the estimated effects associated with these elements seem to be quite different across the labor earnings distribution.
    Date: 2015–07

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