nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2015‒05‒22
thirty-six papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The education of economists in Colombia: Quality differences and its determinants By Jaime Andrés Sarmiento Espinel; Adriana Carolina Silva Arias; Edwin van Gameren
  2. Investigation of Participation in Adult Education in Turkey: AES Data Analysis By Dincer, Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayça; Aşkar, Petek
  3. Ill Communication: Technology, Distraction & Student Performance By Louis-Philippe Beland; Richard Murphy
  4. The Role of Lifelong Learning in Political Stability and Non-violence: Evidence from Africa By Asongu, Simplice; Nwachukwu, Jacinta C.
  5. The Impact of Tuition Increases on Undocumented College Students' Attainment By Dylan Conger; Lesley J. Turner
  6. Model of Integrated Academic Performance and Accountability System for HEI By Shawyun Teay
  7. Determining the Level of Achievement of Teaching Practice of the Student Teachers being educated in Physical Education and Sports Colleges By Ayse Feray Ozbal; Hamdi Pepe
  8. Preference for Boys, Family Size, and Educational Attainment in India By Kugler, Adriana D.; Kumar, Santosh
  9. Adding sustainable value: integrating sustainability via a multi-disciplinary learning method in hospitality education By Niels Van Felius; Elena Cavagnaro
  10. Flexibility at a Cost: Should Governments Stimulate Tertiary Education for Adults? By Stenberg, Anders; Westerlund, Olle
  11. Regional Disparities in Education within Brazil: the Role of Quality of Education By Ricardo Paes de Barros; Rosane Silva Pinto de Mendonça; James Alan Shope
  12. Safe Mobility: University after Technical College Pathway By Daniel Alexandrov; Ksenia Tenisheva; Svetlana Savelyeva
  13. Overeducation: A Disease of the School-to-Work Transition System By Caroleo, Floro Ernesto; Pastore, Francesco
  14. Nature or Nurture in Higher Education? Inter-generational Implications of the Vietnam-Era Lottery By Christofides, Louis N.; Hoy, Michael; Milla, Joniada; Stengos, Thanasis
  15. Does Education Raise Productivity and Wages Equally? The Moderating Roles of Age, Gender and Industry By Rycx, Francois; Saks, Yves; Tojerow, Ilan
  16. An analysis of factors that influence organizational learning: The case of higher education institutions By Alexandra Luciana Gu
  17. The Impact of Female Education on Teenage Fertility: Evidence from Turkey By Gunes, Pinar
  18. School choice and segregation: evidence from Sweden By Böhlmark, Anders; Holmlund, Helena; Lindahl, Mikael
  19. What Determines The Long-Run Persistence of the Empires? The Effect of the Partition of Poland on Education By Pawel Bukowski
  20. European policies on lifelong learning and the use of EQF, Europass and Counseling in Higher Education Institutions in Greece By DIMITRA KONSTANTINIDOU; ANASTASIA PAMPOURI
  21. Human capital agglomeration and social returns to education in Colombia By Luis Eduardo Arango; Gabriela Bonilla
  22. Impact of income shock on children’s schooling and labor in a West African country By Fatoke Dato, Mafaizath A.
  23. A Note on the Temporal Evolution of the Relationship Between Wages and Education Among Brazilian Prime-age Males: 1976/1989 By Ricardo Paes de Barros; Lauro Ramos
  24. Measuring Principals' Effectiveness: Results from New Jersey's Principal Evaluation Pilot By Christine Ross; Mariesa Herrmann; Megan Hague Angus
  25. Effectiveness of education processes in tourism and hospitality in the Republic of Croatia By Luka Perman; Krešimir Mikinac
  26. Academic Performance and Type of Early Childhood Care By Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne
  27. Accessing the Inaccessible: A case study of the EDIP extension to Diamir By Haider Fancy
  28. Optimal Income, Education, and Bequest Taxes in an Intergenerational Model By Stefanie Stantcheva
  29. Education system as a factor of tourism development in Croatia By Mato Bartoluci; Zvjezdana Hendija; Mateja Petračić
  30. Unequal Opportunity to Survive, Education and Regional Disparities in Brazil By Ricardo Barros; Diana Sawyer
  31. Mozart or Pelé? The Effects of Teenagers' Participation in Music and Sports By Charlotte Cabane; Adrian Hille; Michael Lechner
  32. Strengthening Skill use and School-to-work Transitions in the Czech Republic By Sónia Araújo; Petr Maleček
  33. Mothers' Employment and Children's Educational Gender Gap By Xiaodong Fan; Hanming Fang; Simen Markussen
  34. Some suggestions and thoughts on learner performances affected from childhood to adulthood: Problems and Solutions By Rishan Singh
  35. Supporting Cross-Cultural Competence and Global-Mindedness in Pre-Service Teacher Education By Colleen Kawalilak; Lisa Fedoruk
  36. Flexibility at a Cost – Should Governments Stimulate Tertiary Education for Adults? By Stenberg, Anders; Westerlund, Olle

  1. By: Jaime Andrés Sarmiento Espinel (Universidad Militar Nueva Granada); Adriana Carolina Silva Arias (Universidad Militar Nueva Granada); Edwin van Gameren (El Colegio de Mexico)
    Abstract: For the standardized Test of Higher Education Quality (ECAES) taken in 2007 by undergraduate economics students in Colombia, we apply the DiNardo, Fortin, and Lemieux (1996) decomposition technique to estimate what would be the distribution of scores for student in non-accredited programs if they had had the characteristics of students in accredited programs. In particular, we evaluate in which part of the distribution individual, family, program, and institutional characteristics, respectively, have their greatest impact. The score distributions indicate better performance by accredited economics programs compared to non-accredited programs. Results suggest that individual characteristics explain the larger part of the gap, while family features contribute least. The program and institutional characteristics have opposing impacts, mainly around the mean of the score distribution. There are unexplained differences in the production process that appear more efficient in the accredited programs.
    Keywords: academic quality, education of economists, higher education, Colombia; ECAES, Kernel density estimation, decomposition
    JEL: A22 C14 I21 I23
    Date: 2015–02
  2. By: Dincer, Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayça; Aşkar, Petek
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to provide the determinants of participation in adult education in a non-EU developing country, Turkey. The analysis is conducted on a set of data on individuals engaging in adult education using the Adult Education Survey (AES), applied by TurkStat. The results indicate that economic growth in the sector of employment, significantly and positively affects the odds for adult education and characteristics of men and women who take courses in the most popular fields of education vary. Moreover, younger, more educated and employed individuals are more likely to take part in adult education activities in Turkey. A person with none or only a primary school education is not active in adult education independent of gender.
    Keywords: Adult education, economic growth, Turkey, non-formal education
    JEL: I21 I25
    Date: 2015–05
  3. By: Louis-Philippe Beland; Richard Murphy
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of schools banning mobile phones on student test scores. By surveying schools in four English cities regarding their mobile phone policies and combining it with administrative data, we find that student performance in high stakes exams significantly increases post ban. We use a difference in differences (DID) strategy, exploiting variations in schools' autonomous decisions to ban these devices, conditioning on a range of student characteristics and prior achievement. Our results indicate that these increases in performance are driven by the lowest-achieving students. This suggests that restricting mobile phone use can be a low-cost policy to reduce educational inequalities.
    Keywords: Mobile phones, technology, student performance, productivity
    JEL: I21 I28 O33 J24
    Date: 2015–05
  4. By: Asongu, Simplice; Nwachukwu, Jacinta C.
    Abstract: Purpose – Education as a weapon in the fight against conflict and violence remains widely debated in policy and academic circles. Against the background of growing political instability in Africa and the central role of the knowledge economy in 21st century development, this paper provides three contributions to existing literature. It assesses how political stability/ non-violence is linked to the incremental, synergy and lifelong learning effects of education. Design/methodology/approach – We define lifelong learning as the combined knowledge acquired during primary, secondary and tertiary education. Principal component analysis is used to reduce the dimensions of educational and political indicators. An endogeneity robust dynamic system Generalized Methods of Moments is used for the estimations. Findings – We establish three main findings. First, education is a useful weapon in the fight against political instability. Second, there is an incremental effect of education in the transition from secondary to tertiary schools. Third, lifelong learning also has positive and synergy effects. This means that the impact of lifelong learning is higher than the combined independent effects of various educational levels. The empirical evidence is based on 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. Practical implications – A plethora of policy implications are discussed, inter alia: how the drive towards increasing the knowledge economy through lifelong learning can be an effective tool in the fight against violence and political insurgency in Africa. Originality/value – As the continent is nursing knowledge economy ambitions, the paper is original in investigating the determinants of political stability/non violence from three dimensions of education attainment: the incremental, the lifelong learning and a synergy effect.
    Keywords: Lifelong learning; Stability; Development; Africa
    JEL: I20 I28 K42 O10 O55
    Date: 2014–08
  5. By: Dylan Conger; Lesley J. Turner
    Abstract: We examine the impact of a temporary price shock on the attainment of undocumented college students enrolled in a large urban college system. In spring 2002, the City University of New York reversed its policy of charging in-state tuition to undocumented students. By fall 2002, the state legislature restored in-state rates. Using a differences-in-differences identification strategy, we estimate impacts on reenrollment, credits, grades, and degree completion. The price shock led to an immediate 8 percent decrease in senior college students' enrollment. Senior college students who entered college the semester prior to the price shock experienced lasting reductions in attainment, including a 22 percent decrease in degree receipt. Conversely, among senior college students who been enrolled for at least a year, the price shock only affected the timing of exit.
    JEL: H75 I21 J15
    Date: 2015–04
  6. By: Shawyun Teay (King Saud University)
    Abstract: While accountability has been discussed and designed for implementation for schools systems in the West, what would responsibility and accountability mean for a Higher Education Institute (HEI) has been elusive. Basically, key literature in accountability connects assessment, teaching and learning, student and teacher systems, testing systems leading to improvements, innovations and renewals in the whole organizational capacity and capabilities system. These basically are the 4 sanctified mission tenets of any HEI of teaching, learning, research and societal responsibility. A key question facing most HEI would be the fundamental principles and mechanics in developing, ensuring and measuring these accountabilities that affects the students and society. The immediacy is the internal policies, processes, pragmatics and practices of the creation and delivery of “education value” that is the faculty and staff using the educational processes responsibly and accountably way towards the students’ accomplishment and achievements and societal development. Instead of focusing on the outcome of the accountability from external measures, this paper will focus on the internal practices and mechanisms that need to be established to ensure and support to internal responsibility and accountability of the HEI and its academic personnel. This paper aims at proposing a working model for this internal integrated Academic Performance and Accountability System (APAS) for a HEI. Six key internal indices are established in the key areas to course evaluations index, teaching and learning assessment learning outcome index of student, quality contributions index, research index, administrative work index, societal responsibility index. All these culminate in the Academic Performance and Accountability Index (APAI) of a scorecard of the faculty performance and accountability from the inherent internal processes that affect the final student external outcome performance.
    Keywords: Academic accountability, higher education, balanced scorecard approach, academic performance and evaluation
    JEL: I21
  7. By: Ayse Feray Ozbal (Selcuk University, School of Physical Education and Sports); Hamdi Pepe (School of Physical Education and Sports)
    Abstract: This Research is carried out to determine the effects of teaching application at education Physical Education and Sports Teacher on the students who are studying at Physical Education and Sport Teaching Department. The research has been carried out to 4 th Grade Students who are studying at Selcuk University Faculty of Education Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department. SPPS Package Program was used for calculating and evaluation of the collected data. The data were summarized by giving % and frequency distribution. The chi-square statistic was used to determine the relation of some data. The significance level was taken as 0.05. in this study. A meaning relation wasn’t found out statistically between the kind of school where teaching application took place and the case whether the school had adequate sports equipments or not. (P>0,05) There wasn’t a considerable relationship between the kind of school where teaching application carried out and the school’s condition having gym or not.(P>0,05). A statistically meaningful relationship was determined between the condition of school’s being adequate in term of sports equipment and the condition of the school in the context of having gym or not. (P<0,05). There wasn’t a meaningful correlation between the gender of the undergraduate that participated in the research and the likelihood whether the teaching application would be helpful in term of occupational life. (P>0,05). A considerable correlation wasn’t discovered statistically between the likelihood whether the undergraduate have a lack of pedagogical teaching and the condition of the undergraduates’ being informed by the teacher who worked at the school where the application took place about tasks and responsibilities. (P>0,05 As a result the aim that had wanted was achieved by this study.
    Keywords: Teaching Application; Physical Education; Teacher
  8. By: Kugler, Adriana D.; Kumar, Santosh
    Abstract: Using data from nationally representative household surveys, we test whether Indian parents make trade-offs between the number of children and investments in education and health of their children. To address the endogeneity due to the joint determination of quantity and quality of children by parents, we instrument family size with the gender of the first child which is plausibly random. Given a strong son-preference in India, parents tend to have more children if the first born is a girl. Our IV results show that children from larger families have lower educational attainment and are less likely to have ever been enrolled and to be currently enrolled in school, even after controlling for parents’ characteristics and birth-order of children. The effects are larger for rural, poorer and low-caste families and for families with less educated mothers. On the other hand, we find no evidence of a trade-off for health outcomes.
    Keywords: education; family size; health; India; quality-quantity trade-off
    JEL: I2 I21 J13 J18
    Date: 2015–05
  9. By: Niels Van Felius (Research Unit Service Studies, Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Leeuwarden, Netherlands); Elena Cavagnaro (Research Unit Service Studies, Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Leeuwarden, Netherlands)
    Abstract: Purpose – This paper addresses the issue put forward by Bynum Boley and Remington-Doucette by proposing a multi-disciplinary method, as an applicable learning method to integrate all three dimensions of sustainability in Hospitality education. The purpose of this paper is to request feedback of the industry partners and colleagues present at the conference to a proposed educational method that is possibly suitable in the design of a minor in sustainability for hospitality management. Design/ Methodology/ Approach – The educational method designed focuses on solving sustainability problems of the “real world” and extends the research on integrating sustainability in higher hospitality management education. Findings – Through the analysis of sustainability in Hospitality education and through adding the concept of the triple bottom line6 for value creation to the quadrants of the Hospitality Value Chain, an integration of sustainability in the system of hospitality education is considered and explored. Since sustainability is an everlasting process, education needs to be on the forefront in creating future change agents2. This possibly requires an alternative view on developing knowledge and skills of hospitality and tourism students via a multi-disciplinary approach/learning method. Practical implications – The designed learning method can be put in practice and used for further research on implementation of sustainability in higher hospitality education. The originality of this research –The originality of this research consist of the fact that this form of sustainable education is in its primary stage and not much debated yet.
    Keywords: Education, teaching method, sustainability, constructivism, and pressure cooker
    JEL: L83
  10. By: Stenberg, Anders (SOFI, Stockholm University); Westerlund, Olle (Umeå University)
    Abstract: Most OECD countries experience high unemployment rates and declining growth in higher educational attainment. An often suggested government policy is therefore to allocate resources towards formal schooling for adults. However, returns on such investments are uncertain and the foregone earnings are potentially large. We use Swedish population register data from 1982 to 2011 to estimate average long run earnings returns on higher education for 29- to 55-year-olds who enrolled 1992-1993. We find substantial positive estimates, but these only fully emerge after approximately ten years. Nevertheless, calculations indicate that the benefits for society exceed the costs also under fairly pessimistic assumptions.
    Keywords: adult education, human capital, earnings
    JEL: H30 H52 I20 J24 O30
    Date: 2015–05
  11. By: Ricardo Paes de Barros; Rosane Silva Pinto de Mendonça; James Alan Shope
    Date: 2015–01
  12. By: Daniel Alexandrov (National Research University Higher School of Economics.); Ksenia Tenisheva (National Research University Higher School of Economics.); Svetlana Savelyeva (National Research University Higher School of Economics.)
    Abstract: This paper presents the professional college system as a social mobility channel providing maximum benefit with minimum risk. The analysis of institutional features and changes forming this channel in Russia in the last 15 years has been conducted. An institutional context for the emergence of a social group using “university after the college” pathway is described. Group members take an intermediate position between students reproducing a professional worker status and students reproducing a highly qualified professional status. They also have average school results. An analysis of parents’ and students’ perceptions of the motives of the choice, benefits, costs, and risks of the educational pathway demonstrates the importance of local context. An alternative educational pathway is less typical for the rural population because of structural constraints; compared to metropolises, in rural areas this choice is typical for higher status groups. A comparison of technical college systems in different countries confirmed that technical colleges in Germany provide social reproduction whereas in Russia and the USA, they operate as a channel of upward social mobility
    Keywords: persistent inequality, vocational education, institutional context, mobility, relative risk aversion.
    JEL: I21 D81
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Caroleo, Floro Ernesto (University of Naples Parthenope); Pastore, Francesco (University of Naples II)
    Abstract: This paper aims to survey the theoretical and empirical literature on cross-country differences in overeducation. While technological change and globalization have entailed a skill-bias in the evolution of labour demand in the Anglo-Saxon countries, instead, in other advanced economies in Western Europe the increased educational level has not been associated with a parallel raise in the share of skilled occupations, therefore generating skills mismatch. This suggests that a demand-side explanation of overeducation is justified in Western Europe, which would be also confirmed by circumstantial evidence coming from the recent literature. Nonetheless, overeducation may also turn to be positive in the long run if the expansion of the supply of skills generates a technological upgrading of the production system. Moreover, from a micro-economic point of view, recent theoretical and empirical studies tend to justify a human capital theory based interpretation of the phenomenon, whereas the disorganization of the educational system, its degree of integration with the labour market may play an important role in helping young graduates develop the work experience and the competences they need to prevent them from experiencing overeducation. Overeducation causes a penalty to individuals in terms of earnings and employment opportunities and a waste of resources to the society at large in terms of state investment into education that do not bear its yields. Both penalties are higher not only where the demand for skill is lower, but also where school-to-work transition systems fail to effectively address the aim of generating competences rather than only education for their graduates.
    Keywords: school-to-work transition, university graduates, AlmaLaurea, overeducation, overskilling, earnings, (ordered) probit, sample selection bias, Heckit, Italy
    JEL: C25 C26 C33 I2 J13 J24
    Date: 2015–05
  14. By: Christofides, Louis N. (University of Cyprus); Hoy, Michael (University of Guelph); Milla, Joniada (CORE, Université catholique de Louvain); Stengos, Thanasis (University of Guelph)
    Abstract: It is evident that a strong positive correlation persists between the educational attainment of parents and that of their children in many, if not most, populations. This relationship may form an important part of the phenomenon of low social mobility as well as inefficiently low investment in human capital by youth who have parents with relatively low educational attainment. Is it a genetic inter-generational transmission of innate ability from parents to their children (i.e. nature) or is it the environment that the better educated parents provide for their children (i.e. nurture) that explains this positive relationship? Understanding the relative contributions of nature versus nurture is critical to the development of any social policy designed to increase social and economic mobility between generations. Separating the so-called nature and nurture effects of this relationship is a difficult task. We use the Vietnam Era Draft Lottery as a natural experiment to address the nature-nurture question. Attending university in order to avoid the draft created a cohort which included individuals who would not normally have attended post-secondary educational institutions. Comparing the educational attainment of children of this cohort to that of cohorts who attended university in "normal times" creates a natural experiment to test the relative importance of the nature or nurture explanations. Our findings provide evidence in support of the nurture argument.
    Keywords: inter-generational mobility, higher education attendance
    JEL: I0
    Date: 2015–05
  15. By: Rycx, Francois (Free University of Brussels); Saks, Yves (National Bank of Belgium); Tojerow, Ilan (Free University of Brussels)
    Abstract: The labour market situation of low-educated people is particularly critical in most advanced economies, especially among youngsters and women. Policies aiming to increase their employability either try to foster their productivity and/or to decrease their wage cost. Yet, the evidence on the misalignment between education-induced productivity gains and corresponding wage cost differentials is surprisingly thin, inconclusive and subject to various econometric biases. We estimate the impact of education on productivity, wage costs and productivity-wage gaps (i.e. profits) using rich Belgian linked employer-employee panel data. Findings, based on the generalised method of moments (GMM) and Levinsohn and Petrin (2003) estimators, show a significant upward-sloping profile between education and wage costs, on the one hand, and education and productivity, on the other. They also systematically highlight that educational credentials have a stronger impact on productivity than on wage costs. This 'wage compression effect', robust across industries, is found to disappear among older cohorts of workers and to be more pronounced among women than men. Overall, findings suggest that particular attention should be devoted to the productivity to wage cost ratio of low-educated workers, especially when they are young and female, but also to policies favouring gender equality in terms of remuneration and career advancement.
    Keywords: education, labour costs, productivity, linked panel data
    JEL: C33 I21 J24 J31
    Date: 2015–05
  16. By: Alexandra Luciana Gu (Doctoral School of Economics and Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Ia)
    Abstract: This paper makes reference to different factors that can influence organizational learning. Our focus is on making considerations on the factors influencing organizational learning, in the specific case of higher education institutions. Our personal considerations are transposed in highlighting the particularities on this subject, in the case of higher education institutions, regarded as entities of their own, and are based on a review of the literature treating the factors that influence organizational learning. Our aim is to undertake a thorough analysis on these factors, in universities. The approach is a theoretical one – the paper combines a literature review on the factors that can influence organizational learning in general, and our own considerations on these factors, in higher education institutions. For undertaking the research, we have considered the case of Romanian higher education institutions, in general.
    Keywords: organizational learning, higher education institutions, influencing factors
    JEL: D83
  17. By: Gunes, Pinar (University of Alberta, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper explores the causal relationship between female education and teenage fertility by exploiting a change in the compulsory schooling law (CSL) in Turkey. Using variation in the exposure to the CSL across cohorts and variation across provinces by the intensity of additional classrooms constructed in the birth provinces as an instrumental variable, the results indicate that primary school completion reduces teenage fertility by 0.37 births and the incidence of teenage childbearing by around 25 percentage points. Exploring heterogeneous effects indicates that female education reduces teenage fertility more in provinces with lower population density and higher agricultural activity. Finally, the CSL postpones childbearing by delaying marriage, thereby reducing fertility.
    Keywords: Economic Development; Fertility; Female Education; Compulsory Schooling; Instrumental Variables; Turkey
    JEL: I25 J13 O10
    Date: 2015–05–01
  18. By: Böhlmark, Anders (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University); Holmlund, Helena (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy); Lindahl, Mikael (Department of Economics, Uppsala University)
    Abstract: This paper studies the evolution of school segregation in Sweden in the aftermath of the 1992 universal school voucher reform, which spurred the establishment of new independent voucher schools and introduced parental choice. The empirical analysis assesses the relative importance of neighbourhood sorting, parental choice and the location of independent schools for school segregation. In particular, it exploits variation in school choice opportunities across municipalities, and provides descriptive evidence that in regions where school choice has become more prevalent, school segregation between immigrants and natives, and between children of high/low educated parents, has increased more than in regions where choice is limited. This result also holds when we account for residential sorting and focus on excess school segregation over and above the segregation that would occur if all pupils attended their assigned schools. The estimates suggest that the increase in school segregation 15 years after the voucher reform that can be attributed to choice is relatively small, and in an international comparison Sweden still ranks as a country with a low-to-medium segregated school system. Our findings are suggestive of the implications for student sorting in other settings where similar voucher schemes are introduced.
    Keywords: school segregation; school choice
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2015–05–04
  19. By: Pawel Bukowski
    Abstract: This paper estimates the long-lasting effects of institutions imposed by the three Empires: Austro-Hungary, Prussia and Russia during the Partition of Poland on the performance of Polish students. Using the two-dimensional geographical Regression Discontinuity Design I show that the Habsburg Empire had a long-lasting positive effect on the performance of students compared to the Russian Empire. The magnitude of the effect is similar to the performance gap between white and black students in the US. At the same time however, there is no difference between the Prussian and Russian Empires. I argue that the main channels of influence are the role of ethnic tolerance and the political purpose of education. The Austrian and Prussian educational systems were very similar as the former was practically copied from the latter. However, the attitudes toward the Polish population and the role of education in this respect widely differed. While in the Prussian Empire education was the main tool of Germanization, in the Habsburg Empire it was seen as a tool to spread modern national identities. The alternative explanations are also discussed. These include migration-based self selection of people, urbanization patterns and other features of the Austrian and Prussian education systems.
    Date: 2015–03–09
    Abstract: European Union, recognizing the value of lifelong learning and its importance for the development of “the economy of knowledge”, adopted a series of texts through which six tools and principals were proposed to promote transparency of qualifications and mobility of European citizens for education, training and work. Three of these are being investigated in this paper, in relation to Higher Education: the European Qualifications Framework, Europass with five individual documents and lifelong Counseling and Career Guidance. The paper also examines EU's policy for the creation of the European Higher Education Area, aiming at the development of partnerships, the quality of education, and the encouragement of European citizens’ mobility and transparency of qualifications.The results of our survey showed that the National Qualifications Framework has not been fully legislated yet and it is at the final stages of preparation for implementation in Greece. As far as Europass is concerned, its use is proposed by some Career Offices. Although, its main use for working or studying and training is widely accepted abroad, in Greece Europass is not so much recognizable. In Counseling, the most popular services of Career Offices are the provision of advice to undergraduate and graduate students and to masters’ graduates. A problem that has been recorded is that Carrier Offices have resource problems, mainly lack in finance and personnel. Although Career Offices offer quite important services for students’ and graduates’ smooth transition from Higher Education to the labor market, their work is not adequately recorded.
    Keywords: European Qualifications Framework, Europass, Counseling, Career guidance, Higher Education Institutions, European policies, Lifelong learning, Bologna process
  21. By: Luis Eduardo Arango (Banco de la República de Colombia); Gabriela Bonilla (Cámara Colombiana de la Construcción)
    Abstract: We provide evidence of private returns to education and externalities which jointly render social returns in the labor market of Colombia. The spillover in the cities is generated by the share of college educated workers in the working-age population. Thus, the higher is this share in the cities, the higher the wages. The size of the externality is about 0.66; that is, an increase in the share of one percentage point will increase the wage in 0.66%. For highly educated workers the externality is about 0.75 while for low educated it is not significant. The results change in an important way if Bogotá, the capital city of the country, is excluded from the sample. Resources destined by the Colombian Institute for Educational Credit and Technical Studies Abroad (ICETEX) to fund undergraduate and postgraduate studies in provinces affect the outcomes if Bogotá is within the sample. A positive correlation between the size of cities and human capital agglomeration is also observed in such a way that if the former is substituted for the latter, we can still find the spillover. Classification JEL: J2, J3.
    Keywords: social returns, private returns, externalities.
    Date: 2015–05
  22. By: Fatoke Dato, Mafaizath A.
    Abstract: This study measures the impact of a flood in 2010 in Benin on children’s schooling and labor. The data used are the National Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 2006 and 2012. The difference in differences estimates points out a significant decrease in income between farm households and non-farm households following the shock. Enrollment has also significantly decreased by 5.99% for girls in rural areas, by 4.45% for boys in rural areas, by 7.76% for girls in urban areas and by 6.17% for boys in urban areas. The likelihood to be a domestic worker or a farmer has also significantly increased. Robustness checks, on different other groups, are in concordance with the results. Despite the removal of school fees in 2006, households still withdrew their children from school after this income shock. These results imply that income shocks could be a threat to the Universal Primary Education.
    Keywords: Natural disasters, Education, Income shock, Child labor
    JEL: I24 O55 Q54
    Date: 2015–05–12
  23. By: Ricardo Paes de Barros; Lauro Ramos
    Date: 2015–01
  24. By: Christine Ross; Mariesa Herrmann; Megan Hague Angus
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to describe the measures used to evaluate principals in New Jersey in the first (pilot) year of the new principal evaluation system and examine three of the statistical properties of the measures: their variation among principals, their year-to-year stability, and the associations between these measures and the characteristics of students in the schools.
    Keywords: Principal Effectiveness, New Jersey, Measurement, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2015–05–12
  25. By: Luka Perman (Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Opatija, University of Rijeka, Croatia); Krešimir Mikinac (Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Opatija, University of Rijeka, Croatia)
    Abstract: Purpose – This paper seeks to explain problem of education and training of personnel in the hospitality and tourism sector, which takes a special place and special attention among jobs in the tourism, hotel and hospitality industry. The overall quality within the hospitality and tourism sector depends exactly on education and training, i.e. the overall level of education of employed staff. Design – An overview of studies and education programs supporting tourism and hospitality in the Republic of Croatia – the identification for the need of better educational system, evaluation and overview of educational programs and importance for tourism and hospitality. Methodology – Data was collected from tourists, statistical reports and analyses of variance used to identify problems in tourism and hospitality sector. Findings – The paper finds that there are only few programs which can influence on education level and career patterns of employed staff in tourism and hospitality sector. Also, service quality is one of the most important elements in tourism product, so major focus must be on service and performance, and education and training of staff create a new value-added product or service. Originality – The analysis of educational programs with its importance would be of interest to researches and educators, industry practitioners and other stakeholders in the tourism and hospitality sector.
    Keywords: education, tourism, hospitality, personnel, staff
    JEL: L83
  26. By: Datta Gupta, Nabanita (Aarhus University); Simonsen, Marianne (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: This is one of the few studies that estimates the effects of type of childhood care on academic achievement at higher grade levels by linking day care registers and educational registers. We use entire birth cohorts of ethnic Danish children, enrolled in either center based day care or family day care at age 2. Exploiting variation across municipalities in guaranteed access to center based care as an instrument for type of care our results show that center based day care improves grades in Danish language in the final year of compulsory school with around 0.2 standard deviations.
    Keywords: center based care, family day care
    JEL: J13
    Date: 2015–05
  27. By: Haider Fancy (Aga Khan Foundation (Pakistan))
    Abstract: The district of Diamir in Gilgit Baltistan (GB) has witnessed severe deteriorations in security and extremist related violence, and violation of human rights over the past decade, resulting in abject poverty, a lack of health and education infrastructure and lack of motivation on the part of local communities to partake in the development processes. During the early 2000’s several girls’ schools there were attacked by terrorist elements with an anti-female-education agenda, which shook the confidence and motivation of development partners to contribute to the cause of education in Diamir. The DFAT funded and AKDN run project called the Education Development and Improvement Program (EDIP) began in July 2010 with an aim to enhance access, equity and the quality of education in GB. In late 2012 an opportunity was presented to partner with the Government, and Police to provide support to police managed home schools (PMS). This presentation will chart out the course EDIP has taken to embed the values of education in a region with historically no girls’ education, to a region whose community members now openly campaign for their girls’ education rights. This community has now, in partnership with the Government, initiated 100 home schools in the model of the EDIP PMS’s. This Diamir case shows that in a region considered culturally and theologically opposed to the notion of ‘girls education’, an innovative, culturally sensitive, and community driven approach can drastically change popular opinion and make communities reconsider their approach to their own development trajectory. Utilizing the Diamir model and understanding its parallels with much of the context of the nation can be instrumental in the pursuit of a prosperous, developed and peaceful GB and ultimately Pakistan.
    Keywords: Conflict, Social Change
  28. By: Stefanie Stantcheva
    Abstract: This paper considers dynamic optimal income, education, and bequest taxes in a Barro-Becker dynastic setup. Parents can transfer resources to their children in two ways: First, through education investments, which have heterogeneous and stochastic returns for children, and, second, through financial bequests, which yield a safe, uniform return. Each generation's productivity and preferences are subject to idiosyncratic shocks. I derive optimal linear formulas for each tax, as functions of estimable sufficient statistics, robust to underlying heterogeneities in preferences, and at any given level of all other taxes. It is in general not optimal to make education expenses fully tax deductible and the optimal education subsidy, income tax and bequest tax can, but need not, move together at the optimum. I also show how to derive optimal formulas using “reform-specific elasticities” that can be targeted to empirical estimates from existing reforms. I extend the model to an OLG model with altruism to study the effects of credit constraints on optimal policies. Finally, I solve for the fully unrestricted policies and show that, if education is highly complementary to children's ability, it is optimal to distort parents' trade-off between education and bequests and to tax education investments relative to bequests.
    JEL: H21 H24 H31 I24
    Date: 2015–05
  29. By: Mato Bartoluci (Faculty of Economics & Business, Department of Tourism, University of Zagreb); Zvjezdana Hendija (Faculty of Economics & Business, Department of Tourism, University of Zagreb); Mateja Petračić (Karlovac University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to point to the characteristics of secondary (STE) and higher tourism education (HTE) in Croatian tourism and to stress its shortcomings that directly affect the qualification structure and the quality of those employed within tourism in the Republic of Croatia. Hypothesis was that in order to increase the quality and competitiveness of Croatian tourism it is necessary to increase the number of highly educated experts in all business organizations in tourism. Methodology – General scientific deduction and analysis methods were used to interpret the secondary data sources. The secondary data were collected from statistical reports, scientific and professional articles, and some Internet web sites. Additionally, the primary research was also conducted; to evaluate the efficiency of each education level the Delphi method of surveying experienced tourism experts was used. Approach – Efficiency of work in tourism, regarded as a labour-intensive economic activity, is the basic factor of labour efficiency and competitiveness, and consequently of economic effects in tourism. A specific characteristic of tourism is that it evaluates, on an economic basis and through labour and capital, natural and sociocultural resources, thus producing added value. Starting from the fact that the employment function is one of the most important economic functions of tourism, this paper investigates and presents the role of formal education system (STE and HTE) in education of experts who would prospectively work in tourism in the Republic of Croatia. Findings – Although the results of this analysis of STE and HTE system for tourism purposes in the Republic of Croatia makes it possible to say that there are relevant institutions and quality personnel that participate in this education process, when employment be taken into account, then the lack of highly educated experts (university and polytechnic level) becomes evident for tourism purposes in practice. The quality of experts working in top-management positions in tourism is also unsatisfactory. The originality of the research results from the fact that the primary research was conducted to test the hypothesis. This research confirmed the hypothesis of the paper that to increase the quality and competitiveness of Croatian tourism it is necessary to increase the share of highly educated experts working in tourism.
    Keywords: education system, efficiency of the human factor in tourism, tourism in Croatia
    JEL: L83
  30. By: Ricardo Barros; Diana Sawyer
    Date: 2015–01
  31. By: Charlotte Cabane; Adrian Hille; Michael Lechner
    Abstract: Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, this paper analyses the effects of spending part of adolescents’ leisure time on playing music or doing sports, or both. We find that while playing music fosters educational outcomes compared to doing sports, particularly so for girls and children from more highly educated families, doing sports improves subjective health. For educational outcomes, doing both activities appeared to be most successful. The results are subjected to an extensive robustness analysis including instrumental variable estimation and a formal sensitivity analysis of the identifying assumptions, which does not reveal any serious problems.
    Keywords: Child development, leisure time activities, matching estimation, SOEP
    JEL: C14 D12 I21 J24
    Date: 2015
  32. By: Sónia Araújo; Petr Maleček
    Abstract: The education system has reacted slowly to changes in labour market needs, leading to an increasing number of school leavers without sufficient qualification. In addition, declining PISA scores and a rising share of low achievers are raising concerns about the quality of the future labour force. These factors play a role in the stalled income convergence process. Indeed, practices such as early tracking, streaming and low transferability between academic tracks hamper employability, human capital accumulation and social mobility. In the vocational education and training system, resources continue to be allocated on a historical basis. A more endogenous adjustment of the system to better align students’ qualifications with labour market needs requires active participation of social partners, students and education institutions. The rapid expansion of tertiary education without a corresponding increase in resources has led to fears about declining quality. Quality in tertiary education can be fostered by modifying the accreditation system, introducing student fees, strengthening the links with the private sector and foreign research networks and publicising information on labour market outcomes by field of study and higher education institution. Measures to better balance family and work lives can improve career options for women and therefore reduce the current tensions between having children and full time labour market participation of younger women. This could also ease the coming labour shortages associated with population ageing. This Working Paper relates to the 2014 OECD Economic Review of the Czech Republic (<P>Renforcer l'utilisation des compétences et faciliter le passage de l'ecole à la vie active dans la République Tchèque<BR>Le système éducatif a réagi lentement aux changements des besoins du marché du travail, ce qui a conduit à une augmentation du nombre de jeunes quittant l'enseignement sans qualification suffisante. En outre, la baisse des résultats PISA et la proportion croissante d’élèves avec une faible performance soulèvent des inquiétudes quant à la qualité de la main-d'oeuvre future. Ces facteurs jouent un rôle dans le processus stagnant de convergence des revenus. En effet, des pratiques telles que l'orientation précoce des élèves, le regroupement par aptitude et l’insuffisance de passerelles entre les voies scolaires entravent l'employabilité, l'accumulation de capital humain et la mobilité sociale. Dans le système d'enseignement et formation professionnels, les ressources continuent d'être allouées sur une base historique. Un ajustement plus endogène du système afin de mieux harmoniser les qualifications des étudiants avec les besoins du marché du travail exige la participation active des partenaires sociaux, des étudiants et des établissements d’enseignement. L'expansion rapide de l'enseignement supérieur sans l’augmentation correspondante des ressources a conduit à des craintes de baisse de la qualité. La qualité dans l'enseignement supérieur peut être favorisée par la modification du système d'accréditation, l'introduction de frais de scolarité, le renforcement des liens avec le secteur privé et les réseaux de recherche étrangers et la publication d’informations sur le marché du travail par domaine d'études et établissement d'enseignement supérieur. Des mesures pour trouver un meilleur équilibre entre la vie de famille et le travail peuvent améliorer les options de carrière pour les femmes et réduire les tensions actuelles entre le choix d'avoir des enfants et la participation à temps pleins au marché du travail des jeunes femmes. Ceci pourrait également soulager la pénurie de main-d'oeuvre à venir liée au vieillissement de la population. Ce document de travail se rapporte à l'Étude Économique de l'OCDE de la République Tchèque 2014 ( ique-republique-tcheque.htm).
    Keywords: tertiary education, Czech Republic, PISA, skills, early childhood education and care, labour market, youth unemployment, vocational education and training, female labour market participation, participation au marché du travail des femmes, compétences, chômage des jeunes, enseignement et formation professionnelle, éducation et accueil des jeunes enfants, PISA, enseignement supérieur, marché du travail, République tchèque
    JEL: I20 I23 I24 I28 J21 J24
    Date: 2015–05–06
  33. By: Xiaodong Fan; Hanming Fang; Simen Markussen
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the connection between two concurrent trends since 1950: the narrowing and reversal of the educational gender gap and the increased labor force participation rate (LFPR) of married women. We hypothesize that the education production for boys is more adversely affected by a decrease in the mother's time input as a result of increasing employment. Therefore, an increase in the labor force participation rate of married women may narrow and even reverse the educational gender gap in the following generation. We use micro data from the Norwegian registry to directly show that the mother's employment during her children's childhood has an asymmetric effect on the educational achievement of her own sons and daughters. We also document a positive correlation between the educational gender gap in a particular generation and the LFPR of married women in the previous generation at the U.S. state level. We then propose a model that generates a novel prediction about the implications of these asymmetric effects on the mothers' labor supply decisions and find supporting evidence in both the U.S. and Norwegian data.
    JEL: I2 J2
    Date: 2015–05
  34. By: Rishan Singh (University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) & Durban University of Technology)
    Abstract: The impact of education systems on learners with and without disabilities vary between religions, ethnicities and race groups. Many factors such as peer-pressure, outcomes-based education, teaching techniques and attributes (teacher, parent and learner characteristics) have an influence on childhood development currently. At present, there are many views concerning the method that one should use to encourage learners so that they attain the complete benefit of what is taught, however, children with disorders (either from birth or with age) are viewed, sometimes, as an additional factor that’s required to be accounted for in the design of teaching curricula. Furthermore, with individuals being left- and right-brained, designing teaching curricula to suit individual learner needs is very complicated (in all situations – whether in rural or urban schools). This article, therefore, looks at different learner and teacher situations in classrooms, in attempts that possibly can be made by parents and teachers, to enable children to achieve their goal in the face of socio-economic pressures.
    Keywords: society, OBE, learning disorders, childhood, parents, curriculum design, attributes
  35. By: Colleen Kawalilak (University of Calgary); Lisa Fedoruk (University of Calgary)
    Abstract: By stepping beyond the “comfortable and familiar,” pre-service teachers enrolled in a Bachelor of Education program at a university in Western Canada travel to an international host country destination to engage with diverse cultures, traditions, and practices and to volunteer teach. This “Teaching Across Borders” program option provides interested students the opportunity to deeply engage with and experience a culture vastly different from their own, in support of a deepened cross-cultural understanding and an enhanced global-mindedness, while earning a professional teacher designation credential. In support of providing a pedagogically informed and robust cross-cultural experience, a literature review and synthesis of current, scholarly debates was taken up, focusing on the impact and influence of travel abroad initiatives when international travel study constitutes a component of coursework for adult learners enrolled in university education programs. Asserting that international travel and study abroad programs have the potential to advance cross-cultural competencies and cultural sensitivities of learners, Hammer and Bennett (2002) referred to the beneficial effects on knowledge, skills, and attitudes when participating students engage with cultures of difference in support of exploring and critically reflecting on tightly held notions, beliefs, and assumptions that inform their philosophy and future practice as developing professionals. Adding to the discourse, Button, Green, Tengnah, Johansson, and Baker (2005) contended that “differences in placement programmes, such as duration, preparation and debriefing were found to have affected the reported overall international placement experience” (p. 315) of participants. Kehl and Morris (2007-2008) further elaborated and argued that the level of global-mindedness achieved and experienced may be directly related to and impacted by the duration of study abroad initiatives. From another perspective, cross-cultural border crossing initiatives, however well intentioned, run the risk of becoming a “cultural invasion” and, therefore, educators, program administrators, and participating students must consider ethical questions around the reciprocity of the relationship (Lutterman-Aguilar & Gingerich, 2002). Reciprocity refers to a give and take, an inhale and exhale of sorts, to being open and present, to offering up, and to receiving what is being given to and to what is being offered by others. Questions that informed this critical exploration of the literature included: What constitutes a meaningful cross-cultural experience for learners enrolled in university programs? What factors, program elements, and experiences deepen and expand learners’ cultural sensitivity and global-mindedness?
    Keywords: Study abroad, intercultural sensitivity, cultural competence, global-mindedness, pre-service teacher education, internationalization of curricula.
    JEL: I29
  36. By: Stenberg, Anders (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University); Westerlund, Olle (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: -
    Keywords: -
    Date: 2015–05–18

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