nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2015‒04‒19
29 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Education and Software Piracy in the European Union By Nicolas Dias Gomes; Pedro André Cerqueira; Luís Alçada Almeida
  2. The Growing Segmentation of the Charter School Sector in North Carolina By Helen F. Ladd; Charles T. Clotfelter; John B. Holbein
  3. Challenges in Educational Reform: An Experiment on Active Learning in Mathematics By Samuel Berlinski; Matías Busso
  4. Do teacher-student relations affect students' well-being at school? By OECD
  5. Decentralizing Education Resources: School Grants in Senegal By Costas Meghir; Corina Momaerts; Pedro Carneiro; Oswald Koussihouede; Nathalie Lahire
  6. A Simple Model of Learning Styles By Gervas Huxley; Mike Peacey
  7. Selective schooling systems increase inequality By Simon Burgess; Matt Dickson
  8. The educational system – causing both skills shortages and low youth labour participation? By Malm Lindberg, Henrik
  9. The Impact of Financial Education for Youth in Ghana By Dean Karlan; James Berry; Menno Pradhan
  10. Curbing adult student attrition. Evidence from a field experiment By Raj Chande; Michael Luca; Michael Sanders; Zhi Soon; Oana Borcan; Netta Barak-Corren; Elizabeth Linos; Elspeth Kirkman
  11. An Economic Model of Learning Styles By Gervas Huxley; Mike Peacey
  12. Returns to Higher Education in Chile and Colombia By Carolina González-Velosa; Graciana Rucci; Miguel Sarzosa; Sergio Urzúa
  13. The Bangladesh gender gap in education : biased intra-household educational expenditures By Shonchoy, Abu S.; Rabbani, Mehnaz
  14. Virtually No Effect? Different Uses of Classroom Computers and their Effect on Student Achievement By Falck, Oliver; Mang, Constantin; Woessmann, Ludger
  15. Supply and Demand in the Training of Pedagogical Personnel By Lenskàyà, Å.
  16. Adolescents that do not attend junior high: characterization of their academic trajectory, living conditions and decision to drop out. By Gioia de Melo; Elisa Failache; Alina Machado
  17. Understanding the success of London’s schools By Simon Burgess
  18. Does Wage Regulation Harm Children? Evidence from English Schools By Jack Britton; Carol Propper
  19. Scholarships vs. training for happiness gained from education in creativity: an analytical model By F. Zagonari
  20. Discrimination Against The Obese And Very Thin Students in Brazilian Schools By Luis Claudio Kubota
  21. A Model of Educational Investment and Social Status By Andrea Gallice; Edoardo Grillo
  22. Sources of Financing Knowledge-Based Economy: the Case of Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Education in Poland By Iwona Kowalska
  23. Sheepskin Effects and the Relationship Between Earnings and Education: Analyzing the Evolution Over Time in Brazil By Anna Crespo; Maurício Cortez Reis
  24. Unaccompanied Minors and Separated Refugee Children in Sweden: An Outlook on Demography, Education and Employment By Celikaksoy, Aycan; Wadensjö, Eskil
  25. "The Impact of Working while Enrolled in College on Wages" By Wade Nelson, Owen Wade Nelson Jr
  26. The gender gap in mathematics: evidence from a middle-income country By Bharadwaj, Prashant; De Giorgi, Giacomo; Hansen, David; Neilson, Christopher
  27. A Framework for Comparative Analysis of National Knowledge Networks in UK and India By Jain, Rekha; Singh, Manjari
  28. Spillovers from Universities: Evidence from the Land-Grant Program By Shimeng Liu
  29. Mozart or Pelé? The effects of teenagers’ participation in music and sports By Cabane, Charlotte; Hille, Adrian; Lechner, Michael

  1. By: Nicolas Dias Gomes (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, Portugal); Pedro André Cerqueira (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra and GEMF, Portugal); Luís Alçada Almeida (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra and INESC-Coimbra, Portugal)
    Abstract: In this paper we construct a panel data set from 2000 to 2011 for the EU 28, studying the impact of education on the levels of software piracy in a country. When an aggregated analysis is made, e.g. considering all ISCED (International Standard Classification of Education) levels, expenditure on public educational institutions as well as public spending on education have a deterrent effect on piracy, being significant. However, the effect of financial aid to students is positive. When the analysis is made taking into account the ISCED 1997 disaggregation, expenditure on ISCED 5-6 has a negative and significant effect. Taking into account the type of educational institutions, more expenditure on ISCED 1 to 4 will lower piracy. We also found that more financial help to students on higher levels of education, e.g. ISCED 5-6, have a positive and significant effect. Finally, more years of schooling of both primary and secondary education will have a deterrent effect on software piracy.
    Keywords: ISCED classification, Software Piracy, Education.
    JEL: C23 I21 O34
    Date: 2015–03
  2. By: Helen F. Ladd; Charles T. Clotfelter; John B. Holbein
    Abstract: A defining characteristic of charter schools is that they introduce a strong market element into public education. In this paper, we examine the evolution of the charter school sector in North Carolina between 1999 and 2012 through the lens of a market model. We examine trends in the mix of students enrolled in charter schools, the racial imbalance of charter schools, the quality of the match between parental preferences in charter schools relative to the quality of match in traditional public schools, and the distribution of test score performance across charter schools relative those in traditional public schools serving similar students over time. Taken together, our findings imply that the charter schools in North Carolina are increasingly serving the interests of relatively able white students in racially imbalanced schools.
    JEL: H52 H75 I24
    Date: 2015–04
  3. By: Samuel Berlinski; Matías Busso
    Abstract: This paper reports the results of an experiment with secondary school students designed to improve their ability to reason, argument, and communicate using mathematics. These goals are at the core of many educational reforms. A structured pedagogical intervention was created that fostered a more active role of students in the classroom. The intervention was implemented with high fidelity and was internally valid. Students in the control group learned significantly more than those who received treatment. A framework to interpret this result is provided in which learning is the result of student-teacher interaction. The quality of such interaction deteriorated during the intervention.
    Keywords: Primary & Secondary Education, Educational Assessment, Education, Active learning, Curricular reform, Technology, Field experiments
    Date: 2015–03
  4. By: OECD
    Abstract: Children spend about a third of their waking hours in school during most weeks in the year. Thus, schools have a significant impact on children’s quality of life – including their relationships with peers and adults, and their dispositions towards learning and life more generally. Longitudinal studies suggest that students’ results on the PISA test are correlated with how well students will do later on in life; but strong performance in standardised assessments like PISA explains only so much of future results in other endeavours. Success and well-being in life also depend on how well students have been able to develop socially and emotionally.
    Date: 2015–04
  5. By: Costas Meghir (Economics Deptartment, Yale University); Corina Momaerts (Economics Department, Yale University); Pedro Carneiro (University College London); Oswald Koussihouede (University Gaston Berger); Nathalie Lahire (World Bank)
    Abstract: The impact of school resources on the quality of education in developing countries may depend crucially on whether resources are targeted efficiently. In this paper we use a randomized experiment to analyze the impact of a school grants program in Senegal, which decentralized a portion of the country's education budget. We find large positive effects on test scores at younger grades that persist at least two years. We show that these effects are concentrated among schools that focused funds on human resources improvements rather than school materials, suggesting the teachers and principals may be a central determinant of school quality.
    Keywords: quality of education, decentralization, school resources, child development, clustered randomized control trials
    JEL: H52 I22 I25 O15
    Date: 2015–04
  6. By: Gervas Huxley; Mike Peacey
    Abstract: Much of the economic literature on education treats the process of learning as a `black box'. While such models have many interesting uses, they are of little use when a college seeks advice about reallocating resources from one input to another (e.g. from lecture hours to seminars). Commenting on such questions requires us to `open up' the black box. This paper shows what one such model would look like by explicitly modelling how students vary in their `learning styles'. We apply this framework to investigate how reforms to higher education (e.g. MOOCs) would affect students with different learning styles.
    Keywords: Human Capital, Education Production Function, Learning Style, Independent Learner, MOOC
    JEL: I20 I23 J24
    Date: 2014–05
  7. By: Simon Burgess; Matt Dickson
    Abstract: We investigate the impact on earnings inequality of a selective education system in which school assignment is based on initial test scores. We use a large, representative household panel survey to compare adult earnings inequality of those growing up under a selective education system with those educated under a comprehensive system. Controlling for a range of background characteristics and the current location, the wage distribution for individuals who grew up in selective schooling areas is quantitatively and statistically significantly more unequal. The total effect sizes are large: 14% of the raw 90-10 earnings gap and 18% of the conditional 90-10 earnings gap can be explained by differences across schooling systems.
    Keywords: selective schooling, inequality, wages
    JEL: I24 J31
    Date: 2014–05
  8. By: Malm Lindberg, Henrik (The Ratio Institute)
    Abstract: The educational system is perhaps the most important feature for labour market entry. During the last decades huge investments have been made at different levels in this system, the Knowledge lift and a doubling of the number of students in tertiary education are examples, but what are the effects of these investments? The age of labour market entry has risen dramatically since the 1990s and in particular among those without fulfilled secondary schooling. In the paper I analyse the educational system in Sweden, mainly from secondary sources, in three dimensions – in terms of quality, efficiency and relevance. These are seen as essential in order to deliver both competence to businesses and to give young people opportunities in the labour market. Because of deficiencies in all three dimensions: foremost lack of quality at primary and secondary level, which is visible at PISA-tests, lack of efficiency at secondary and tertiary level that is visible when we measure examination frequency and graduation age, and lastly lack of relevance which is mostly notable in the vocational training.
    Keywords: Education; Skills; Unemployment; Labour market entry; Quality; Efficiency; Relevance
    JEL: I21 I28 J60
    Date: 2015–01–26
  9. By: Dean Karlan (Economic Growth Center, Yale University); James Berry (Cornell University); Menno Pradhan (VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: We evaluate, using a randomized trial, two school-based financial literacy education programs in government-run primary and junior high schools in Ghana. One program integrated financial and social education, whereas the second program only offered financial education. Both programs included a voluntary after-school savings club that provided students with a locked money box. After nine months, both programs had significant impacts on savings behavior relative to the control group, mostly because children moved savings from home to school. We observed few other impacts. We do find that financial education, when not accompanied by social education, led children to work more compared to the control group, whereas no such effect is found for the integrated curriculum; however, the difference between the two treatment effects on child labor is not statistically significant.
    Keywords: financial literacy, youth finance, savings
    JEL: D14 J22 J24 O12
    Date: 2015–04
  10. By: Raj Chande; Michael Luca; Michael Sanders; Zhi Soon; Oana Borcan; Netta Barak-Corren; Elizabeth Linos; Elspeth Kirkman
    Abstract: Roughly 20% of adults in the OECD lack basic numeracy and literacy skills. In the UK, many colleges offer fully government subsidized adult education programs to improve these skills. Constructing a unique dataset consisting of weekly attendance records for 1179 students, we find that approximately 25% of learners stop attending these programs in the first ten weeks and that average attendance rates deteriorate by 20% in that time. We implement a large-scale field experiment in which we send encouraging text messages to students. Our initial results show that these simple text messages reduce the proportion of students that stop attending by 36% and lead to a 7% increase in average attendance relative to the control group. The effects on attendance rates persist through the three weeks of available data following the initial intervention.
    Date: 2015–02
  11. By: Gervas Huxley; Mike Peacey
    Abstract: Much of the economic literature on education treats the actual process of learning as a `black box'. While these `black box' models have many interesting uses, they are of little use when a college seeks advice about reallocating resources from one input to another (e.g. from lecture hours to tutorials). Commenting on such questions requires us to `open up' the black box. In this paper, we show what one such model would look like by explicitly modelling how students vary in their `learning styles'. This model allows us to simulate how reforms to higher education would affect students with different learning styles. We consider alternative tuition fee structures and the technological change that has led to the introduction of massive open online courses (MOOCs).
    Keywords: Human Capital, Education Production Function, Learning Style, Independent Learner, MOOC
    JEL: I20 I23
    Date: 2014–02
  12. By: Carolina González-Velosa; Graciana Rucci; Miguel Sarzosa; Sergio Urzúa
    Abstract: In the last decades, countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have experienced a dramatic increase in the levels of higher education enrollment. Using administrative data from Chile and Colombia, we find that this phenomenon is not always associated with higher private individual returns. In both countries, there is a significant dispersion in the net returns to higher education and a significant proportion of graduates could be facing negative returns. This means that, for many higher education graduates, net earnings might have been higher if they had not earned a higher education degree. We hypothesize that while there have been major policy efforts to increase coverage, institutional arrangements that encourage quality and relevance has been insufficient. Corrective measures in this direction are urgent. Sustainable growth requires a labor force with relevant skills and capabilities. In light of our results, it is not clear that the higher education systems in these countries are delivering these outcomes.
    Keywords: Higher Education, Labor Policy, Vocational & Technical Education, Labor markets, Higher education, Returns to higher education, Heterogeneity, Inequality, Skills, Productivity
    Date: 2015–03
  13. By: Shonchoy, Abu S.; Rabbani, Mehnaz
    Abstract: By investigating the educational expenditure of children over the ten years (2000 to 2010), we evaluate whether there exists any gender specific discrepancy at the household level and the trend of such discrepancy over the years. Using three rounds of nationally representative Household Income & Expenditure Surveys this study reveals that households spend less on education for their school-going girls compared to boys. By disaggregating the total expenditure into fixed and variable components, we find persistent gender imbalance in educational expenditure where households provide better quality of education for boys. Moreover, we find that gender based discrepancy has a very persistent trend and does not show any significant sign of narrowing the gap over the years. Cohort wise difference-in-difference estimation also reveals that the gap has initially widened and later converged but has not diminished beyond the initial level of discrepancy, which may warrant targeted policy intervention.
    Keywords: Bangladesh, Home economics, Household, Education, Gender, Intra-household, Expenditure, Discrepancy
    JEL: D13 J16 O15
    Date: 2015–03
  14. By: Falck, Oliver (University of Munich); Mang, Constantin (University of Munich); Woessmann, Ludger (University of Munich)
    Abstract: Most studies find little to no effect of classroom computers on student achievement. We suggest that this null effect may combine positive effects of computer uses without equivalently effective alternative traditional teaching practices and negative effects of uses that substitute more effective teaching practices. Our correlated random effects models exploit within-student between-subject variation in different computer uses in the international TIMSS test. We find positive effects of using computers to look up information and negative effects of using computers to practice skills, resulting in overall null effects. Effects are larger for high-SES students and mostly confined to developed countries.
    Keywords: Computers, teaching methods, student achievement, TIMSS
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Lenskàyà, Å. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The situation in the Russian education in recent decades has changed dramatically - there is a new electronic environment; changed enrollment (migrants, inclusion of children with HIA), new educational standards, built on the competent approach and new forms of educational measurement. International surveys (PISA, TALIS, PIRLS, McKinsey research fund) indicate that the quality of modern education is directly dependent on the quality of teacher training. However, the form and content of the training and professional development of teachers not take sufficient account of these changes. These studies suggest that Russian teachers do not get a lot of services that they demand, or the quality of these services does not suit them. Building Skills in fact no one is accountable and responsible for their performance. Interest in professional development of teachers in falls. The main objective: To evaluate the needs of teachers in Russia in the content, forms and methods of training and the degree of satisfaction of the system training, to compare them with those of the countries that demonstrate high educational results and make recommendations to optimize system performance.
    Keywords: training of pedagogical personnel, pedagogics, education, Russia
    Date: 2015–04
  16. By: Gioia de Melo (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Elisa Failache (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Alina Machado (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía)
    Abstract: This article analyzes a survey among 15 year-old adolescents that dropped out of the formal educational system before completing junior high. It is the first study that uses data on cognitive skills, self-perception of skills and expectations of future studies that were gathered when these adolescents were attending primary school. Over two thirds dropped out when they were 14 year old or younger and 40% never enrolled in junior high. This suggests that the decision of dropping out of school is also significant at earlier ages than those generally discussed in prior studies. In most cases the decision to drop out of school was supported by the family or made together.
    Keywords: drop out, attendance, educational trajectory, Uruguay
    JEL: I20 I21
    Date: 2015–04
  17. By: Simon Burgess
    Abstract: This paper contributes to understanding the ‘London Effect’, focussing on the role of the ethnic composition. The aim is to understand the statistical contribution to the London premium of ethnic composition. I also analyse data on the performance of recent immigrants. The results confirm that pupil progress on standard measures is significantly higher than the rest of England, 9.8% of a standard deviation. This is entirely accounted for by ethnic composition. The last decade of results shows the same result. I show that for other measures of attainment, the London premium is halved but remains significant.
    JEL: I20 I24
    Date: 2014–10
  18. By: Jack Britton; Carol Propper
    Abstract: Teacher wages are commonly set in a manner that results in flat wages across heterogeneous labor markets. Consequently teacher wages will be relatively worse in areas where local labor market wages are high. The implication is that teacher output will be lower in high outside wage areas. This paper exploits the centralized wage regulation of teachers in England to examine the effect of wages on school performance. It uses data on over 3000 schools containing around 200,000 teachers who educate around half a million children per year. We find that teachers respond to pay and schools add less value to their pupils where the regulation bites harder. Our calculations suggest that the removal of regulation would have positive social benefits.
    Keywords: Teacher wages, Centralised Pay Regulation, School performance, School Value Added
    JEL: I2 J3 J4
    Date: 2014–01
  19. By: F. Zagonari
    Abstract: This paper presents an analytical model of the dynamic interrelationships between education, creativity, and happiness based on both theoretical insights and recent empirical neurological studies. In the model, the outcome is conditional on individual intelligence and risk aversion. Specifically, it focuses on two main determinants of creativity (divergent and convergent thinking), and compares two main educational policies (scholarships vs. training) in terms of their impacts on the happiness gained from creativity in the general and healthy population. An empirical test is provided by matching the model’s predictions with the results of recent neuroscience research. Numerical simulations suggested that improving convergent thinking is more important than improving divergent thinking for creativity to generate happiness throughout an individual’s life, provided both divergent and convergent thinking have achieved a sufficiently large degree; and that unstructured training in divergent thinking (e.g., in accounting schools) is necessary to reach richer but less intelligent people, whereas scholarships or unstructured training in convergent thinking (e.g., in art schools) are necessary to reach more intelligent but less rich people.
    JEL: I1 I3 Z1
    Date: 2015–04
  20. By: Luis Claudio Kubota
    Abstract: PeNSE 2012 is a survey conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), in partnership with the Ministry of Health. PeNSE covers a broad range of subjects, especially risk behavior. This article has the aim of analyzing discrimination against obese and very thin students using PeNSE microdata. Data indicate that students that classify themselves as “very fat” or “very thin” are much more prone to risk behaviors like consumption of illicit drugs, alcohol, cigarettes and laxatives (or vomit inducing), when compared to “normal” pupils. They are also much more likely to suffer from frequent bullying (FB), especially that motivated by their body appearance, to be active bullies, to feel frequently lonely, to suffer from insomnia, family violence, aggressions and injuries. A great percentage was involved in fights and feel that their parents rarely or never understand their problems and preoccupations. Econometric model shows that non “normal” students have a greater chance of suffering FB than “normal” pupils. Male students have greater chance of being frequently discriminated when compared to the female ones. There is no statistical difference between public and private schools. Black, yellow and Indian students have greater chance of suffering FB than white pupils. Students whose mothers didn’t study have greater chance of suffering FB than those whose mothers have completed high school education. A Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE) 2012, realizada pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), em parceria com o Ministério da Saúde (MS), abrange um amplo leque de assuntos, com destaque para comportamentos de risco. Este artigo tem o objetivo de analisar a discriminação contra estudantes obesos e muito magros, utilizando microdados da PeNSE. Os dados indicam que alunos que se autoclassificam “muito gordos” ou “muito magros” são muito mais propensos a comportamentos de risco, como o consumo de drogas ilícitas, álcool, cigarros e laxantes (ou indução ao vômito), quando comparados com alunos “normais”. Eles também são muito mais sujeitos a sofrer bullying frequente (BF) – especialmente aquele motivado por sua aparência corporal, a serem bullies ativos, a sentirem solidão, a sofrerem de insônia, violência familiar, agressões e lesões. Um elevado percentual está envolvido em brigas e avalia que seus pais raramente ou nunca entendem seus problemas e preocupações. O modelo econométrico implementado mostra que estudantes não “normais” têm mais chance de sofrer BF que os “normais”. Os alunos do sexo masculino têm maior chance de ser discriminados em relação às alunas. Não há diferença estatisticamente significativa entre escolas públicas e privadas. Alunos pretos, amarelos e indígenas têm maior chance de sofrer BF em relação aos brancos. Estudantes cujas mães não estudaram têm maior chance de sofrer BF em relação àqueles cujas mães têm ensino médio completo.
    Date: 2015–01
  21. By: Andrea Gallice; Edoardo Grillo
    Abstract: We consider a model in which educational investments entail productivity gains, signaling power, and social returns. The latter depend on the relative position the agent occupies in one of three di¤erent dimensions: (i) his innate characteristics, (ii) his level of schooling, and (iii) his level of income. The agent enjoys social prestige (or su¤ers from social stigma) if he overperforms (or underperforms) in the relevant dimension. If prestige is relatively stronger than stigma, we show that social concerns always lead to an increase in inequality both in terms of educational achievements and income. In contrast, if stigma is stronger than prestige, we show that inequality may either increase or decrease depending on the relevant social dimension. Furthermore, the dimension of social concerns and the relative importance of prestige against stigma also a¤ect the reaction of the economy to policy interventions and exogenous shocks.
    Keywords: education, signaling, social status, inequality.
    JEL: D03 D10 I20 I21
    Date: 2015
  22. By: Iwona Kowalska (Warsaw University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: Globalization, negative demographic trends, new sources of knowledge and volatile job market are the determining factors behind the change in approach to the education system in Poland. Formal, non-formal and informal education is the sine qua non of the implementation of a knowledge-based economy in Poland. This process, however, requires an in-depth analysis of the funding of education. So far there have been no Polish publications analyzing the funding of the three aforementioned forms of education. Therefore, the aim of this article is to assess the possibilities to implement knowledge-based economy with regard to the current funding of formal, non-formal and informal education in Poland. The study involved the analysis of national and EU documents on subject and object oriented funding of educational tasks and procedures for determining the amount of funding allocated to these tasks. The analysis showed that the barrier inhibiting the implementation of knowledge-based economy is the lack of legal regulations enabling the implementation of new solutions for financing education in Poland. These solutions involve the effective joint funding from the state budget, local government budgets and private funds (provided by employers and learners). This requires urgent conceptual work and initiating implementation projects in the area of public finance in Poland.
    Keywords: finance; education; economy; knowledge; system
    JEL: G18 H52 I22
    Date: 2015–04
  23. By: Anna Crespo; Maurício Cortez Reis
    Abstract: This paper seeks to analyze trends in sheepskin effects and earnings-education relationship on the Brazilian labor market from 1982 to 2004. Using data from the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (Pnad) are estimated earnings equations including linear years of schooling, and splines and discontinuous functions for completed degrees, as well as semi-parametric regressions. Empirical evidence reports a reduction in the sheepskin effects from 1982 to 2004, indicating that a diploma or degree completion in Brazil has been loosing its value over time. At the same time, the relationship between log earnings and education has become more convex. Similar trends are verified when the analysis is carried out separately by region. Este artigo procura analisar tendências no efeito-diploma e na relação entre rendimentos e educação no mercado de trabalho brasileiro de 1982 até 2004. Usando dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (Pnad) são estimadas equações de rendimentos incluindo funções com saltos e mudanças de inclinação nos anos de educação correspondentes à obtenção de diploma ou à conclusão de um determinado grau, assim como regressões semiparamétricas. Os resultados mostram uma redução no efeito-diploma entre 1982 e 2004, indicando que a conclusão de um ciclo educacional no Brasil vem perdendo valor ao longo do tempo. Também, a relação entre o logaritmo dos rendimentos e o nível de escolaridade tem se tornado mais convexa.
    Date: 2015–01
  24. By: Celikaksoy, Aycan (SOFI, Stockholm University); Wadensjö, Eskil (Stockholm University)
    Abstract: The number of unaccompanied minors has increased over the past ten years in Sweden, the European country that receives the most children from this group. Some of them emigrate after a period of time in Sweden, but the vast majority stay. Most of the arriving children are teenage boys who have not yet turned 18. However, the largest increase over the latest years is observed for the younger age groups. Furthermore, gender composition is also age dependent, where it is quite balanced for the younger age groups unlike the oldest age group. In the years following their arrival, most of them are enrolled in schools. When it comes to those aged 20 or over, the proportion undergoing education is higher among women but a higher proportion of men are employed. The group that neither works nor studies is much larger among women than among men.
    Keywords: unaccompanied minors, refugee children, migration, education
    JEL: J13 J15
    Date: 2015–04
  25. By: Wade Nelson, Owen Wade Nelson Jr
    Abstract: Those students who work while enrolled in college are investing in their human capital, and therefore, corporations looking to employ new workers entering the labor market may favor these types of students, and create incentives for non-working students to seek employment. Using NLSY97 data, this paper finds that working while enrolled in college decreases the wages one receives. Therefore, students who are not working while enrolled in school may have higher grades and graduate more frequently on time, causing firms to hire the non-working students more favorably.
    Keywords: Students, Wages, Enrolled, College, Working, Future Wages, Working while Enrolled
    JEL: J3 J30 J31 J6 J7
    Date: 2013–05–05
  26. By: Bharadwaj, Prashant; De Giorgi, Giacomo (Federal Reserve Bank of New York); Hansen, David; Neilson, Christopher
    Abstract: Using a large administrative data set from Chile, we find that, on average, boys perform better than girls in mathematics. In this paper, we document several features of their relative performance. First, we note that the gender gap appears to increase with age (it doubles between fourth grade and eighth grade). Second, we test whether commonly proposed explanations such as parental background and investment in the child, unobserved ability, and classroom environment (including teacher gender) help explain a substantial portion of the gap. While none of these explanations help in explaining a large portion of the gender gap, we show that boys and girls differ significantly in perceptions about their own ability in math. Conditional on math scores, girls are much more likely to state that they dislike math, or find math difficult, compared to boys. We highlight differences in self-assessed ability as areas for future research that might lead to a better understanding of the gender gap in math.
    Keywords: gender gap; education; middle-income countries
    JEL: I00 I25 J16
    Date: 2015–04–01
  27. By: Jain, Rekha; Singh, Manjari
    Abstract: Recognizing that national competitiveness depends on the availability and quality of national Information and Communication Technology networks that support higher education (HE) and research, many countries have developed such infrastructure for their publicly funded HE and research institutes. The National Knowledge Network (NKN), India set up in 2009-10, and the Joint Academic Network (JANET), UK set up in 1984 are examples. These national knowledge networks are embedded within the larger context of HE and research institutions and ICT infrastructure in the country. For an emerging economy like India, effectiveness of NKN is important as resource availability for investment in such a network has to compete with other developmental priorities. A Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) was set up in 1993 with the objective of overseeing ICT in HE and research and managing JANET. In comparison to JANET, set up in 1984, NKN set up in 2009-10 is still at an early stage. However, it is an opportune time to review its effectiveness as it has a huge potential for all educational and research organizations in India. The evolution of JANET/JISC, not only in terms of the technical capability, but also its organizational form would be of importance to researchers and policy makers in India to formulate the implications for NKN. Towards this end, in this study we develop a framework for analysing elements that have contributed JANET/JISC to support HE and research. These include rationale, objectives, organizational structure and processes, funding, pricing, outcomes and review mechanisms. We also aim to suggest possible learning from this for NKN. This would have implications for other countries planning similar infrastructure
  28. By: Shimeng Liu
    Abstract: This paper estimates the short- and long-run effects of universities on geographic clustering of economic activity, labor market composition and local productivity and presents evidence of local spillovers from universities. I treat the designation of land-grant universities in the 1860s as a natural experiment after controlling for the confounding factors with a combination of synthetic control methods and event-study analyses. Three key results are obtained. First, the designation increased local population density by 6 percent within 10 years and 45 percent in 80 years. Second, the designation did not change the relative size of local manufacturing sector. Third, the designation enhanced local manufacturing output per worker by $2136 (1840 dollars; 57 percent) in 80 years while the short-run effects were negligible. This positive effect on the productivity in non-education sectors suggests the existence of local spillovers from universities. Over an 80-year horizon, my results indicate that the increase in manufacturing productivity reflects both the impact of direct spillovers from universities and general agglomeration economies that arise from the increase in population.
    Keywords: Land-Grant Universities, Short- and Long-Run Effects, Spillovers
    Date: 2015
  29. By: Cabane, Charlotte; Hille, Adrian; Lechner, Michael
    Abstract: Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, this paper analyses the effects of spending part of adolescents’ leisure time on playing music or doing sports, or both. We find that while playing music fosters educational outcomes compared to doing sports, particularly so for girls and children from more highly educated families, doing sports improves subjective health. For educational outcomes, doing both activities appeared to be most successful. The results are subjected to an extensive robustness analysis including instru-mental variable estimation and a formal sensitivity analysis of the identifying assumptions, which does not reveal any serious problems.
    Keywords: Child development, leisure time activities, matching estimation, SOEP
    JEL: C14 D12 I21 J24
    Date: 2015–04

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