nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2015‒05‒30
25 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The pre-tracking effects of parental background By Korthals R.A.
  5. The Effect of High School Shootings on Schools and Student Performance By Louis-Philippe Beland; Dongwoo Kim
  6. Education and Intergenerational Mobility: Help or Hindrance? By Jo Blanden; Lindsey Macmillan
  9. The Inheritance of Educational Inequality among Young People in Developing Countries By Pastore, Francesco; Roccisano, Federica
  10. EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN UZBEKISTAN By B. Nazarova; S.Saidkarimova; Sh. Obloqulova
  12. Efficiency of Australian TAFE and further education providers By Fieger, Peter; Villano, Renato; Cooksey, Ray
  13. Ever Failed, Try Again, Succeed Better: Results from a Randomized Educational Intervention on Grit By Sule Alan; Teodora Boneva; Seda Ertac
  14. Providing the right skills to all in China: From “made in China” to “created in China” By Margit Molnar; Vincent Koen
  21. Assessing China's skills gap and inequalities in education By Margit Molnar; Boqing Wang; Ruidong Gao
  22. For whom are cities good places to live? By Fredrik Carlsen; Stefan Leknes
  23. Spatial Distribution of Agglomeration Effects on the Returns to Education in Brazil By Diana Lúcia Gonzaga da Silva; Gervásio Ferreira dos Santos, Ricardo da Silva Freguglia
  25. Examining elementary school children’s extracurricular activity participation and their non-cognitive development using longitudinal data in Japan By MATSUOKA Ryoji; NAKAMURO Makiko; INUI Tomohiko

  1. By: Korthals R.A. (GSBE)
    Abstract: Tracking students in secondary school could increase the effect of parental background PB on student performance, especially if parents can influence the track choice. This influence can be either direct or indirect, and either purposefully or not. Little is known about these indirect effects of PB that could arise before tracking has taken place. In the Netherlands the track placement decision of individual students is made by secondary schools that base their decision on two performance signals that they receive from the elementary school of applying students an elementary school exit test score and an elementary school teacher track recommendation. Using longitudinal data from the Netherlands, I find that high PB parents are able to increase their childs teacher recommendation purposefully or not The odds of having the highest track recommendation as compared to the other recommendations, for students whose parents have a tertiary education degree are between 1.6 and 3.6 times greater than for students whose parents only have a primary education degree. For the math exit test score I find no effect, while for reading an effect is found but not robust.
    Keywords: Education and Research Institutions: General; Analysis of Education; Education and Inequality;
    JEL: I20 I21 I24
    Date: 2015
  2. By: T. Surendra Singh
    Abstract: The main objective of the formal system of education in India is to achieve more academic achievement by the students in the public examination result as Indian schooling system is mainly examination based education. So, general people like to send their wards to the schools, where more academic achievement is found. Because, the student having high division with high percentage of marks has a lot of opportunity at the time of admission, training and vocation purposes. To improve the academic achievement is the need of the hour. It is due to some factors affecting like input, process, and output. The overall academic improvement in an institution leads more and high achievement in the public examination. The present study is trying to check the position of academic achievement at government and private high schools in the state as a whole. Specially, the article tries to study and to find out the reasons of the different academic achievements of students between the government and private high schools in the district of Imphal East of Manipur State during 2009-2011. Moreover, the article also tries to find out some of the suggestive measures for the improvement of high school education in the said district on the basis of (a) findings of the study and (b) the opinion given by the principals of the reputed institutions. Key words: academic achievement, type of schools, and Khurai Assembly Constituency
    Date: 2014–06
  3. By: Manav S. Geddam
    Abstract: Eklavya Model Residential School (EMRS) scheme supports the establishment and running of quality residential schools for Scheduled Tribes (STs) students with an objective to provide quality education to the tribal students. EMRS start at Class VI and admission to these schools is patterned on the Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya model. Education in EMRSs is entirely free. This paper intends to evaluate the Eklavya Model Residential School (EMRS) with the objective to find whether the design of programme is appropriate to meet the stated objectives, whether they constitute felt needs of the community, bottlenecks if any in proper implementation of the scheme, whether these schemes are augmenting the education among STs and support to increase the literacy rate of STs. Whether there is any impact of these schemes in decreasing the dropout rates of STs. The analysis of EMR school data reveals that the EMR School is not managed as per the guidelines. The arrangement of the black boards in the class rooms is appropriate but the maintenance of the boards is poor, the number of toilets is less considering the strength of the students and maintenance was found to be poor. The study suggests, the guidelines of EMRS should indicate the organizational structure, Manpower and Educational expertise for the Tribal welfare Residential educational institutions societies on par with Navodaya Vidyalaya Model pattern. EMRS should have separate budget plan for both infrastructure, recurring, non-recurring expenditure every year and it should be included in the annual work plan & budget. Key words: Eklavya Model, Residential School, EMRS, Tribal Education
    Date: 2015–03
  4. By: Sarita Dahiya; Monika Saini
    Abstract: The present study attempted to know the effect of Achievement Motivation of senior secondary school students in relation to their gender and intelligence. The sample comprised of 200 students of 10+2 class from Govt. and public schools named Govt. Boys Senior Secondary School Rohtak, Govt. Girl Senior Secondary School, Rohtak, Vaish Boys Senior Secondary Public School, Rohtak and Vaish Girl Sr. Secondary School, Rohtak. The age of students ranged between 16 to 18 year old. The study was conducted through descriptive survey method. Achievement Motivation Test (ACMT) by Dr. V.P. Bhargava and Mental ability group test by Dr. S.S. Jalota was used to collect the data. On the basis of statistical results it was concluded that there exists significant positive correlation between achievement motivation and intelligence of male and female students of Govt. and Public school. There is a significant difference between achievement of male and female students of Govt. and public schools. Key words: Achievement Motivation, gender, intelligence
    Date: 2014–09
  5. By: Louis-Philippe Beland; Dongwoo Kim
    Abstract: We analyze how fatal shootings in high schools affect schools and students using data from shooting databases, school report cards and the Common Core of Data. We examine schools’ test scores, enrollment, number of teachers, graduation, attendance and suspension rates at schools that experienced a shooting, employing a difference-in-differences strategy that uses other high schools in the same district as the comparison group. Our findings suggest that homicidal shootings significantly decrease the enrollment of students in grade 9 and test scores in math and English standardized tests. Using student-level data from California, we confirm that shootings lower test results for students that remain enrolled.
  6. By: Jo Blanden; Lindsey Macmillan
    Abstract: Evidence on intergenerational income mobility in the UK is dated. This paper seeks to update our knowledge by introducing new estimates of mobility for later measures of earnings in the 1958 and 1970 birth cohorts. Given poor or non-existent data on more recent cohorts we adopt an indirect approach to assessing more recent mobility trends. This exploits the close link between income persistence across generations and the gap in educational achievement by family background (referred to as educational inequality). We gather a comprehensive set of data which measures educational inequality for different cohorts at different points in the education system. We conclude that educational inequality has declined for cohorts born after 1980, and this is associated with rising average educational achievement. In contrast, evidence on high attainment does not reveal that educational inequality has declined; this suggests that policy seeking to promote equality of opportunity should encourage students to aim high.
    Keywords: intergenerational income mobility
    JEL: J31
    Date: 2014–01
  7. By: Rohitbhai S. Valand
    Abstract: Information and Communication technology (ICT) has remained a buzz word in arena of education since the last decade. Its effectiveness in general and teaching learning in particular has been proved by numerous educational researches conducted. It has thus remained a major area of research in the last few years. It is now becoming imperative for the schools to impart education through use of ICT. Consequently, the government has launched various policies and plans to promote use of ICT in school education through a variety of ways such as developing infrastructural facilities, giving training to school teachers, awarding incentives for innovations in use of ICT and so on. To what extent, these physical facilities and training vis-à-vis integration of ICT in education have yielded positive results in elementary school education system needs to be investigated. The researcher conducted the present study to keep in mind this question. Key words: Information and Communication technology (ICT). Upper Elementary schools, Lower elementary schools
    Date: 2014–03
  8. By: Y. Vijaya Lakshmi
    Abstract: An increase in the rate of enrolment of children in the primary education is clearly visible in India. The credit for this goes to number of initiatives being taken in the country to ensure that each and every child gets access to quality education. The enactment of Right to Education Act (RtE) 2009 adds further strength and as a result, today we see that the concept of inclusion in education is getting broader. Inclusion in education is an ideology which emphasizes that we need to enjoy the existence of each and every child in education system and also we have to develop the skill of enjoying the diversity existing in the classrooms. Inclusion in education integrates all such efforts done by various stakeholders of education system which would remove the discrimination done in the system in the name of social aspects, gender, ability, language, caste/religion etc. Thus, today, inclusion in education means accepting and celebrating all kind of differences whether it is social, gender, ability, language, caste/religion etc. The present article presents efforts done by the primary school teachers of Gujarat state to minimize the exclusion factors and to bring improvement in Enrolment, Retention and quality of education. Key words: Enrolment, Retention and quality of education
    Date: 2014–06
  9. By: Pastore, Francesco (University of Naples II); Roccisano, Federica (Catholic University Milan)
    Abstract: This letter provides new evidence on the extent of the inheritance of educational inequality in the eight developing countries (Azerbaijan, China, Egypt, Iran, Kosovo, Mongolia, Nepal, Syria) where the ILO carried out the first wave of School-to-Work Transition survey. We observe different patterns of correlation between the level of intergenerational mobility, the educational upgrade and the role of parents' in sons' and daughters' education.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility, educational persistence, developing economies
    JEL: D63 H52 I24 P46 P52
    Date: 2015–05
  10. By: B. Nazarova; S.Saidkarimova; Sh. Obloqulova
    Abstract: The present level of scientific, technical and socio-economic development based on knowledge, determines the leading role of education in the renewal of all aspects of society.Education, among the factors influencing thefunctioning of the human potential, occupies a leading position.Radical reforms initiated in Uzbekistan, called for the creation of the education system that was adequate for socio-economic transformation of societyand the perspectives of its development.The concept of reforming education, developed in Uzbekistan, envisages the followings as the most important goals:the reorientation of the education systemonto market economy and open society; creation of equal opportunities foreducation as a condition for raising the standard of living; improvingthe system of financing education in order to provide a stable and qualified educational services and increase efficiency of resources utilization; improving the management of the education sector.The concept of public policy and the reform of education in Uzbekistan were embodied in the new Law “On Education” and the National Professional Training Program, adopted on August 29, 1997 by the Parliament of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Key words: education, development, uzbekistan
    Date: 2015–03
  11. By: Alka Sapre
    Abstract: School supervision plays significant role in the development of education system, by monitoring the quality of schools and by supporting their improvement. For school supervision, supervisor plays an important role for the improvement of educational quality, controlling, decision making and guidance etc. The actions of supervisors are in principle based. For this supervisors should be competent enough. The research was of survey type, which consists of a multistage random sample of 252 supervisors of the GSEB English medium schools of Gujarat state. An opinionaire was constructed and standardized by the researcher and administered on the sample subject. The interpretation of data was done with the statistical methods mean, standard deviation and t-test. It was found that there exists the significant difference between the professional competence of male and female school supervisors and no significant difference found between the professional competence of granted and non-granted school supervisors. Key words: Professional Competence, Supervisors
    Date: 2014–06
  12. By: Fieger, Peter; Villano, Renato; Cooksey, Ray
    Abstract: Budgetary constraints on the public purse have led Australian Federal and State governments to focus increasingly on the efficiency of public institutions, including Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutes. In this study, we define efficiency as the relationship between financial and administrative inputs and educational outputs. We employ stochastic frontier analysis in determining the efficiency of Australian TAFE institutes using data sourced from institutional annual reports, the Student Outcomes Survey and administrative databases. We found significant economies of scale effects and conclude that increasing institutional size for very small institutions may result in increased efficiencies.
    Keywords: Efficiency, Education, Productivity, Performance Measurment
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2015–03–05
  13. By: Sule Alan (University of Essex); Teodora Boneva (University of Cambridge); Seda Ertac (Koc University)
    Abstract: We show that grit, a non-cognitive skill that has been shown to be highly predictive of achievement, is malleable in the childhood period and can be fostered in the classroom environment. Our evidence comes from an evaluation of a randomized educational intervention implemented in elementary schools in Istanbul. Outcomes are measured via a novel incentivized real effort task and actual school grades on core subjects. We find that treated students are 1) more likely to choose to undertake a more challenging and more rewarding task against an easier but less rewarding alternative, 2) less likely to give up after failure, 3) more likely to exert effort to accumulate task-specific ability, and consequently, 4) more likely to succeed and collect higher payoffs. The intervention also has a significant impact on school grades: We find that treated students are about 3 percentage points more likely to receive top grades in core academic subjects.
    Keywords: non-cognitive skills, grit, perseverance, field experiments, randomized interventions
    JEL: C91 C93 D03 I28
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Margit Molnar; Vincent Koen
    Abstract: China has made impressive strides in education in recent decades, even though the accumulation of human capital has lagged behind that of physical capital. Going forward, access to and quality of education will be key to sustain economic convergence with the most advanced economies and to offset the drag exerted by population ageing. This will require addressing a number of problems. Access to pre-school education is still far from universal. Migrants’ children as well as rural and poor families are still at a major disadvantage at every step of the education ladder. The focus on rote learning and exams remains excessive. More bridges are needed between vocational and general education. Graduating students often struggle to find a job matching their expectations and employers do not always find the requisite skills. Despite a soaring number of Chinese patents, the quality of most patents is still low and innovation output is weak. Reforms are underway to address these problems but further progress is needed in various areas against the backdrop of rapidly evolving market demands and the development of the knowledge economy. Among the priorities are more and better oriented funding of education, giving greater opportunities to children with a socio-economic or physical disadvantage, reducing the role of after-school tutoring, focusing less on memorisation and more on creativity, enhancing the appeal of the teaching profession, improving students’ information on labour market prospects, developing workplace training, making greater use of online education potential, and more effectively nurturing research and innovation. This Working Paper relates to the 2015 OECD Economic Survey of China<P>Donner à tous des compétences adéquates en Chine : Du “fabriqué en Chine” au “créé en Chine”<BR>La Chine a fait ces dernières décennies des progrès impressionnants dans le domaine de l’éducation, même si l’accumulation de capital humain y a été moins rapide que l’accumulation de capital physique. À l’avenir, l’accès à l’éducation et la qualité de celle-ci seront déterminants pour favoriser la convergence économique avec les économies les plus avancées et compenser l’effet du vieillissement de la population. Il faudra pour cela s’atteler à la résolution d’un certain nombre de problèmes. Ainsi, l’accès à l’éducation préscolaire est encore loin d’être universel. À tous les échelons du système éducatif, les enfants de migrants, ainsi que les familles pauvres ou vivant en milieu rural, restent très désavantagés. L'importance donnée à l'apprentissage par coeur et aux examens reste excessive. Il faudrait aussi instaurer des passerelles plus nombreuses entre la formation professionnelle et l'enseignement général. Les étudiants diplômés ont souvent du mal à trouver un emploi correspondant à leurs attentes et les employeurs, pour leur part, ne trouvent pas toujours des candidats ayant les compétences requises. Malgré l'explosion du nombre des brevets chinois, la qualité de la majorité d'entre eux reste faible et les résultats en matière d'innovation sont modestes. Des réformes sont en cours pour s'attaquer à ces problèmes, mais les progrès doivent se poursuivre dans divers domaines, dans un contexte marqué par l'évolution rapide des exigences des marchés et le développement de l'économie de la connaissance. Les mesures à prendre en priorité doivent viser à mieux cibler et à accroître le financement de l'éducation, donner des chances plus importantes aux enfants issus de milieux socio-économiques défavorisés ou handicapés, réduire le rôle du soutien périscolaire, mettre moins l'accent sur la mémorisation et miser davantage sur la créativité, rendre la profession d'enseignant plus attrayante, améliorer l'information des étudiants sur les perspectives offertes par le marché du travail, développer la formation en entreprise, exploiter davantage les possibilités offertes par l'éducation en ligne, et promouvoir de manière plus efficace la recherche et l'innovation. Ce Document de travail a trait à l’Étude économique de l’OCDE de la Chine, 2015 que-chine.htm
    Keywords: human capital, education, innovation, China, vocational training, education inequalities, skill mismatch, migrant children, enfants de migrants, capital humain, formation professionnelle, Chine, inadéquation des compétences, inégalités d'éducation, innovation, éducation
    JEL: H52 I00 I20 I21 I22 I23 I24 I25 I28 J24 O O30 O31
    Date: 2015–05–22
  15. By: Amarnath Murthy
    Abstract: We live in a dynamic society with knowledge increasing at an unpredictable rate. With the accompanying advance in technology, developing countries are no longer insulated from the effects of these changes, as evidenced by the extent to which the whole world is fast becoming a global village with constant interaction on many levels. One goal of education is the preparation of the young not only for this changed world, but also with the willingness and ability to face new and changing situations. Social, economic, and technological changes of the past decades are making education and training for all more crucial than ever. Yet, educational systems, to different degrees worldwide, are struggling to afford educational opportunities for all, to provide their graduates with the necessary knowledge and skills for evolving marketplaces and sophisticated living environments, and to prepare citizens for lifelong learning. To meet these challenges, countries have to focus concurrently on expanding access, improving internal efficiency, promoting the quality of teaching and learning right from the elementary level, and improving system management. Key words: ICT, education, mathematics
    Date: 2014–06
  16. By: M. H. Prahalladappa
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact and challenges that the globalization brought to higher education in India. In the higher education segment of India substantial improvement is possible in both quantitative and qualitative terms. It is necessary to identify opportunities and threats to education sector and analyze them in a deep manner. The major objective is to make the segment of higher education in India more competitive globally. Key words: Higher Education in India, Globalization,
    Date: 2014–03
  17. By: Panthoi Khaidem
    Abstract: A society index lies on the education system of that society. Education are said to be an instrument that build up a society and it is one of the most needed tool that are needed in day to day life. It becomes one of the most important tools that are needed in every person in this modern world. It is a device that helps in building up a person personality, knowledge, power; confidence and sense of humor that are capable of providing them to build up a well developed and meaningful life. The main objective of the researcher in this paper is to highlight the higher education of Manipur, the steps that are needed to be taken up for higher education in Manipur and the role played by media in the education system of the state. In the society of Manipur media role is much needed as media are the one, who informed, communicated and educated a society. Having situated in the eastern most part of the country development in the state is far lacking behind. Good education and good education system is much needed in a state like Manipur for its development and to build up as a well cohesive society. Key words: Education, Media, tool, society, material, cohesive society.
    Date: 2015–03
  18. By: Mahesh Thakkar
    Abstract: The objectives of the study were to investigate the relationship between different learning styles and learning achievements of students studying at secondary schools. To investigate the relationship two types of data were collected. Firstly information about students learning styles were collected by using learning style questionnaire, secondly information about students’ achievement was taken from the test conducted. The population of the study was students studying in class 9th of 10 deferent School of Ahmedabad. The sample (1580 students) was drawn by using multistage sampling technique .The data were collected by administering the questionnaires to students in their classes. It was found Students did not preferred collaborative and dependent learning style. They preferred to study at their own this leads that the class room activities were of no use for them. Their concern for the achievement showed their interest for examination. This showed that learning styles may not effect learning achievement but the system of examination effects the achievement. In the light of conclusions it was recommended that the system of examination may be connected with class room activities. It may focus on real classroom learning not to rote memorization. Key words: Learning Styles, Learning Achievement, Secondary School
    Date: 2014–12
  19. By: N. Pradhan; Tomba Singh Thokchom
    Abstract: This paper is focused on finance management of un-aided private schools of Manipur. The objectives of study are process of budgeting, problems of during and after budgeting, sources and problems of sources of finance, and possible ways to overcome these problems. Survey method is adopted in this study. The population of the study is constituted of 193 un-aided private schools of Manipur. Fifteen schools have selected by using random sampling technique for the study. The data were collected by using a questionnaire developed by the researcher. The main findings of the study are almost all the un-aided private schools of Manipur have faced financial problems; schools do not consult any expert person for preparing school financial budget, mostly trustee members and principals are involved in school financial budget; school’s financial files, cash memo and received of any expenditure are unsystematically arranged in school. However, schools must manage financial condition and must provide quality education to students. Improper finance management in school is going to affect quality education in un-aided private schools of Manipur. Key words: Process of Budgeting, Finance management, un-aided private schools.
    Date: 2014–09
  20. By: Kalpana J. Modi
    Abstract: In India, where classrooms are intentionally structured in a manner that they could accommodate maximum number of children. Educators were involved in lecturing and not teaching. Children waited for teachers to deliver instructions, which they immediately captured in their notebooks and memorised and produced during exams. This was instructional approach. In the Learning approach, all of this would change. One major shift that learning approach could bring about in the Indian education system is to introduce constructivism in educational institutions. Considering constructivism is the only possible framework for teaching and learning. It is one way of thinking about how knowledge is formed and understanding takes place. Key words: Instruction, Teaching, Learning, Constructivism
    Date: 2015–03
  21. By: Margit Molnar; Boqing Wang; Ruidong Gao
    Abstract: In recent years, many tertiary graduates have had difficulties finding a job, while factories have been struggling to recruit workers. Notwithstanding rapidly increasing education attainment, graduates’ skills do not seem to match those demanded by the market. Moreover, structural changes in the economy aggravate the shortage of skills in newly emerging industries. While the problem is widely recognised, empirical studies of the issue are scarce and the skills gap has not been quantified. This paper aims at gaging the skills and knowledge gap of tertiary graduates of universities and vocational colleges across China. It also looks at the employment and wage prospects of graduates with different educational backgrounds. Inequalities in educational opportunities, stemming in particular from the urban-rural divide and to a lesser extent from the social background, shape careers and lives. The best primary and middle schools are located in the biggest cities and until recently children competed for a place at such schools. In third and fourth-tier cities or in rural areas, in contrast, there are fewer choices and thus less chance to get into a “model” high school or a top university. The family background also tends to have an impact on the choice of a school or profession and on future earnings. This paper discusses various aspects of inequalities related to the place of upbringing, family background and geographical area. Micro-level data analysis is complemented by an investigation into inequalities of various aspects of education at the city and county levels. This Working Paper relates to the 2015 OECD Economic Survey of China<P>Évaluation du déficit de qualifications en Chine et inégalités du système éducatif<BR>Depuis quelques années, de nombreux diplômés de l’enseignement supérieur éprouvent des difficultés à trouver un emploi tandis que les usines peinent à recruter de la main-d’oeuvre. En dépit d’un relèvement rapide des niveaux d’instruction, il ne semble pas que les qualifications des diplômés correspondent aux besoins du marché. Qui plus est, les mutations structurelles de l’économie aggravent le déficit de qualifications dans les industries nouvelles qui voient le jour. Si le problème est largement admis, les études empiriques sur le sujet ne sont pas légion et le déficit de qualifications n’a pas été quantifié. Ce document de travail a pour but d’évaluer le déficit de qualifications et de connaissances des diplômés des universités et des instituts professionnels de l’enseignement supérieur en Chine. Il examine également les perspectives d’emploi et de rémunération des diplômés issus de différentes filières de formation. Les vies et les carrières en Chine sont le reflet des inégalités d’accès au système éducatif, qui découlent notamment de la fracture entre les zones urbaines et rurales, mais aussi, dans une moindre mesure, de l’origine sociale. Les meilleurs établissements d’enseignement primaire et secondaire (collèges) se situent dans les plus grandes villes du pays et il y peu de temps encore, la concurrence était âpre pour s’y inscrire. En revanche, dans les villes de troisième et quatrième rangs, ou dans les zones rurales, l’offre est moins abondante et les chances d’intégrer un lycée « modèle » ou une université réputée sont d’autant plus réduites. Le milieu familial tend également à avoir un impact sur le choix d’une école ou d’une profession et sur la rémunération future. Ce document de travail examine ces inégalités sous l’angle du lieu d’éducation, de l’origine familiale et de la zone géographique des élèves. Un examen des inégalités de divers aspects du système éducatif, au niveau des villes et des comtés, complète l’analyse des micro-données. Ce document de travail se rapporte à l’Étude économique de la Chine, OCDE, 2015 que-chine.htm.
    Keywords: skills mismatch, vocational college, educational opportunity, family background, China, government spending, inequality, urban-rural divide, university graduates, fracture entre zones urbaines et rurales, inégalité, dépense publique, Chine, déficit de qualifications, diplômés des universités, instituts professionnels, accès au système éducatif, milieu familial
    JEL: H52 I23 I24 J24
    Date: 2015–05–22
  22. By: Fredrik Carlsen (Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology); Stefan Leknes (Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: We use Norwegian data to evaluate the consumption hypothesis of geographical variation in educational attainment, i.e. that well-educated people particularly value the amenities provided by cities. Our results cast doubts on the hypothesis. After-tax real wages are higher in rural areas than in urban areas, suggesting that Norwegians are willing to forego purchasing power in order to enjoy urban amenities, but the urban purchasing power premium is roughly equal across education groups. Moreover, survey data in which respondents evaluate local amenities indicate a broad consensus between education groups about the advantages and disadvantages about city life as well as about the relationship between city size and the quality of local amenities.
    Keywords: Quality of life, urban amenities, population size, education, mobility
    JEL: R11 R12 J3 J61
    Date: 2015–01–05
  23. By: Diana Lúcia Gonzaga da Silva; Gervásio Ferreira dos Santos, Ricardo da Silva Freguglia
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyze the spatial distribution of the agglomeration effect on wage differentials, from the returns to education in Brazil. To find the agglomeration effect on the returns to education in the 24 metropolitan areas in Brazil, a wage equation was estimated with the control of individual fixed effects and metropolitan areas effects, using a panel of micro data - RAIS-Migra - of formal workers. The results show that there is agglomeration gain of the return to education in Brazil. These gains are more favorable in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil. The metropolitan areas of the Center-South tend to generate higher earnings from individual skills of workers
    Keywords: Agglomeration Economies; Urban Wage Premium; Education; Wage Inequality; Metropolitan Areas
    JEL: J24 J31 R23 C23
    Date: 2015–05–18
  24. By: Kalpana J. Modi
    Abstract: Women have been given an inferior social status. Conservative social customs like sati, child marriage, dowry, social boycott of widows have made women’s life miserable. Thus, women experience several accumulated disadvantages. They face not only gender discrimination of various degrees but also suffer the most from sexual harassment, atrocities and crimes. All these factors, coupled with the low female literacy rate, make the role of education very challenging. At present, there is an increasing awareness of the need to empower women in order to raise their status. It is strongly believed that providing education to women who have been denied opportunities in this area until now would bring about the desired changes. Intense efforts are being made to enhance the enrolment of women at all levels of education. In this paper the author has discussed why education is important for empowering women. The author also discusses the teenaged Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai who was shot by Taliban gunmen in her native Pakistan for daring to attend school. Malala Yousafzai has given strong message to the world that all girls have right to attend school and realize their dreams. Key words: women’s education, women’s empowerment
    Date: 2014–09
  25. By: MATSUOKA Ryoji; NAKAMURO Makiko; INUI Tomohiko
    Abstract: This study attempts to reveal a mechanism of intergenerational transmission of advantages by assessing children’s learning experiences outside school. Using four waves of the Japan’s Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century, the study investigates whether (1) children’s participation in extracurricular activities (EAs) varies according to parents’ educational backgrounds (as a proxy for socioeconomic status), (2) their EA participation is related to two aspects of their non-cognitive development, and (3) the EA participation mediates a relation between parents’ educational background and non-cognitive development. This study’s results show that children with college-educated parents tend to participate in three categories of EAs: academics, high culture, and sports. These disparities in EA participation show a significant, albeit modest, association with children’s behavior problems and orientation to school. This Japanese case reveals unequal access to adult-led structured learning opportunities in the private education market and indicates that children who participate in such activities gain positive benefits in terms of the non-cognitive aspects of development that are formally and informally evaluated by schoolteachers.
    Date: 2015–03

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