nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2015‒07‒11
24 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. How Does Education Improve Cognitive Skills? Instructional Time versus Timing of Instruction By Sarah Dahmann
  2. Comparative Advantages of School and Workplace Environment in Competence Acquisition: Empirical Evidence From a Survey Among Professional Tertiary Education and Training Students in Switzerland By Thomas Bolli; Ursula Renold
  3. Impact of an educational demand-and-supply policy on girls' education in West Africa: Heterogeneity in income, school environment and ethnicity By Fatoke-Dato, Mafaïzath A.
  4. Education and criminal behavior: insights from an expansion of upper secondary school By Åslund, Olof; Grönqvist, Hans; Hall, Caroline; Vlachos, Jonas
  5. Ill communication: technology, distraction & student performance By Louis-Philippe Beland; Richard Murphy
  6. Credit supply and the rise in college tuition: evidence from the expansion in federal student aid programs By Lucca, David O.; Nadauld, Taylor D.; Shen, Karen
  7. ICT and education: evidence from student home addresses By Benjamin Faber; Rosa Sanchis-Guarner; Felix Weinhardt
  8. Universal pre-school education: the case of public funding with private provision By Jo Blanden; Emilia Del Bono; Sandra McNally; Birgitta Rabe
  9. Optimal policy for secondary education in developing countries By Dosmagambet, Yergali
  10. Early smoking, education, and labor market performance By Palali, Ali
  11. The Predictive Validity of Information From Clinical Practice Lessons: Experimental Evidence From Argentina By Ganimian, A. J.
  12. Focus on vocational education and training (VET) programmes By OECD
  13. The Early Labour Market Effects of Generally and Vocationally Oriented Higher Education: Is There a Trade-off? By Verhaest, Dieter; Baert, Stijn
  14. On the optimal provision of social insurance By Krueger, Dirk; Ludwig, Alexander
  15. Health Disparities Across Education: The Role of Differential Reporting Error By Cawley, John; Choi, Anna
  16. Health Disparities Across Education: The Role of Differential Reporting Error By John Cawley; Anna Choi
  17. Impact of income shock on children's schooling and labor in a West African country By Fatoke-Dato, Mafaïzath A.
  18. How do educational transfers affect child labour supply and expenditures? Evidence from Indonesia of impact and flypaper effects. By de Silva, Indunil; Sumarto, Sudarno
  19. The Political Economy of Early and College Education - Can Voting Bend the Great Gatsby Curve? By Christopher Rauh
  20. Low-Skilled Jobs and Student Jobs: Employers' Preferences in Slovakia and the Czech Republic By Kureková, Lucia Mýtna; Žilinčíková, Zuzana
  21. Rising Aspirations Dampen Satisfaction By Clark, Andrew E.; Kamesaka, Akiko; Tamura, Teruyuki
  22. Labor Supply and Productivity Responses to Non-Salary Benefits: Do They Work? If So, at What Level Do They Work Best? By Spencer, Marilyn; Gevrek, Deniz; Chambers, Valrie; Bowden, Randall
  23. Children of Migrants: The Impact of Parental Migration on Their Children's Education and Health Outcomes By Meng, Xin; Yamauchi, Chikako
  24. Early Maternal Time Investment and Early Child Outcomes By del Bono, Emilia; Francesconi, Marco; Kelly, Yvonne; Sacker, Amanda

  1. By: Sarah Dahmann
    Abstract: This paper investigates two mechanisms through which education may affect cognitive skills in adolescence: the role of instructional quantity and the timing ofinstruction with respect to age. To identify causal effects, I exploit a school reform carried out at the state level in Germany as a quasi-natural experiment: between 2001 and 2007, the academic-track high school (Gymnasium) was reduced by one year in most of Germany's federal states, leaving the overall curriculum unchanged. To investigate the impact of this educational change on students' cognitive abilities, I conduct two separate analyses: first, I exploit the variation in the curriculum taught to same-aged students at academic-track high school over time and across states to identify the effect of the increase in class hours on students' crystallized and fluid intelligence scores. Using rich data on seventeen year-old adolescents from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study, the estimates show that fluid intelligence remained unaffected, while crystallized intelligence improved for male students. Second, I compare students' competences in their final year of high school using data from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). The results suggest that students affected by the reform catch up with their non-affected counterparts in terms of their competences by the time of graduation. However, they do not provide any evidence for the timing of instruction to matter in cognitive skill formation. Overall, secondary education therefore seems to impact students'cognitive skills in adolescence especially through instructional time and not so much through age-distinct timing of instruction.
    Keywords: Cognitive Skills, Crystallized Intelligence, Fluid Intelligence, Skill Formation, Education, High School Reform
    JEL: I21 I28 J24
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Thomas Bolli (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Ursula Renold (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: This paper sheds light on the questions how important competences are and which competences can best be learned at school and which competences can be acquired better in the workplace. Exploiting data from a survey among professional tertiary education and training business administration students and their employers in Switzerland, we find that competences related to strategic management, human resource management, organizational design and project management processes are most suitable to be taught in school. However, the results further suggest that soft skills can be acquired more effectively in the workplace than at school. The only exceptions are analytical thinking, joy of learning and organizational competences, for which school and workplace are similarly suitable. Thereby, the paper provides empirical evidence regarding the optimal choice of the learning place for both human resource managers as well as educational decision makers who aim to combine education and training, e.g. in an apprenticeship.
    Keywords: Competences, soft skills, school, workplace learning, relevance, learning place
    JEL: A23 I21
    Date: 2015–07
  3. By: Fatoke-Dato, Mafaïzath A.
    Abstract: The present paper measures the impact of an educational demand-and-supply side policy in a developing country, Benin. This West African country has introduced in 2006 a program to eliminate school fees, build schools and recruit teachers. The data used are the National Demographic and Health Surveys of 2006 and 2012. The difference-in-differences estimations reveal that the policy has lead to a huge increase in enrollment and attendance of birth cohorts of children eligible for the program. Indeed, children stayed on average two more years in school following the implementation of the program. Nevertheless, the gender disparities are tenacious. The heterogeneity analyses suggest that girls' schooling is also influenced by the school infrastructure and the cultural beliefs.
    Keywords: Policy evaluation,Education policy,School fees,Inequality,Infrastructures
    JEL: H43 I24 I25 I28
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Åslund, Olof (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy); Grönqvist, Hans (SOFI, Stockholm University); Hall, Caroline (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy); Vlachos, Jonas (Department of Economics, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: We study the impact on criminal activity from a large scale Swedish reform of vocational upper secondary education, extending programs from two to three years and adding more general theoretical content. The reform directly concerns age groups where criminal activity is high and students who are highly overrepresented among criminal offenders. The nature of the reform and the rich administrative data allow us to shed light on several behavioral mechanisms. Our results show that the prolonged and more general education lead to a reduction in property crime, but no significant decrease in violent crime. The effect is mainly concentrated to the third year after enrollment, which suggests that being in school reduces the opportunities and/or inclinations to commit crime.
    Keywords: Education; delinquency
    JEL: K42
    Date: 2015–06–22
  5. By: Louis-Philippe Beland; Richard Murphy
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of schools banning mobile phones on student test scores. By surveying schools in four English cities regarding their mobile phone policies and combining it with administrative data, we find that student performance in high stakes exams significantly increases post ban. We use a difference in differences (DID) strategy, exploiting variations in schools’ autonomous decisions to ban these devices, conditioning on a range of student characteristics and prior achievement. Our results indicate that these increases in performance are driven by the lowestachieving students. This suggests that restricting mobile phone use can be a low-cost policy to reduce educational inequalities.
    Keywords: Mobile phones; technology; student performance; productivity
    JEL: I21 I28 J24 O33
    Date: 2015–05
  6. By: Lucca, David O. (Federal Reserve Bank of New York); Nadauld, Taylor D. (Brigham Young University); Shen, Karen (Federal Reserve Bank of New York)
    Abstract: When students fund their education through loans, changes in student borrowing and tuition are interlinked. Higher tuition costs raise loan demand, but loan supply also affects equilibrium tuition costs—for example, by relaxing students’ funding constraints. To resolve this simultaneity problem, we exploit detailed student-level financial data and changes in federal student aid programs to identify the impact of increased student loan funding on tuition. We find that institutions more exposed to changes in the subsidized federal loan program increased their tuition disproportionately around these policy changes, with a sizable pass-through effect on tuition of about 65 percent. We also find that Pell Grant aid and the unsubsidized federal loan program have pass-through effects on tuition, although these are economically and statistically not as strong. The subsidized loan effect on tuition is most pronounced for expensive, private institutions that are somewhat, but not among the most, selective.
    Keywords: student loans; college tuition
    JEL: G28 I22
    Date: 2015–07–01
  7. By: Benjamin Faber; Rosa Sanchis-Guarner; Felix Weinhardt
    Abstract: Governments are making it a priority to upgrade information and communication technologies (ICT) with the aim to increase available internet connection speeds. This paper presents a new strategy to estimate the causal effects of these policies, and applies it to the questions of whether and how ICT upgrades affect educational attainment. We draw on a rich collection of microdata that allows us to link administrative test score records for the population of English primary and secondary school students to the available ICT at their home addresses. To base estimations on exogenous variation in ICT, we notice that the boundaries of usually invisible telephone exchange station catchment areas give rise to substantial and essentially randomly placed jumps in the available ICT across neighboring residences. Using this design across more than 20,000 boundaries in England, we find that even very large changes in available internet speeds have a precisely estimated zero effect on educational attainment. Guided by a simple model we then bring to bear additional microdata on student time and internet use to quantify the potentially opposing mechanisms underlying the zero reduced form effect. We find that jumps in the available ICT have no significant effect on student time spent studying online or offline, or on their productivity. Finally, while faster connections appear to increase student consumption of online content, we find that the elasticity of student demand for online content with respect to its time cost is negative but bounded by -1.
    Keywords: Education; information and communication technology; internet
    JEL: D83 I20
    Date: 2015–06
  8. By: Jo Blanden; Emilia Del Bono; Sandra McNally; Birgitta Rabe
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of free pre-school education on child outcomes in primary school. We exploit the staggered implementation of free part-time pre-school for three-year-olds across Local Education Authorities in England in the early 2000s. The policy led to small improvements in attainment at age five, with no apparent benefits by age 11. We argue that this is because the expansion of free places largely crowded out privately paid care, with small changes in total participation, and was achieved through an increase in private provision, where quality is lower on average than in the public sector.
    Keywords: Childcare; child outcomes; publicly provided goods
    JEL: H44 I21
    Date: 2015–05
  9. By: Dosmagambet, Yergali
    Abstract: This paper shows that an accelerated increase in educational attainments in many East Asian countries derives from a dramatic augmentation of working population with vocational education relative to general education. This is consistent with the recent literature, which argues that the ratio of vocational-to-general education tends to be higher in middle-income countries. We explore an analytical approach to open up fresh insights into the composition of secondary education and prove the existence of optimal trajectory that ensures a positive expansion rate of secondary education at early stage of development. Also, we demonstrate that the actual path of vocational-to-general education in Taiwan is very similar to what can be defined by optimal policy for secondary education, which has resulted in a rapid increase in average years of schooling since 1978.
    Keywords: Employment,Economic growth,Education,Human Capital
    JEL: E24 I20 I25 J24
    Date: 2015
  10. By: Palali, Ali (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research)
    Abstract: This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and<br/>labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market performance is indirect through educational attainment. Moreover, for males only, early smoking has a negative effect on current labor market performance even after conditioning on education. For females neither education nor labor market performance is affected by early smoking.
    Keywords: early smoking; education; labor market performance; Mixed Proportional Hazards model; discrete factor approach
    JEL: C41 I19 J24 J31
    Date: 2015
  11. By: Ganimian, A. J.
    Abstract: A growing number of teacher preparation programs require trainees to practice teaching. Yet, there is almost no evidence on whether the performance of individuals during clinical practice lessons predicts how they fare once they enter the school system. We address this question by taking advantage of the fact that an alternative pathway into teaching in Argentina requires admitted applicants to complete two weeks of clinical practice. We collect information both during clinical practice and the school year. During clinical practice, we measure the performance of teaching trainees using classroom observations and student surveys. During the school year, we measure their performance using classroom observations, student surveys, and principal surveys. We find that the overall performance of trainees during clinical practice predicts their overall performance during the school year, but this prediction is only statistically under certain model specifications. The performance of these individuals during clinical practice predicts their ratings on classroom observations during the school year. This relationship remains statistically significant even when we account for how trainees fare on the application and selection processes of the alternative pathway. We also find that the performance of trainees on a brief demonstration lesson, delivered during the selection process, predicts their performance on classroom observations during the school year. The predictive effect is smaller than that of clinical practice lessons, but it raises the question of whether the additional effort required to collect information during clinical practice is worth the improved predictive validity.
    Date: 2015–01
  12. By: OECD
    Abstract: In 2012, in more than one-third of OECD countries, over half of all upper secondary students participated in pre-vocational or vocational programmes but less than 30% of those students were exposed to work‑based learning. Countries with well-established and high-quality vocational and apprenticeship programmes have improved youth employment opportunities. However, in many OECD countries, the share of young people who are neither employed, nor in education or training (NEET) is still higher for graduates from upper secondary VET than from upper secondary general programmes. Students who enter vocational programmes are less likely to graduate than those who are enrolled in general programmes. Moreover, they are nearly five times less likely to enrol in further education than graduates from general secondary schools with similar proficiency in literacy.
    Date: 2015–07
  13. By: Verhaest, Dieter (KU Leuven); Baert, Stijn (Ghent University)
    Abstract: This study investigates whether the choice for a vocationally versus a generally oriented higher education program entails a trade-off between higher employment chances and better matches at the start of the career (when opting for a vocational orientation) and a lower risk of bad match persistence later on (when opting for a general orientation). We rely on detailed early career spell data of Flemish graduates and assess the vocational orientation of their program by means of the presence of curriculum-based work placement. We model the program choice (vocationally versus generally oriented), the transition to a good match and the preceding transition to a bad match simultaneously. To account for non-random selection into vocational programs and into bad matches, the Timing of Events method is combined with an exclusion restriction. After accounting for unobserved heterogeneity, we do not find any evidence for a trade-off early in the career. This result contributes to the debate about the efficiency of vocationalising tertiary education programs through the implementation of work placement.
    Keywords: vocational education, academisation, work placement, mismatch, underemployment, overeducation
    JEL: I21 J24 J64 C21 C41
    Date: 2015–06
  14. By: Krueger, Dirk; Ludwig, Alexander
    Abstract: In this paper we compute the optimal tax and education policy transition in an economy where progressive taxes provide social insurance against idiosyncratic wage risk, but distort the education decision of households. Optimally chosen tertiary education subsidies mitigate these distortions. We highlight the importance of two different channels through which academic talent is transmitted across generations (persistence of innate ability vs. the impact of parental education) for the optimal design of these policies and model different forms of labor as imperfect substitutes, thereby generating general equilibrium feedback effects from policies to relative wages of skilled and unskilled workers. We show that subsidizing higher education has important redistributive benefits, by shrinking the college wage premium in general equilibrium. We also argue that a full characterization of the transition path is crucial for policy evaluation. We find that optimal education policies are always characterized by generous tuition subsidies, but the optimal degree of income tax progressivity depends crucially on whether transitional costs of policies are explicitly taken into account and how strongly the college premium responds to policy changes in general equilibrium.
    Keywords: Progressive Taxation,Education Subsidy,Transitional Dynamics
    JEL: E62 H21 H24
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Cawley, John (Cornell University); Choi, Anna (Cornell University)
    Abstract: One of the most robust findings in health economics is that higher-educated individuals tend to be in better health. This paper tests whether health disparities across education are to some extent due to differences in reporting error across education. We test this hypothesis using data from the pooled National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Continuous for 1999-2012, which include both self-reports and objective verification for an extensive set of health behaviors and conditions, including smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. We find that better educated individuals report their health more accurately. This is true for a wide range of behaviors and conditions, even socially stigmatized ones like smoking and obesity. Differential reporting error across education leads to underestimates of the true health disparities across education that average 19.3%.
    Keywords: health, education, disparities, reporting error
    JEL: I1 I12 I14 I20 I24 I3
    Date: 2015–06
  16. By: John Cawley; Anna Choi
    Abstract: One of the most robust findings in health economics is that higher-educated individuals tend to be in better health. This paper tests whether health disparities across education are to some extent due to differences in reporting error across education. We test this hypothesis using data from the pooled National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Continuous for 1999-2012, which include both self-reports and objective verification for an extensive set of health behaviors and conditions, including smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. We find that better educated individuals report their health more accurately. This is true for a wide range of behaviors and conditions, even socially stigmatized ones like smoking and obesity. Differential reporting error across education leads to underestimates of the true health disparities across education that average 19.3%.
    JEL: I1 I12 I14 I20 I24 I3
    Date: 2015–07
  17. By: Fatoke-Dato, Mafaïzath A.
    Abstract: This study measures the impact of a flood in 2010 in Benin on children's schooling and labor. The data used are the National Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 2006 and 2012. The difference in differences estimates points out a significant decrease in income for farm households following the shock. The income shock affected enrollment of girls the most with a decrease in enrollment of 5.99% for girls in rural areas, of 4.45% for boys in rural areas, of 7.76% for girls in urban areas and of 6.17% for boys in urban areas. Meanwhile, the likelihood to be a domestic worker or a farmer has significantly increased. Despite the removal of school fees in 2006, the households still withdrew their children from school after this income shock. These results imply that income shocks could be a threat to the Universal Primary Education.
    Keywords: Natural disasters,Education,Income shock,Child labor
    JEL: I24 O55 Q54
    Date: 2015
  18. By: de Silva, Indunil; Sumarto, Sudarno
    Abstract: This study utilises a large nationally representative household survey of unusual scope and richness from Indonesia to analyse how the receipt of educational transfers, scholarships and related assistance programmes affects the labour supply of children and the marginal spending behaviour of households on children’s educational goods. We found strong evidence of educational cash transfers and related assistance programmes significantly decreasing the time spent by children in income-generating activities in Indonesia. Households receiving educational transfers, scholarships and assistance were also found to spend more at the margin on voluntary educational goods. These results were stronger for children living in poor families. Our results are particularly relevant for understanding the role of cash transfers and educational assistance in middle-income countries where enrolment rates are already at satisfactory levels, but the challenge is to keep the students in school at post-primary levels
    Keywords: Child labour, cash transfers, education expenditures and flypaper effects.
    JEL: D6 H4 I28 I38
    Date: 2014–08–08
  19. By: Christopher Rauh (University of Cambridge)
    Abstract: High earnings inequality goes hand in hand with low intergenerational earnings mobility across developed countries. Public expenditure on education, which could mitigate this relationship, is negatively correlated with inequality across countries. In an overlapping generations model, which I calibrate to the US, early and college education policies are endogenized via probabilistic voting. I investigate two channels, a technological and a political explanation. First, considering differences across countries in tertiary education characteristics account for 65% of the differences in inequality. The higher college premium in the US translates into increased incentives to invest in early education due to dynamic complementarities, and also increases the gap between parents' ability to finance education. Second, I exploit cross-country variations in the bias in voter turnout towards the educated. Thereby, I replicate the negative relation between inequality and public education expenditure and account for nearly one-quarter of the differences in inequality and mobility. For the US, I find that compulsory voting could foster mobility, whereas the effect on pre-tax inequality is low.
    Date: 2015
  20. By: Kureková, Lucia Mýtna (Slovak Governance Institute); Žilinčíková, Zuzana (Masaryk University)
    Abstract: Massification of tertiary education, growing share of student workers on labour market and consequently increased competition for low-skilled jobs gave rise to the theory of crowding out of the less educated workers. This paper contributes to better understanding of temporary skills-qualifications mismatch typical for student workers by analysing the preferences of employers in low-skilled jobs and student jobs. We take labour market demand perspective and carry out exploratory analysis of job offers posted online in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The results show that the student labour market is quite diverse as student job offers can be found in low-skilled, but also medium-skilled positions. We also find that although student vacancies require, on average, fewer skills than non-student positions, there is strong correlation between formal sophistication of a job vacancy and the required minimum educational level, as well as required skills for both student and non-student positions. It appears that low-educated workers and student workers do not compete for the limited number of positions, but rather fill employers' demands for different types of hard (e.g. language skills) and soft (e.g. flexibility, adaptability) skills. These results support the complementarity view of the coexistence of student employment and low-skilled employment rather than the crowding out theory.
    Keywords: youth, students, employment, skills, vacancy, online, labor demand, Czech Republic, Slovakia
    JEL: J23 J21 J24 J63
    Date: 2015–06
  21. By: Clark, Andrew E.; Kamesaka, Akiko; Tamura, Teruyuki
    Abstract: It is commonly-believed that education is a good thing for individuals. Yet its correlation with subjective well-being is most often only weakly positive, or even negative, despite the many associated better individual-level outcomes We here square the circle using novel Japanese data on happiness aspirations. If reported happiness comes from a comparison of outcomes to aspirations, then any phenomenon raising both at the same time will have only a muted effect on reported well-being. We find that around half of the happiness effect of education is cancelled out by higher aspirations, and suggest a similar dampening effect for income.
    Keywords: education; satisfaction; aspirations; income
    Date: 2015–05
  22. By: Spencer, Marilyn (Texas A&M University Corpus Christi); Gevrek, Deniz (Texas A&M University Corpus Christi); Chambers, Valrie (Stetson University); Bowden, Randall (Texas A&M University Corpus Christi)
    Abstract: This study explores the impact of a particular low marginal-cost employee benefit on employees' intended retention and performance. By utilizing a unique data set constructed by surveying full-time faculty and staff members at a public university in the United States, we study the impact of this employee benefit on faculty and staff performance and retention. We focus on the impact of reduction in dependent college tuition at various levels on employees' intentions to work harder and stay at their current job by using both OLS and Ordered Probit models. We also simulate the direct opportunity cost (reduction in revenue) in dollars and as a percent of total budgeted revenue to facilitate administrative decision making. The results provide evidence that for institutions where employee retention and productivity are a priority, maximizing or offering dependent college tuition waiver may be a relatively low-cost benefit to increase intended retention and productivity. In addition, the amount of the tuition waiver, number of dependents and annual salary are statistically significant predictors of intended increased productivity and intent to stay employed at the current institution. Employee retention and productivity is a challenge for all organizations. Although pay, benefits, and organizational culture tend to be key indicators of job satisfaction, little attention is given to specific types of benefits. This study is the first comprehensive attempt to explore the relationship between the impact of this low-cost employee benefit and employee performance and retention in a higher education institution in the United States.
    Keywords: higher education, retention, employee satisfaction, productivity, job satisfaction, fringe benefits
    JEL: J22 J32 J45 M52
    Date: 2015–06
  23. By: Meng, Xin (Australian National University); Yamauchi, Chikako (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies Japan)
    Abstract: In the past 15 years around 160 million Chinese rural workers migrated to cities to work. Because of restrictions on migrant access to local health and education system a large cohort of migrant children are left-behind in rural villages and growing up without parental care. This paper examines how parental migration affects children's health and education outcomes. Using the Rural-Urban Migration Survey in China (RUMiC) data we are able to measure the share of children's lifetime during which parents migrated away from home. By instrumenting this measure of parental migration with weather changes in their home village when they were young we find a sizable adverse impact of exposure to parental migration on children's health and education outcomes. We also find that what the literature has always done (using contemporaneous measure for parental migration) is likely to underestimate the effect of exposure to parental migration on children's outcomes.
    Keywords: migration, children, education, health, China
    JEL: J38 I28
    Date: 2015–06
  24. By: del Bono, Emilia; Francesconi, Marco; Kelly, Yvonne; Sacker, Amanda
    Abstract: Using large longitudinal survey data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, this paper estimates the relationship between maternal time inputs and early child development. We find that maternal time is a quantitatively important determinant of skill formation and that its effect declines with child age. There is evidence of long-term effects of early maternal time inputs on later outcomes, especially in the case of cognitive skill development. In the case of non-cognitive development, the evidence of this long-term impact disappears when we account for skill persistence.
    Keywords: Cognitive and non-cognitive skill formation; Early interventions; Education production functions
    JEL: I20 J15 J24
    Date: 2015–07

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