nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2015‒06‒13
23 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Higher Education System in Georgia: Reforms and Modern Challenges By Lia Charekishvili
  2. The Consequences of Academic Match between Students and Colleges By Dillon, Eleanor; Smith, Jeffrey A.
  3. Crime Exposure and Educational Outcomes in Mexico By Pedro Paulo Orraca Romano
  4. Immigration and educational spillovers: evidence from Sudeten German expellees in post-war Bavaria By Semrad, Alexandra
  5. Admitting Students to Selective Education Programs: Merit, Profiling, and Affirmative Action By Dario Cestau; Dennis Epple; Holger Sieg
  7. Early Childhood Education by MOOC: Lessons from Sesame Street By Melissa S. Kearney; Phillip B. Levine
  9. The Big Sort: College Reputation and Labor Market Outcomes By W. Bentley MacLeod; Evan Riehl; Juan E. Saavedra; Miguel Urquiola
  10. Education and Growth with Learning by Doing By Marconi, Gabriele; de Grip, Andries
  11. Is Ability Tracking (Really) Responsible for Educational Inequalities in Achievement? A Comparison between the Country States Bavaria and Hesse in Germany By Esser, Hartmut; Relikowski, Ilona
  12. Back to School? Labor-Market Returns to Vocational Postsecondary Education By Böckerman, Petri; Haapanen, Mika; Jepsen, Christopher
  13. Are Education and Skills being Distributed more Inclusively? By OECD
  14. University entrepreneurship education experiences: enhancing the entrepreneurial ecosystems in a UK By Fumi Kitagawa; Don J. Webber; Anthony Plumridge; Susan Robertson
  17. Skills heterogeneity among graduate workers: real and apparent overeducation in the Spanish labor market By Mateos-Romero, Lucía; Salinas Jiménez, María del Mar
  18. Pre-service Teacher’s Attitude on Mobile Learning By Volkan Kukul; Tu Karademir
  20. Stated Briefly: Changes in Financial Aid and Student Enrollment at Historically Black Colleges and Universities after the Tightening of PLUS Credit Standards By Matthew Johnson; Julie Bruch; Brian Gill
  21. Does the transition into daylight saving time affect students' performance? By Herber, Stefanie P.; Quis, Johanna Sophie; Heineck, Guido
  22. Homework Completion: Perceptions and Comparisons of 6th-12th Grade Students Using Traditional and Digital Submission By Adel Al-Bataineh; David Hallatt; Megan Huss; Catherine Unsbee
  23. Una aproximación al análisis espacial urbano para la caracterización del sector educativo en Bogotá y su posible uso como apoyo a las políticas públicas By Javier Mauricio Jácome

  1. By: Lia Charekishvili (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Invited Associated Professor)
    Abstract: Georgia is wealthy with higher educated population. Society is best served if higher education system enjoys academic freedom and requisite institutional autonomy. A strong education system designed to ensure genuine opportunity for all to reach their full potential and continue to improve their knowledge and capacities throughout their lives will raise such society. In 2004 the Law on Higher Education was adopted, which regulates conduct of educational and scientific research activities of higher educational institutions in Georgia, the principles and procedures of management and funding of higher education, establishes the rules and procedures of foundation, performance, reorganization and liquidation of a higher education institution, as well as the principles of authorization and accreditation. In 1999 Ministry of Education of Georgia started implementing Georgian Education System Realignment and Strengthening Program, funded by the World Bank. Within the framework of the program, the Ministry set up an assessment component. The staff of the component was sent to CITO, an assessment center in Netherlands, where they did professional training and participated in preparation of the program. In 2002 the National Examinations were carried out in Georgia for the first time. In 2005, based on the decision of the Georgian government, the Soviet system for university admissions was replaced by the modern system what is considered as one of the most successful reforms conducted in Georgia. Georgia is the country of universities. There were 198 higher education institutions in 2004 with 172.5 thousands students. During Soviet Union, in 1990s, there were about 600 higher education institutions. The vast majority of the students, about 75%, are engaged in public universities, the rest 25% - in private ones. In 2014, there were 72 higher education institutions.Strong correlation exists between students’ schooling background and their participation in higher education. Financial support is available for the students with highest attainments what can also encourage older workers to retrain or upgrade qualifications. The most important criteria in the decision of choosing university is probably the quality of education and prestige. Other important criteria are the global recognition of programmes on offer, modernity of teaching methods.Overall, students are predominantly looking for a specific and high-quality offer in their area of programmes, at an up-to-date and well-managed institution of high standards which they can afford.
    Keywords: Law on Higher Education of Georgia, view of system of higher education of Georgia, on-going reforms of Higher education of Georgia.
    JEL: I00 I23 I28
  2. By: Dillon, Eleanor (Arizona State University); Smith, Jeffrey A. (University of Michigan)
    Abstract: We consider the effects of student ability, college quality, and the interaction between the two on academic outcomes and future earnings. Both ability and college quality strongly improve outcomes and earnings. We find little evidence to support the "mismatch" hypothesis that college quality and ability interact in substantively important ways. All students benefit from attending higher quality colleges. Our estimates imply that resorting students to eliminate mismatch, without changing the capacity of any colleges, would raise expected graduation rates by only 0.6 percentage points and mean earnings by $400 per year. The substantial gains for students who move to higher quality colleges under this reshuffling roughly cancel out the losses of students who move down.
    Keywords: college quality, mismatch
    JEL: I21 J31
    Date: 2015–05
  3. By: Pedro Paulo Orraca Romano (Department of Economics, University of Sussex, UK)
    Abstract: Driven by drug-trade related crimes, homicide levels in Mexico have dramatically increased since 2007. This study examines the effect of students' exposure to crime on educational outcomes. Using school level data, a panel of Mexico's primary and secondary schools from 2006 to 2012 is constructed to analyse the effect of exposure to local homicides on standardised test scores and grade failure rates. The results show that an increase of one unit in the number of homicides per 10,000 inhabitants reduces average standardised test scores between 0.0035 and 0.0142 standard deviations. This effect is larger in secondary schools, grows stronger if the homicide occurs closer to the examination date, and is relatively stable when using either total homicides or drug-trade related homicides to measure crime exposure. Higher homicides rates are also associated with an increase in the grade failure rate. It is proposed that the negative effects of crime exposure are partly due to a reduction in the number of contact hours, where students do not compensate for this by studying more outside of the school. By having a negative impact on educational outcomes, early exposure to homicides has potential long term consequences since it may affect educational attainment levels and future income streams.
    Keywords: Crime; Academic performance; Grade failure; Homicide; Mexico
    JEL: I25 O12 O54 H49
    Date: 2015–06
  4. By: Semrad, Alexandra
    Abstract: This paper analyses long-term effects of forced WWII migration on educational outcomes. Specifically Sudeten German expellees in post-war Bavaria coming from highly industrialized Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) had strong preferences for higher secondary schooling, especially in form of a practical, business-related, and general education school. As a result they became actively engaged in the development of post-war middle track education (Realschule, Fachschule). Employing county-level data on student numbers and graduates of secondary education, empirical analysis including ordinary least squares, instrumental variable, and differences-in-differences models reveals that counties housing a higher share of Sudeten Germans after the war are significantly associated with higher educational development some 20 years later. An increase in the share of Sudeten Germans by 1 percentage point increases the share of children (graduates) in middle track education by at least 0.8 (0.1) percentage points, respectively. Calculations suggest that these effects are not mechanically caused by Sudeten Germans and their children demanding education, but are the actual result of educational spillovers to the local population.
    Keywords: Educational spillovers; Forced migration; Post-war Bavaria
    JEL: I29 N34 O15
    Date: 2015–05
  5. By: Dario Cestau; Dennis Epple; Holger Sieg
    Abstract: For decades, colleges and universities have struggled to increase participation of minority and disadvantaged students. Urban school districts confront a parallel challenge; minority and disadvantaged students are underrepresented in selective education programs. In referral and admission to such programs, school districts may potentially set different admission thresholds based on income and race (affirmative action), and they may potentially take account of differences in achievement relative to ability across race and income groups (profiling). We develop an econometric model that provides a unified treatment of affirmative action and profiling, estimate the model for an urban school district, and conduct counterfactual analysis.
    JEL: I2
    Date: 2015–06
  6. By: Mustafa YAVUZ (Necmettin Erbakan University); Sevil KARACA (Principal of Fetihkent Preschool)
    Abstract: Preschool education is critically important for the development of a child. Because education in this period is such that it affects the individual's future periods. The basis of personality development is discarded by pre-school education in the pre-school period. Larkin (1999), overlooking the differences in structure and size relationships between pre-school education institutions and education institutions in other steps, indicates that the hierarchy in the pre-school institutions is overall flat. From this point, he refers that the attainability to the manager in pre-school educational institutions is easier compared to theother educational institutions. In addition, students and in terms of the number of employees to be small units and to be more intense than the other education levels of the parents to the school level of communication are among the other remarkable features of this school organization. School principal, establishing of communication in school, ensuring co-manipulations and evaluating what has been done provides school to be effective and successful. School principals must use the decision mechanism to bring the school to its purposes. School principal is a person who creates and shapes a school culture fulfilling the tasks. Therefore, in this study the importance, objectives, principles and development of the pre-school education examined in details, later the relationships of the principal and the teacher in the pre-school education studied.The data in this study collected with"semi-structured interview technique" located in the interviews method which isone of the data collection methods in qualitative research and analyzed by the content analysis method. Acoorting to research Whether principals have the communication skills, they attempt to understand them and take the time to listen to them enough, pre-school education teachers consulted their ideas. Preschool education teachers consulted about whether they have faced in transferring ideas and problemsexactly to the principals,said that they are able to explain their ideas and issues generally, they have no difficulties in this regard, but they have shared it witha manager in their own branches more comfortably. Pre school teachers were forced little to criticize the principals generally, but principals take into account their views.
    Keywords: Pre school, Communication, Principal, Teacher
    JEL: A00 A00
  7. By: Melissa S. Kearney; Phillip B. Levine
    Abstract: Sesame Street is one of the largest early childhood interventions ever to take place. It was introduced in 1969 as an educational, early childhood program with the explicit goal of preparing preschool age children for school entry. Millions of children watched a typical episode in its early years. Well-designed studies at its inception provided evidence that watching the show generated an immediate and sizeable increase in test scores. In this paper we investigate whether the first cohorts of preschool children exposed to Sesame Street experienced improved outcomes subsequently. We implement an instrumental variables strategy exploiting limitations in television technology generated by distance to a broadcast tower and UHF versus VHF transmission to distinguish counties by Sesame Street reception quality. We relate this geographic variation to outcomes in Census data including grade-for-age status in 1980, educational attainment in 1990, and labor market outcomes in 2000. The results indicate that Sesame Street accomplished its goal of improving school readiness; preschool-aged children in areas with better reception when it was introduced were more likely to advance through school as appropriate for their age. This effect is particularly pronounced for boys and non-Hispanic, black children, as well as children living in economically disadvantaged areas. The evidence regarding the impact on ultimate educational attainment and labor market outcomes is inconclusive.
    JEL: I24 J24
    Date: 2015–06
  8. By: Cornelis van Dorp (Fontys University of Applied Sciences); Piet Lem (Fontys University of Applied Sciences); Fons Dehing (Fontys University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: In this paper the authors present an educational solution to counter the lack of technical trainers in Dutch vocational education and in-company environments. In the Netherlands, thousands of challenging jobs for hands-on vocational graduates are waiting to be filled-in, whereas the number of (practice) trainers essential to accommodate for the training of these technical prospects, lag behind. The part of the higher education system, designated to the training of teachers, has not been able to provide a solution for this problem. Authors indicate that the problem at hand is complex, multilevel and extends to the coverage of adequate numbers of technical trainers over the different (higher en lower) vocational skill levels. Authors propose to widen the Dutch higher education teacher training system with a new (short cycle, EQF-5) practice trainer programme, which is able to deal more effectively with the challenge. From a macroeconomic perspective, the challenge for the new programme is to draw sufficient numbers of new (technical) trainers. From a pedagogical perspective, the challenge is train the new trainers in such a way that they are able to educate different types of vocational students: obtaining competence and coverage over different vocational skill levels. In the paper, the main requirements are discussed and different parts of the proposed training programme explained. Authors draw conclusions from their experience with the delivery and evaluation of the practice trainer programme, an official associate degree (2 year) programme.
    Keywords: Higher education, practice trainer, vocational education and training, associate degree, technical occupations, vocational skills.
    JEL: I21 I25 I29
  9. By: W. Bentley MacLeod; Evan Riehl; Juan E. Saavedra; Miguel Urquiola
    Abstract: Spence (1973) noted that individuals’ choice of educational quantity—measured by years of schooling—may stem partially from a desire to signal their ability to the labor market. This paper asks if individuals’ choice of educational quality—measured by college reputation—may likewise signal their ability. We use data on the admission scores of all Colombian college graduates to define a measure of reputation that gives clear predictions in a signaling framework. We find that college reputation, unlike years of schooling, is correlated with graduates’ earnings growth. We also show that Colombia’s staggered rollout of a new signal of skill—a college exit exam—reduced the earnings return to reputation and increased the return to individual admission scores. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a college’s reputation provides information about the ability of its student body and about its value added, broadly understood.
    JEL: I21 I23 I24 I25 J01 J24 J3
    Date: 2015–06
  10. By: Marconi, Gabriele (OECD); de Grip, Andries (ROA, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: We develop a general equilibrium overlapping generations model which is based on the view that education makes workers more productive by increasing their ability to learn from work experience, rather than providing skills that directly increase productivity. One important implication of the model is that the enrolment rate to education has a negative effect on the GDP in the medium term and a positive effect in the long term. This could be an explanation for the weak empirical relationship between education and economic growth that has been found in the empirical macroeconomic literature. Conversely, for a given enrolment rate, the quality of education, as measured by workers' ability to learn, has a positive effect on the GDP both in the medium and in the long term.
    Keywords: education, learning-by-doing, productivity, economic growth, overlapping generations model
    JEL: I25 J24 O11 O41
    Date: 2015–05
  11. By: Esser, Hartmut (University of Mannheim); Relikowski, Ilona (University of Bamberg)
    Abstract: It is still taken for granted that (early) ability tracking increases the impact of social origin on achievement in (lower) secondary education, but without gains in the overall level. This contribution addresses the question of whether this common conviction is really correct. The various deviations and inconsistencies obtained from analyses that use other approaches and data bases form the starting point. On the basis of a general theoretical model, the Model of Ability Tracking, we specify the preconditions for identifying the effects of ability tracking. These include considering the school level as well as cognitive abilities prior to ability tracking at the end of elementary school. Both conditions aren't included in common analyses using PISA data. As a consequence, effects of social origin have been systematically overestimated and those of cognitive abilities haven't been detected in the respective studies at all. Because PISA data are lacking information on cognitive abilities in the institutional sorting at the end of primary school and no other appropriate data set to compare educational systems is available, these assumptions will be tested with another data base: the BIKS-study. This study allows using the different levels of strictness of the institutional rules concerning ability tracking in the two country states Bavaria and Hesse in Germany. The results support the presumptions of the Model of Ability Tracking: If school effects on the one hand and cognitive abilities on the other hand were taken into account, all effects of a reinforcement of social origin disappear and increases in school effects of abilities on achievement are observed in Bavaria, the country state with an especially strict rule for ability tracking. Applying the misspecifications of the other approaches to these data, one again obtains their misleading findings, and they disappear by approaching the analyses to the specifications of the Model of Ability Tracking.
    Keywords: educational systems, ability tracking, educational inequality, education and social origin, cognitive ability and educational achievement, school-effects, PISA-studies
    JEL: I20 I24 I28
    Date: 2015–05
  12. By: Böckerman, Petri (Labour Institute for Economic Research); Haapanen, Mika (Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics); Jepsen, Christopher (University College Dublin)
    Abstract: Outside the U.S., little is known about the labor-market returns to vocational (or polytechnic) postsecondary education. This paper focuses on the labor-market returns to polytechnic bachelor's degrees in Finland. Using detailed administrative data, we estimate person fixed effect models to study returns for individuals with labor-force attachment prior to polytechnic school enrollment. We find sizable earnings and employment impacts for polytechnic bachelor's degrees, although the returns vary by personal characteristics and field of study.
    Keywords: vocational education, postsecondary education, labor-market returns
    JEL: J24
    Date: 2015–05
  13. By: OECD
    Abstract: Educational opportunities have a very important impact on a person’s life. Employment, earnings, well-being, health and trust are all strongly related to education and skills. A lack of high-quality educational opportunities is the most important way in which poverty, social inequality and exclusion are transmitted from one generation to another. For countries to grow and progress in a sustainable way, educational opportunities should be distributed in an inclusive way.
    Date: 2015–06
  14. By: Fumi Kitagawa (University of Edinburgh); Don J. Webber (University of the West of England, Bristol); Anthony Plumridge (University of the West of England, Bristol); Susan Robertson (University of Bristol)
    Abstract: The recognition of a strong association between education and economic prosperity has enthused higher education institutions (HEIs) to amplify their initiatives to stimulate entrepreneurship within their local economies and beyond. However, the actual processes and impacts made through entrepreneurship education, and the extent to which and the conditions with which different types of programmes are effective, are not understood well. This article fills part of this gap by adopting the concept of university-based entrepreneurship ecosystems and contributes to the understanding of different impacts of entrepreneurship education and their implications for city-region development. Student-level data are gathered across two HEIs within one city-region in England, which include demographic backgrounds, university experiences and motivations and propensities to start-up businesses. Our analysis reveals that students who believe their university education has helped them develop competencies to address challenges of becoming an entrepreneur were 78 percent more likely to have experienced an increase in their stated preference to start-up a business. This suggests that HEIs should be more actively engaged in stimulating student entrepreneurial behaviour and developing university-based entrepreneurial ecosystems that may lead to greater city-region economic development.
    Keywords: Business start-up; Entrepreneurial propensity; Student motivations
    JEL: L26 R58
    Date: 2015–01–05
  15. By: Atila YILDIRIM (Necmettin Erbakan Üniversity Ahmet Kele); Ali ÜNAL (Necmettin Erbakan Üniversity Ahmet Kele); Abdullah SÜRÜCÜ (Necmettin Erbakan Üniversity Ahmet Kele)
    Abstract: Teacher is the most important factor in making education/instruction activities to reach their purpose and having expected changes in students’ behaviors. Teacher behaviors are seen to be important in the definitions of effective teachers who try to make their students effectively and efficiently make their students reach the goals. Similar effective teacher behaviors have been determined in many researches. The common point of these researches is that their self-confidence and success mainly depend on behaviors with respect to helping their students. When effective teacher behaviors are examined, behaviors of establishing warm and sincere relationships with the students and showing close interest in students mainly gain importance. The purpose of this research is to determine effective teacher behaviors based on the opinions of the teacher candidates. A teacher should know what effective teacher behaviors are and try to apply these behaviors in the best manner. It is supposed that research results will be useful in gaining teacher behaviors in teacher raising programs and making teachers at school to become aware in terms of effective teacher behaviors, and use these behaviors in using the learning-teaching process.The research is in the qualitative research model. The study group of the research consists of 132 teacher candidates who receive teaching training at Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet Kele
    Keywords: : Effective teacher behavior, teacher candidate, classroom management
    JEL: A20 A20
  16. By: Abdullah Sürücü (Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet Kelesoglu Education Faculty); Atila Y (Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet Kelesoglu Education Faculty); Ali Ünal (Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet Kelesoglu Education Faculty)
    Abstract: What is expected from schools is to provide a safe learning environment which is suitable for raising socialized adults who will be the producing members of the society. School safety is a safe environment where mainly students and teachers and directors at school feel at home and continue their education without experiencing any anxieties and fears. Subjective well-being is a general evaluation with regard to the life satisfactions and positive - negative sensations of the individuals. This evaluation includes the individuals’ emotional reactions to the events, moods, life satisfactions, cognitive judgments about life satisfactions and satisfactions in living areas such as marriage and work. People experience a high subjective well-being whenever they feel many pleasant and a few unpleasant feelings, whenever they are involved in interesting activities, whenever they experience much happiness and a little sorrow and whenever they are satisfied from their lives. The purpose of this research is to determine school safety and subjective well-being levels based on the opinions of the teachers and students who work at the public high schools in the central districts of Konya province. This research is considered important in terms of determining the opinions of those who spend most of their time at schools in order to provide a safe environment, revealing the existing problems and bringing solution suggestions. The research was carried out in survey model due to its conformity with the subject and purposes. Comparison type survey method was used in the solution of the data. The population of the research consists of all secondary education teachers and students within the borders of Konya province. The schools, teachers and students which are included in the sampling group were determined randomly. “Subjective Well-Being Scale” which was developed by Tuzgöl Dost (2005) and “School Safety Scale” which was developed by Goldberg (2008) and adapted into Turkish by Çankaya and Arabac
    Keywords: School Safety, Subjective Well-Being, Teachers and Students.
    JEL: I29
  17. By: Mateos-Romero, Lucía; Salinas Jiménez, María del Mar
    Abstract: This paper relaxes the assumption of homogeneous skills among graduate workers and proposes a new approach to differentiate between real and apparent overeducation based on the level of cognitive skills actually achieved by the individuals. This proposal is applied to the study of the wage effects of overeducation in the Spanish labor market using data from PIAAC. The results suggest that between a quarter and a half of the graduate workers who appear to be overeducated in the Spanish labor market could be considered as being only apparently overeducated since they show a lower level of skills than that corresponding to their educational level or, alternatively, a level of cognitive skills which is commensurate with their job. Different returns are found for each group of overeducated individuals both when compared with adequately educated peers within a similar level of education (with greater wage penalties for apparently overeducated workers) and when the comparison is done with well-matched co-workers doing a similar job (with a wage premium for real overeducation but no significant returns for apparently overeducated workers). These results point to the need of taking account of skills heterogeneity within an educational level when returns to overeducation are analyzed.
    Keywords: educational mismatch; skills heterogeneity; real and apparent overeducation
    JEL: A23 J24
    Date: 2015–05
  18. By: Volkan Kukul (Gazi University); Tu Karademir (Ankara University)
    Abstract: In this study, it was aimed to examine the m-learning attitudes of teachers in terms of different variables. Today, advances in technology have changed the ways information is obtained, generated and spread. Technological developments, particularly those which affect spreading of information, became the main factor in determining the content of education, its organization and execution from spatial scales to individualization (Toplu and Gökçearslan, 2012). As the processes related to information change in the information society, educational institutions will have to change themselves. Man's social learning effort has gained a new dimension with the development of individual needs and new technologies. One of these new dimensions is mobile learning. M-learning is defined as a learning model that lets the students' access learning materials at any place, any time through the use of mobile technology and the Internet (LanandSie, 2010). The study group of the study consists of 111 preservice teachers receiving education at Gazi University Faculty of Education in the school year of 2014-2015. M-Learning Attitude Scale. M-learning attitude scale was developed by Çelik (2013) in an attempt to determine the attitudes of preservice teachers towards m-learning. Examining the scores obtained by preservice teachers from the attitude scale; it could be asserted that preservice teachers have high levels of attitudes. No difference was observed in the attitudes of preservice teachers towards mobile learning in terms of demographic features like gender and states of having a computer and a smart phone.
    Keywords: M-Learning, Mobile Learning, Mobie Devices, Preservice Teachers Attitude, Teacher Education
  19. By: Linda du Plessis (North-West University)
    Abstract: The emphasis on quality in all the roles of a university (teaching, research and community engagement) is a high priority for the sector. Achieving this depends to a large extent on the availability of adequate numbers of capable staff at universities. It is equally important that the staff capacity grows at the same pace as the growth in student numbers and other resource intensive activities at the university. Whilst student enrolment patterns can be accurately planned and monitored, the long term planning of staff poses a bigger challenge. Staff retention and retirements, scarcity of experienced academics, budget restrictions are but a few of the challenges experienced. This problem is not unique to South Africa. The New Zealand university sector also faces changing and challenging times due to two decades of growth in course offerings and student numbers, creating the need to attract a growing number of recruits into the academic workforce over the next decade.National growth projections in South Africa indicate that over the next five years, 1 232 new academics will need to be recruited each year in order to address challenges relating to the planned expansion of student enrolments, the improvement of staff: student ratios, and the loss of academic staff due to retirement. The development pathway leading to an academic career is long and complex. From the point of view of higher education – that is, from the end of schooling – the pathway typically includes the following stages: undergraduate, Honours, Masters, Doctorate and Post Doctorate. Henceforth, succession planning and building a new generation of academics should be well planned.To assist with long term staff planning, the researcher developed a model, which considers a range of staff performance indicators and parameters to assist senior management with long term staff planning. The magic trick here is to find real data on the actual staff complement and predicted growth, to better compute the long term academic labour side of the equation. The proposed model has been well received by management and is being refined on an on-going basis as more predictive variables are added to simulate scenarios. The model has already been used to successfully create various scenarios for senior management and has the potential to develop an adequate response to the challenges relating to the size, composition and capacity of academic staff in the higher education staff planning process.
    Keywords: Staff planning, retention, academic career
    JEL: C67
  20. By: Matthew Johnson; Julie Bruch; Brian Gill
    Abstract: The year after the U.S. Department of Education tightened credit standards for Parent Loans for Undergraduate Students (PLUS), both the share of PLUS participants and the loan dollar amounts declined substantially at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Other types of federal financial aid did not fully make up for the decline. Enrollment at HBCUs decreased more than enrollment at other institutions, corresponding to the larger decline in PLUS recipients at HBCUs.
    Keywords: Financial Aid, Student Enrollment, Black Colleges and Universities, PLUS , Parent Loans for Undergraduate Students
    JEL: I
    Date: 2015–04–14
  21. By: Herber, Stefanie P.; Quis, Johanna Sophie; Heineck, Guido
    Abstract: We use international student assessment data on more than 22,000 students from six European countries and a regression discontinuity design to investigate whether the transition into daylight saving time (DST) affects elementary students' test performance in the week after the time change. We do not find reliable statistical effects on students' performance, neither in math, science nor reading. Our results therefore challenge the prevailing public opinion that DST should be abandoned because of its detrimental effects on school children's performance.
    Keywords: Daylight saving time,school achievement tests,cognitive performance,natural experiment,regression discontinuity design,TIMSS,PIRLS
    JEL: D04 H41 I20 I29
    Date: 2015
  22. By: Adel Al-Bataineh (Illinois State University); David Hallatt (Illinois State University); Megan Huss (Illinois State University); Catherine Unsbee (Illinois State University)
    Abstract: As technology becomes more prevalent throughout society, schools must adapt to effectively utilize technology in support of classroom instruction and assessment. This study focused on a comparison of three forms of technology that may be used in public middle and high schools for digital submission of student work. Student usage of Moodle, Gaggle, and Google Drive at one middle school and one high school in central Illinois was monitored. Researchers sought to answer how the rate of homework completion was affected by use of digital versus traditional submission of assignments as well as gain insight to teacher and student perceptions of the technology. In the course of this study, researchers identified a significant decrease in student return rates of homework when digital submission was utilized instead of traditional submission. This decrease was observed across all grade levels. Teacher and student perceptions of the technology were mixed, indicating a divide in both use and preference for or against digital submission.
    Keywords: Homework Completion; Traditional vs. Digital Homework Submission; Teachers' & Students' perceptions; Middle and High School
    JEL: I29 O39 I21
  23. By: Javier Mauricio Jácome
    Abstract: El presente estudio realiza un análisis espacial de algunos indicadores educativos para la ciudad de Bogotá, al nivel geográfico más detallado posible: la sede educativa. Dado que un insumo necesario para realizar este tipo de estudios es la existencia de unidades georreferenciadas, se presenta un mecanismo para evaluar la efectividad de la geocodificación de direcciones comparándola con una georreferenciación en campo. Como resultado se encuentra que la geocodificación de direcciones, por depender de la calidad de la nomenclatura vial, tiene menos precisión de la deseable en algunos lugares donde viven poblaciones minoritarias, pero no por ello menos importantes. Posteriormente, se utiliza el análisis espacial para evaluar aspectos de la política educativa a nivel urbano observando la existencia de efectos espaciales de primer y segundo orden en los indicadores educativos y se reflexiona sobre sus aplicaciones a la política pública de educación. ****** This document presents a spatial analysis of some education indicators at Bogota, D.C (Colombia), to the more detailed geographical level: the school. For this kind of studies, it is needed to have georeferenced units, because of that, it is provided a mechanism to evaluate the effectiveness of geocoding address, comparing it with a georeferenced one on field. As a result, it is found that geocoding address, by relying on the quality of the pathways nomenclature has less desirable precision in some places inhabited by minority populations, but no less important. Later, spatial analysis is used to evaluate some aspects of urban educational policy, detecting the existence of spatial effects of first and second order in the educational indicators, and it was made a reflection on their implications to public education policy.
    Keywords: Educación, análisis espacial, conglomerados, política pública, georreferenciación.
    Date: 2014–12–16

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